Britain shapes good citizens with a gentle ‘nudge’



Agence France Presse

Published — Saturday 2 February 2013

Last update 1 February 2013 9:46 pm

| نسخة PDF Print News | A A

It’s a riddle faced by cash-strapped governments the world over — how can people be persuaded to make decisions that leave them healthier and happier, while saving taxpayers’ money at the same time?
In Britain, Prime Minister David Cameron has set up a team to test out the theory that a gentle prod in the right direction can go a long way.
Nicknamed the “nudge unit,” the Behavioral Insights Team has been quietly reshaping a swath of policies to coax Britons into behaving — whether that means paying their taxes on time, saving energy or quitting smoking.
By tinkering here and adjusting there, the nudge unit claims that it will have saved Britain £300 million ($483 million, 361 million euros) over the next five years — taking even its director David Halpern by surprise.
“We’re steadily surprised by how well it works,” Halpern told AFP in an interview at Cameron’s Downing Street residence, where the 12-strong team has been based since its creation in 2010.
“There’s more demand than we can meet. We’ve had pretty much every government department coming to us saying, ‘Can you help us with this policy?’ — and we’re getting a lot of requests from other governments.”
The nudge unit’s favorite tactics involve making it easier for people to do what the government wants it to do — and, perhaps less obviously, telling people what their peers are doing. In one of its most successful examples, the team began sending letters to late taxpayers which casually mentioned that most people in their town had already paid.
This psychological trick boosted payments by 15 percent, adding £30 million to the government’s coffers in a year.
“We’re very social creatures. When you see other people doing things, you tend to do the same,” Halpern explained.
In another experiment, the team looked at how to encourage people to save energy by insulating their attics — something that 40 percent of homeowners have yet to do, despite years of government subsidy schemes.
Research revealed that for many Britons the main obstacle wasn’t the cost — it was that they used their attics to hoard junk they were too lazy to clear out.
“So we started offering a loft clearance scheme,” said Halpern. “Once we did that, we got a three-fold increase in uptake.”
Other governments are so interested in the nudge unit that it has begun selling its expertise abroad, helping Australia’s New South Wales state and another undisclosed government to set up their own.
Inspired by behavioral economists such as Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, the US duo who turned “nudge” into a political buzzword with their 2008 book of the same name, Cameron set up the unit immediately after coming to power almost three years ago.
He is not the only world leader to embrace the theory. Thaler has advised several governments including Denmark and France, while Sunstein held a senior post in US President Barack Obama’s administration until last August.
There are countless international examples of nudges. Famously, Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands dramatically cut spillages in its men’s toilets by etching fake insects into the urinals, giving passengers something to aim at.
But Britain has taken the idea a step further by setting up a government office dedicated to the art of nudging, a move Halpern said was heavily influenced by the feeble state of the British economy.
“When there’s no money around, these approaches start to look especially attractive,” he told AFP.
But the use of nudge theory by governments has been met with suspicion from some corners.
One Australian columnist described it as a “toxic import” that should not be welcomed by New South Wales.
“Instead of democratic debate and argument, it opts for subliminal psychological techniques and manipulation,” Frank Furedi argued in The Australian.
British critics have also suggested that that nudging is a sneaky form of state intervention — and one that does not sit easily with Cameron’s Conservative party, who often deride interference by the “nanny state.”
But the nudge unit denies that there is anything underhand about its techniques.
“Almost all policy is about understanding how people behave and trying to encourage them to behave differently,” argued Halpern’s deputy, Owain Service.
The nudge unit says it simply encourages people to make good decisions for themselves — and Halpern happily admits that this doesn’t always work.
In another loft insulation scheme, Britons were offered discounts if they clubbed together with their neighbors.
“People really liked the idea, but they didn’t actually have that conversation with their neighbors,” Halpern laughed. “It might work in a country other than the UK, where people talk to their neighbors a bit more.”

What's happening around Saudi Arabia

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and Saudi Arabia’s permanent representative to the UN Abdullah Al- Muallami unveiled a beautifully framed old kiswa (covering) of the door of the Holy Kaaba at one of the newly refurbished halls of the world body. The...
A policeman was shot dead by an unknown gunman in Qatif in the Eastern Province on Tuesday night.According to a spokesman of the Eastern Province police, the firing took place at 11:30 p.m. in a suburb called Al-Jishi.The targeted police officer was...
JEDDAH: Jeddah Show, one of the many events of Jeddah Summer Festival 36, is attracting a large number of visitors. The sound-and-light show is being run at the Jeddah International Exhibition and Convention Center.The show tells the story of the Bri...
JEDDAH: The Riyadh Traffic Department carried out extensive campaigns on the main streets, intersections and squares in the city to boost traffic safety levels and discourage bad driving.During the first 72 hours of the campaign, traffic personnel re...
RIYADH: One of two women infected with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) died here in Riyadh, while the other patient is being treated at a hospital in Al-Kharj, some 60 km from the capital. Since June 2012, the Ministry of...
AL-AHSA: Approximately 20,000 tons of Al-Ahsa dates are planned to be marketed abroad during the new dates season.Muhammad Ismail, director general of the King Abdullah City for Dates (KACD), said: “The authorities in the city are planning to increas...
JEDDAH: Al-Bagdadiya neighborhood residents in Jeddah are living in a state of worry because of 20 abandoned houses, which serve as hideouts for criminals.Residents said some houses are on the verge of collapse and have turned into shelters for crimi...
JEDDAH: A committee consisting of representatives from the Hail governorate, municipality, health department and the Saudi Food and Drugs Administration (SFDA) has ordered the closure of a restaurant in the city’s industrial area.Twelve people suffer...
The board of the Saudia Standards, Metrology and Quality Organization has announced that mandatory application of the regulations on new tires produced or sold in the Kingdom will commence in November this year.The board explained that the technical...
JEDDAH: The number of people with mental health issues or depression is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to urbanization, marital or relationship problems, and not being able to keep up with rapid progress. A Saudi mother said that her daughter suffers...
JUBAIL: Jubail beaches are expected to receive many tourists during September as a large number of people usually head to the city once the summer gets cooler to enjoy their holiday here.As part of the beach preparations for this season, the Social S...
RIYADH: More than 50 percent of vehicle users in the Kingdom are not satisfied with the after-sales service of auto agencies in the Kingdom.In a survey conducted by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MCI) to evaluate the performance of automobile...
JEDDAH: The Appeals Court has upheld the verdict issued by a specialized penal court which sentenced Dr. Said bin Zair to four years in prison from the date of his arrest in 1428.According to the ruling, the academician is also banned from traveling...
JEDDAH: Health authorities in the Eastern Province are expected to issue a decision soon against four Saudi nurses accused of “negligence” for an incident which led to the amputation of the hand of a Saudi girl after they tried to insert a needle in...
JEDDAH: The Jeddah municipality has closed down a popular restaurant following the discovery of a rat rummaging through food items.The rat act was captured on video and posted on social media websites. It went viral, prompting the authorities to laun...

Stay Connected

Facebook