Study: Children of overweight women die younger
Study: Children of overweight women die younger
Researchers in Scotland traced 37,709 children of 28,540 women who gave birth between 1950 and 1976. The children were aged from 34 to 61 at the time of the study published in the online journal bmj.com. Researchers included the data of 6,551 children that had already died prior to the start of the study.
Of the mothers, 21 percent were overweight — meaning a body mass index (BMI) or height-to-weight ratio of 25 to 29.9 — and four percent obese, with a BMI of 30 or more, when they gave birth.
“The offspring of obese mothers were 35 percent and those of overweight women 11 percent more likely to die before the age of 55 years than those of normal-weight mothers,” study co-author Rebecca Reynolds, professor of metabolic medicine at the University of Edinburgh, told AFP.
The team also found that the children of obese mothers were 42 percent more at risk of being admitted to hospital for heart disease as adults.
“Our results suggest that the intrauterine (womb) environment has a crucial and long-lasting effect on risk of premature mortality in offspring,” the study said.
Other research has shown that conditions in the womb can cause lifelong body changes, which may affect such functions as appetite control and metabolism.
But post-birth factors like diet and exercise or a genetic propensity to be obese could not be ruled out as the cause of the children’s health problems.
“Strategies to optimise weight before pregnancy are urgently required,” wrote the team — given that about one in five pregnant women in the UK are obese.
“We also need to consider giving good lifestyle advice to children of obese mothers and early monitoring of risk factors for heart disease such as high blood pressure, blood sugar, blood fats and smoking,” added Reynolds.
According to the World Health Organization, more than 1.4 billion adults aged 20 and older were overweight in 2008 — a figure that had nearly doubled since 1980.
More than a third of adults were overweight in 2008, and 11 percent obese. At least 2.8 million adults die every year as a result of weight-related health problems.
Worryingly, “only four percent of mothers in our study were obese, far less than current levels,” added Reynolds.
“If the link between maternal obesity and adverse outcomes in her adult children persists as rates of maternal obesity rise then this could lead to an increase in premature deaths and heart problems.”
Experts commenting on the study stressed the need for further research to confirm a direct, causal link between a woman’s obesity and her child’s risk of dying young.
“It is possible that the association results because the offspring of the obese mother is more likely to be obese themselves and therefore at increased risk of heart disease,” said Susan Ozanne, a British Heart Foundation senior fellow.
Whatever the reason, the study emphasised the importance of a healthy weight, said cardiologist Tim Chico.
“The message of this study is clear: if a mother is overweight, it may be her children that pay the price.”
Take a healthy approach to the issue of nutritional supplements
JEDDAH: There is a growing need for dietary supplements in Saudi Arabia, given the increasing popularity of junk food and the effective role supplements can play in treating diseases caused by mineral and vitamin deficiencies.
A recent study found that 22 percent of Saudi people take nutritional supplements. It is no surprise, then, that many Saudi businesses have forged partnerships with international dietary-supplement companies.
Dr. Rowaidah Idriss, a Saudi dietitian with a Ph.D. in nutrition, said dietary supplements can be defined as substances that provide the human body with a nutrient missing from a person’s regular diet. However, she stressed that they are not intended to replace healthy eating.
She also warned against taking them without first talking to a doctor or dietitian, as some products can have side effects, especially if taken before surgery or with other medicines.
“They can also cause problems if someone has a history of certain health issues,” she added.
A blood test can determine which nutrients we are not getting enough of in our diet, and therefore which supplements might be beneficial. Nutritional supplements are also used to help treat certain health conditions.
“Vitamin C, for example, is often used to reduce cold symptoms,” said Idriss. “Fish oil is taken to lower elevated blood triglycerides.”
She suggested four daily essentials that can bridge nutritional gaps in our diet: a multivitamin, vitamin D, calcium and omega-3 fatty acids.
“I routinely recommend a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement to my clients after consulting with their doctors,” she said.
“For menstruating women, who require 18 milligrams of iron each day, a daily supplement helps boost iron intake.”
She said people over the age of 50 are advised to take a multivitamin to ensure they are getting enough B12, which plays a key role in the functioning of the nervous system and the development of red blood cells.
“Older adults are more vulnerable to B12 deficiency because they are more likely to have decreased production of stomach acid, which is needed to release B12 from the proteins in food.” said Idriss.
“It is also a good idea to take a daily multivitamin if one is following a low-calorie diet.”
She also pointed out that a high intake of DHA and EPA, the two omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, are linked with a lower risk of heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. A deficiency of DHA might also increase the risk of Alzheimer’s.
“A daily intake of 1,000 milligrams of both DHA and EPA is equivalent to eating 12 ounces of salmon a week,” said Idriss.
The dietitian believes that the Saudis who take food supplements often do so more to benefit their appearance than their health.
“Saudi women consume more dietary supplements than other people in Saudi Arabia,” she said.
“They do so either to lose weight or to care for their hair and nails. Bodybuilders also take large amounts of supplements.”
However, both groups, according to Idriss, tend to take supplements on the recommendation of friends and trainers, not doctors.
She warned that commercials and social-media rumors can persuade people to buy supplements online that may not be approved as safe by the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, and advised people to get as much of their daily nutrient needs as possible from healthy eating.
“Along with vitamins and minerals, a healthy diet provides fiber and hundreds of protective phytochemicals, something a supplement cannot do,” she said, adding that the body absorbs natural food more effectively than supplements.
In addition, combining supplements with medications can have dangerous, even life-threatening, effects.
“Drugs for heart disease and depression, treatments for organ transplants, and birth-control pills are less effective when taken with herbal supplements,” she said.
“Taking an anticoagulant, aspirin, and a vitamin E supplement together may increase the potential for internal bleeding or even stroke.”
With the spread of fast-food restaurants and their alluring ads, the long-term health of the Saudi people is in danger, as children and young people snub natural sources of nutrients, such as fruit and vegetables.
“This can lead to many deficiency diseases. Moreover, vegetarians can develop similar illnesses due to the absence of meat in their diet,” she said.
Dr. Ashraf Ameer, a family-medicine consultant, said the importance of nutritional supplements lies in treating mineral and vitamin deficiency, especially for pregnant women, growing children, diabetics, people with chronic diseases, and the elderly.
“However, these products should come from reliable companies and meet Saudi food and drug requirements,”he added.
Mohammed Yaseen, who has a food supplements business, said his company works with a leading British health-care company to provide the Saudi market with high quality products.
“With this we hope we can contribute to the national transformation program by raising private-sector spending in health care from 25 percent to 35 percent, which in turn would lead to the sector’s financial sustainability and boost economic and social development in the Kingdom,” Yaseen said.