Eritrea’s unique architecture under threat

Updated 12 October 2013
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Eritrea’s unique architecture under threat

Eritrea’s capital Asmara boasts buildings unlike anywhere else in Africa, a legacy of its Italian colonial past, when architects were given free rein for structures judged too avant-garde back home.
Modernist architectural wonders in this highland city include a futurist petrol station mimicking a soaring aircraft and a funky art-deco bowling alley with checkered, colored glass windows.
“The city is a living museum of architecture,” said Medhanie Teklemariam, an urban planner in Asmara’s city administration.
Yet while many of the buildings survived a decades-long liberation war from Ethiopia that ravaged settlements elsewhere, preservation and restoration projects have been hampered, threatening to erode the country’s rich cultural heritage.
Medhanie said money remains a critical obstacle, along with a lack of local technical expertise required for specialized restoration projects.
“To undertake a major restoration of all these buildings is very, very challenging because of one, the funding issue and, second, technical capacity,” he said, sitting before a map of central Asmara.
But Medhanie is pushing for change. He is lobbying for the historic city center to be included on the United Nations World Heritage list and working to renew a European Union-supported project to restore a market building and the Capitol, an Expressionist-style cinema.
He sees the preservation of Asmara’s precious buildings — mainly from the first half of the 20th century — as a matter of maintaining the country’s national fabric.
“This heritage... it is very important for Eritrea’s identity,” he said.
World Heritage status would also be a rare opportunity for Eritrea to win positive international exposure. The Horn of Africa nation normally makes headlines only for its raft of repressive policies.
“The international reputation... would be boosted,” said Edward Denison, a photographer and co-author of “Asmara: Africa’s Secret Modernist City.”
Most of the buildings in the former Italian colony were constructed between 1936 and 1941 as part of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini’s plan to expand his foothold in Africa.
Asmara used to be known as Piccola Roma, or “Little Rome.” In the 1939 census, more than half the city’s inhabitants were Italian — 53,000 out of a total of 98,000.
Italian architects were brought over and encouraged to experiment with innovative designs that were frowned upon in conservative Europe.
Asmara gained a reputation as an “experimental playground” where wacky designs were welcomed.
Today, Eritreans have a deep appreciation for the buildings — even though many were built by compatriots carrying out forced labor under colonial rule — and are proud of their unique city.
While some buildings sit unused, such as the Teatro Asmara, with its high arched awnings and Roman-style pillars, many of them remain functional.
Tables are busy at Cinema Roma, as regulars sip macchiatos on the terrace beneath the marble facade. Inside, dated American movies and Eritrean shows are screened to visitors who watch from plush red seats.
According to Denison, the buildings could be a major boost for the sagging tourist industry.
“The opportunities are boundless, and Eritrea is very aware of that with the various other cultural and natural attractions that it has. I think architecture is a key component of that,” he said.
Luckily, the city’s slow development has preserved many of its old buildings, most of which have been left untouched since Eritrea’s war for independence kicked off in 1961.
Dennis Rodwell, architect and author of “Conservation and Sustainability in Historic Cities,” describes Asmara as a “time warp.”
But preservation efforts have been held back in part by Eritrea’s staunch principle of self-reliance. Rodwell said that outside support is sometimes seen as “a threat rather than an opportunity.”
The $5-million World Bank-funded Cultural Assets Rehabilitation Project ended in 2007 as funding dried up and relations between the World Bank and Eritrea soured.
EU funding earmarked for architectural restoration projects remains frozen for review.
Denison, the photographer, agrees that preservation efforts could be improved through greater collaboration with outsiders, but notes Eritrea’s rebel-turned-politician leaders have long struggled to balance “self-reliance and collaboration internationally.”
Yet despite stalled progress in recent years, he says he is hopeful that Eritrea’s rich architectural heritage can be preserved.


Muse: Artist Dana Awartani on the universality of art

Updated 21 July 2018
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Muse: Artist Dana Awartani on the universality of art

JEDDAH: The Saudi contemporary artist on curiosity, discipline, and the universality of art.

What I love about traditional Islamic art is that the underlying core — the language and geometry — transcends borders, it’s the same visual language used from China across the world to Spain, so it has a very unifying quality.

People who’ve never met me and look at my early works, which were more specifically looking at sacred art, think I’m calm and collected — especially since I work with such intricate details — but in actuality I’m the total opposite. I’m all over the place and scattered, but my art brings me peace and is my therapy. Focusing on art calms me down. I’m just like every other person going through everyday life, trying to find peace in this world.

As an artist, I’m always curious, always wanting to know more and because of this inquisition, you go through a constant evolution. I’m my own worst critic. I push myself very hard, but I’m very happy with my progress.

A journalist once approached me at an exhibition and, when he realized I wasn’t speaking fluent Arabic, used me as an example of why you shouldn’t send Saudi girls to study abroad. That infuriated me. I was really offended. I am who I am because I’ve lived and studied abroad.

I speak a universal language. Even if you don’t understand it, you can always appreciate its beauty. I believe in the beauty of art.

I have faced creative blocks. I have the form and I know the medium but I’m lost as to how I want to use it. Or vice-versa — I know what I want to say but I’m constantly at a loss as to how to say it. Speaking to other artists or curators can help, but I usually rely on my artistic intuition and research… visiting galleries and being with nature. Sometimes, I just have to wait it out and try to be proactive and not too hard on myself.

Being an artist requires discipline. You’re basically self-employed. You need to be committed; put in enough time for the work, invest in an education, be constantly present in your work. Being an artist is a lifestyle. It’s not a job.