HealthLines: Why do young women take up smoking?

Updated 02 October 2013
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HealthLines: Why do young women take up smoking?

Last week while I was in Paris, I was surprised by the number of young women smoking in the outdoor pavement cafes.
Parisian women smoke with glamor, confidence and style, combining smoking with their morning coffee. It seems to me that many French people are at least occasional smokers and maybe it is one of the secrets as to why the French stay so slim.
English girls smoke too, but smoking in England is considered politically incorrect and it is heavily banned in public places: So most smokers are huddled on cold street corners furtively sharing their shameful addiction.
A Frenchman named Nicot (from whose name the word nicotine is derived) introduced tobacco to France from where it later spread to England. But while the French may be stylish smokers, the habit is also one of the worst known to mankind as it can destroy one’s health.
The number of women smokers has risen in the last decade or two. Some anti-smoking groups blame it on the failure to increase tobacco prices. But, low prices alone cannot be the reason for young women taking up smoking.


History of women’s smoking
Many women in the past took to tobacco because they regarded cigarettes as a symbol of freedom. There is an interesting story about how America accepted and promoted women’s smoking. The beginning of the 1900’s saw a movement demanding a woman’s right to vote in America; during this time the American Tobacco company was promoting the cigarette brand ‘Lucky’ and perceived a market in promoting cigarettes to women.
They hired young models who posed as suffragettes to join the Easter Parade in New York while lighting up cigarettes and wearing banners describing their cigarettes as “torches of liberty”. The result was that cigarette sales to women skyrocketed and spread throughout the country. Smoking had become associated with women’s liberation. Film makers often enhanced Audrey Hepburn’s glamor by giving her a cigarette holder which can be seen in films such as “Breakfast at Tiffany’s”.
In the Gulf many more men than women smoke but the numbers of female smokers is rising. Based on a Dubai survey, 14.4 percent of western expatriate women smoke, compared with just 1.5 percent of Emirati women.
Today, medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading causes of lung cancer, heart attacks, COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and gum disease. It can also lead to birth defects. So why do so many young women take up this habit?
According to Health Canada, most women smoke to relax and take a break and for comfort. Some smoke to deal with stress and depression while others are believed to be fighting feelings of helplessness or dealing with anger and frustration through tobacco use.
Thai researchers have found that smoking and tobacco use is related to education and income. The lesser the education and lower the income, the higher the rate of smoking. In India, researchers concluded that the greatest tobacco consumption is observed among illiterate people. They also found that smoking was significantly linked to heart disease and high blood pressure.
The health hazards of smoking have caused countries like Singapore to impose high taxes on tobacco products and anti-smoking campaigns are launched every year in an attempt to curb tobacco smoking. Tobacco companies are also responsible for encouraging girls and women to smoke. According to the WHO, women in China represent the largest potential market for tobacco companies.
Cigarette manufacturers have created “mild” and “low- tar” cigarette brands to appeal to women. Tobacco advertisements have themed their products around women’s independence, stress relief, and even weight loss. The tobacco industry has had a large part to play in encouraging more women to take up smoking by perpetuating the myth that smoking is glamorous, and a form of independence.
There is a constant flow of new brands, specifically targeted at women which are actively promoted in the market.
We need to consider whether smoking is a response to stress in their lives or one of the few “pleasures” that are relatively easy to acquire. I am against smoking because it is so unhealthy. It is difficult to persuade the young that they are not invincible and that what you do today affects your health tomorrow. The best advice of all is never to start as it is addictive and so hard to give up. If you have friends who smoke never allow them to smoke in your home because you care about them. For an advice sheet on helping women to give up smoking e-mail me at [email protected]




Healthy Recipe of the Week


Tasty Grilled Chicken Kebabs
Serves 6


Ingredients
90 ml water
45 ml soy sauce
45 ml lemon juice
1 ½ tbsp honey
½ tsp. garlic powder
½ tsp. ground ginger
6 boneless skinless chicken breast halves cut into 4 cm pieces
Skewers
1 ½ green bell peppers, seeded
and cut into 4 cm pieces
1 ½ onions, quartered
12 large mushroom caps


Method
Combine first six ingredients in a glass baking dish. Add chicken and turn to coat. Cover and marinate at least two hours in refrigerator. Prepare grill. Remove chicken from marinade and boil marinade 10 minutes in a saucepan. Alternate chicken and vegetables on skewers. Grill 15 cm from medium-hot coals 15-20 minutes, or until done, turning and basting often with marinade


Ask Alva: I have finally given up smoking after 20 years. What should I eat to improve my health and to help me avoid getting cancer? — Jane

Firstly, well done! I would advise you to speak to your doctor about taking extra supplements to boost your immune system especially vitamin C and E. As for your diet, increasing your fruit and vegetables intake is one of the best ways to reduce the risk of cancer after smoking. Many people find eating frozen grapes keeps their hands busy and also grapes are highly recommended for smokers and ex-smokers. Make sure you eat five portions of brightly colored fruits and vegetables every day. Tobacco smoke can lead to cancer-causing agents in the body so there is a corresponding need for protective antioxidants that can neutralize them. The main antioxidant vitamins are vitamin C and vitamin E.
Alva

[email protected]


Take a healthy approach to the issue of nutritional supplements

Updated 21 April 2018
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Take a healthy approach to the issue of nutritional supplements

JEDDAH: There is a growing need for dietary supplements in Saudi Arabia, given the increasing popularity of junk food and the effective role supplements can play in treating diseases caused by mineral and vitamin deficiencies.

