Daesh ‘caliphate’ crumbles but group remains potent threat

Updated 17 October 2017
0

Daesh ‘caliphate’ crumbles but group remains potent threat

BEIRUT: The fall of Raqqa has boxed Daesh into a small “rump caliphate” straddling the Iraqi-Syrian border, a remote but strategically key area its enemies are keen to seize.
But even as its proto-state crumbles in the face of multiple assaults, experts warn Daesh remains a potent threat whose ideology is likely to endure long after its “caliphate” is gone.
After more than four months of fighting to retake Raqqa, the US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) declared the city liberated on Tuesday, seizing what was once the terrorists’ de facto Syrian capital.
The loss is only the latest in a string of blows against Daesh, which has lost swathes of territory to the SDF, the Syrian regime and to Iraqi forces the other side of the border.
With the loss of Raqqa, the “would-be caliphate of IS (Daesh) that at its height in 2014 threatened to rule all of Syria from Aleppo to the Iraqi border will be cut down to a dwarf territory in Deir Ezzor,” said Nicholas Heras, a fellow at the Center for a New American Security.
The eastern Syrian province, which borders Iraq, “will be the center of gravity for IS (Daesh) in Syria,” he said.
“IS (Daesh) always intended for Deir Ezzor and its neighboring area... to be the last stronghold of the caliphate.”
The province’s remote location in “harsh desert” far from both Damascus and Baghdad makes it the perfect place for a last stand, he added.
But the jihadists are already under attack across the province, and losing territory to two separate campaigns.
The first, on the eastern bank of the Euphrates river that slices diagonally across the province, is being waged by the SDF with US-led coalition support.
The second is a Russian-backed Syrian regime operation, which has already broken a nearly three-year siege of government-held parts of provincial capital Deir Ezzor city and seized the strategic town of Mayadeen.
“I think the Iraqi and Syrian governments will work to secure the whole border, knowing that neglect of the porous border area will only abet IS in the future,” said Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi, an expert on counter-terrorism.
For Syria’s regime and its ally Iran, a victory in the area would be doubly valuable, cutting off further advances by the US-backed SDF and ensuring Washington cannot block Iran’s land route through Iran into Syria and Lebanon.
Despite suffering major losses of territory, Daesh will remain a dangerous threat for the foreseeable future, experts say.
“The awful truth is that IS will be just as deadly as an insurgency and a terrorist network as it was as a state-like actor,” Heras said.
Al-Tamimi said the group would likely use raids, sleeper cells, improvised explosive devices and suicide bombings even after its core territory has disappeared.
“Attacks in Europe will continue for some time. I think the defeat of IS (Daesh) as a state project does diminish its appeal, but there will be supporters for a long time to come,” he said.
Charlie Winter, a senior research fellow at the International Center for the Study of Radicalization and Political Violence, warned that the ideology of Daesh would linger long after its “caliphate” was gone.
He said the group saw itself as successful, having “managed to declare a caliphate and keep it going” — something unprecedented in modern terrorism.
That, he added, “will have an impact on the global jihadist spectrum for years and years to come.”


Libya rivals clash south of capital, causing blackouts

Updated 18 September 2018
0

Libya rivals clash south of capital, causing blackouts

  • Tuesday morning’s clashes centered on the main road to Tripoli’s long-closed international airport
  • Libya’s National Electricity Company said its network had been damaged, causing a total blackout across the country

TRIPOLI: New clashes flared between rival militias south of Libya’s capital Tripoli on Tuesday, causing widespread power outages, the national electricity firm said.
The fighting underscored the fragility of a United Nations-backed cease-fire reached earlier this month after days of deadly violence between armed groups in the capital, beset by turmoil since the fall of dictator Muammar Qaddafi in 2011.
Tuesday morning’s clashes centered on the main road to Tripoli’s long-closed international airport, according to witnesses including an AFP journalist.
Libya’s National Electricity Company said its network had been damaged, causing a total blackout across the North African nation’s south and west.
Fighting which broke out late last month killed at least 63 people and wounded 159 others — mostly civilians — before the cease-fire came into effect on September 4.
Last week, the capital’s only working airport came under rocket fire just days after reopening following the truce.
Mitiga International Airport, located in a former military base that includes a prison, is currently controlled by the Special Deterrence Forces, a Salafist militia which serves as Tripoli’s police force and has been involved in clashes around the capital.
Interior Minister Abdessalam Ashour said Monday that a “regular force” would be tasked with securing the airport.
UN envoy Ghassan Salame later reported 14 cease-fire violations around Tripoli, but sought to play them down, saying the deal had been “generally respected.”
Tripoli’s main airport has been out of action since it was severely damaged by similar clashes in 2014.
Since Qaddafi’s fall in 2011, oil-rich Libya has been rocked by violence between dozens of armed groups vying for control of its cities and vast oil resources.
A UN-brokered agreement signed in Morocco in December 2015 established the Government of National Accord (GNA) in a bid to ease the chaos.
But deep divisions remain between the GNA and rivals including military strongman Khalifa Haftar, who is based in eastern Libya and backs a competing authority.
The GNA last week announced a series of measures to secure the capital and curb the influence of militias over state institutions and banks.