A recent study found that 22 percent of Saudi people take nutritional supplements. It is no surprise, then, that many Saudi businesses have forged partnerships with international dietary-supplement companies.

Dr. Rowaidah Idriss, a Saudi dietitian with a Ph.D. in nutrition, said dietary supplements can be defined as substances that provide the human body with a nutrient missing from a person’s regular diet. However, she stressed that they are not intended to replace healthy eating.

She also warned against taking them without first talking to a doctor or dietitian, as some products can have side effects, especially if taken before surgery or with other medicines. 

“They can also cause problems if someone has a history of certain health issues,” she added.

A blood test can determine which nutrients we are not getting enough of in our diet, and therefore which supplements might be beneficial. Nutritional supplements are also used to help treat certain health conditions. 

“Vitamin C, for example, is often used to reduce cold symptoms,” said Idriss. “Fish oil is taken to lower elevated blood triglycerides.”

She suggested four daily essentials that can bridge nutritional gaps in our diet: a multivitamin, vitamin D, calcium and omega-3 fatty acids. 

“I routinely recommend a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement to my clients after consulting with their doctors,” she said. 

“For menstruating women, who require 18 milligrams of iron each day, a daily supplement helps boost iron intake.”

She said people over the age of 50 are advised to take a multivitamin to ensure they are getting enough B12, which plays a key role in the functioning of the nervous system and the development of red blood cells. 

“Older adults are more vulnerable to B12 deficiency because they are more likely to have decreased production of stomach acid, which is needed to release B12 from the proteins in food.” said Idriss. 

“It is also a good idea to take a daily multivitamin if one is following a low-calorie diet.”

She also pointed out that a high intake of DHA and EPA, the two omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, are linked with a lower risk of heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. A deficiency of DHA might also increase the risk of Alzheimer’s. 

“A daily intake of 1,000 milligrams of both DHA and EPA is equivalent to eating 12 ounces of salmon a week,” said Idriss.

The dietitian believes that the Saudis who take food supplements often do so more to benefit their appearance than their health. 

“Saudi women consume more dietary supplements than other people in Saudi Arabia,” she said. 

“They do so either to lose weight or to care for their hair and nails. Bodybuilders also take large amounts of supplements.”

However, both groups, according to Idriss, tend to take supplements on the recommendation of friends and trainers, not doctors. 

She warned that commercials and social-media rumors can persuade people to buy supplements online that may not be approved as safe by the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, and advised people to get as much of their daily nutrient needs as possible from healthy eating.

Dr. Rowaidah Idriss

“Along with vitamins and minerals, a healthy diet provides fiber and hundreds of protective phytochemicals, something a supplement cannot do,” she said, adding that the body absorbs natural food more effectively than supplements.

In addition, combining supplements with medications can have dangerous, even life-threatening, effects. 

“Drugs for heart disease and depression, treatments for organ transplants, and birth-control pills are less effective when taken with herbal supplements,” she said.

“Taking an anticoagulant, aspirin, and a vitamin E supplement together may increase the potential for internal bleeding or even stroke.”

 

Natural sources

With the spread of fast-food restaurants and their alluring ads, the long-term health of the Saudi people is in danger, as children and young people snub natural sources of nutrients, such as fruit and vegetables. 

“This can lead to many deficiency diseases. Moreover, vegetarians can develop similar illnesses due to the absence of meat in their diet,” she said.
Dr. Ashraf Ameer, a family-medicine consultant, said the importance of nutritional supplements lies in treating mineral and vitamin deficiency, especially for pregnant women, growing children, diabetics, people with chronic diseases, and the elderly. 

“However, these products should come from reliable companies and meet Saudi food and drug requirements,”he added.

Mohammed Yaseen, who has a food supplements business, said his company works with a leading British health-care company to provide the Saudi market with high quality products.

“With this we hope we can contribute to the national transformation program by raising private-sector spending in health care from 25 percent to 35 percent, which in turn would lead to the sector’s financial sustainability and boost economic and social development in the Kingdom,” Yaseen said.

Decoder

Vitamin Terms

DHA stands for docosahexaenoic acid. EPA stands for eicosapentaenoic acid.  Phytochemical is a biologically active compound found in plants.