Plot twist as Pakistani soap operas seek to break taboos
Plot twist as Pakistani soap operas seek to break taboos
Today she is a household name, and her tragic story has been turned into a soap opera — one of several immensely popular TV shows seeking to challenge the country’s conservative taboos.
“Baaghi,” which means “Rebel,” charts the rise of Baloch from young, exploited girl to Internet sensation infamous for her provocative selfies until her shocking murder, with her brother confessing to the high-profile killing.
The show airs on private TV channel Urdu 1 every Thursday. Viewing figures are unavailable, but its pilot episode has been viewed more than 1.6 million times on YouTube. “That girl was a lioness. She should not have died yet,” says Shazia Khan, a writer on the series.
Baloch’s fate polarized Pakistan. For some, it inflamed outrage over so-called “honor” killings in which hundreds of predominantly women are killed each year, usually by male relatives, for bringing what they perceive as shame on their families.
But the concept of “honor” is deeply embedded in parts of Pakistan’s patriarchial culture, and other voices argued that Baloch had made herself a target by her actions — tame by Western standards but deemed provocative in the conservative country.
The decision to turn her death into one of Pakistan’s popular television soap operas has ensured the debate surrounding such murders of women endures.
Notorious for its high-profile story, Baaghi is just one of a wave of soap operas and dramas airing plotlines that revolve around such social issues: From domestic violence to child abuse, forced and child marriages, misogyny and women’s rights.
They are devoured by Pakistan’s 207 million strong population.
Research by Pakistan’s media regulator shows that in 2016, 65 percent of television viewers watched drama channels featuring such soap operas. Another survey by Gallup Pakistan shows 67 percent of adult female viewers and 56 percent of adult male viewers watch entertainment shows, mainly soaps.
Pakistan’s biggest entertainment channel, Hum TV, is a pioneer in using social issues as soap opera fodder.
In 2016 the channel aired “Uddari,” or “Flight,” which told the story of a young girl sexually abused by her stepfather and ignited a debate about the sexual abuse of children inside the home.
“Uddari took the sensitive subject ... to every household where discussion on sex is still a taboo,” says one avid fan, Aabida Rani.
In “Sammi,” which revolves around its eponymous star character, the station highlighted honor killings, forced marriages, and denial of property inheritance to women all in one show.
Sultana Siddiqui, a producer who later set up her own TV station, said they wanted Sammi to be a mirror of society, and an example of “how a taboo issue could be displayed in proper manner.”
Their efforts are not without backlash, and Siddiqui describes pressure from media regulators as well as a wave of vitriol on social media with people accusing her and her channel of spreading vulgarity and destroying social values.
But the shows’ popularity kept them on the air despite the blowback, she says.
Even as the shows push for awareness and change, the way soap opera heroines are portrayed can cause consternation.
Sadaf Haider, a blogger at the country’s major Dawn.com news portal, wrote in October that the storyline for Baaghi followed a predictable Pakistani track relieving the heroine of autonomy — essentially portraying Baloch as a victim.
“The actual Qandeel didn’t consider herself a beychari (helpless) at all, even a cursory reading of her interviews shows she worked hard and was proud of what she had achieved,” Haider wrote.
“Qandeel took full responsibility for her choices... So why has Baaghi portrayed something else entirely?”
Pakistani journalist Fifi Haroon has complained the portrayal of women in such shows still fits in to a patriarchal narrative.
“Simpering, dewy-faced heroines... suffer in obstinate silence or misguided stoicism,” she wrote in a BBC piece. “Tears are plentiful. Producers now claim that if you don’t show women crying, the drama won’t garner ratings.”
Lawyer Jatoi, while praising soap operas as vehicles for change, took a cautious view.
“They must ensure they are responsible enough to handle such sensitive topics and address underlying issues so as not to add to the already existing stigmas,” she told AFP.
Haroon agreed, writing that their makers must be aware of their audience.
“It is not just women,” she wrote.
“Men too are observing what it takes to be a man in Pakistani society and of course, what they can expect from the women in their lives and homes.”
Marriage is (literally) good for the heart: study
- The risk of dying was likewise elevated for the non-married, by 42 percent from coronary heart disease and by 55 percent from stroke
- The study examined ethnically varied populations in Europe, North America, the Middle East and Asia, adding weight to the results
PARIS: Even if marriage is sometimes more a bed of nails than roses, living into old age with a partner may help ward off heart disease and stroke, researchers said Tuesday.
A sweeping survey of research conducted over the last two decades covering more than two million people aged 42 to 77 found that being hitched significantly reduced the risk of both maladies, they reported in the medical journal Heart.
The study examined ethnically varied populations in Europe, North America, the Middle East and Asia, adding weight to the results.
Compared to people living in spousal union, the divorced, widowed or never married were 42 percent more likely to develop cardiovascular disease and 16 percent more likely to have coronary heart disease, the study found.
The risk of dying was likewise elevated for the non-married, by 42 percent from coronary heart disease and by 55 percent from stroke.
The results were nearly the same for men and women, except for stroke, to which men were more susceptible.
“These findings may suggest that marital status should be considered in the risk assessment for cardiovascular disease,” concluded a team led by Chun Wai Wong, a researcher at Royal Stoke Hospital’s department of cardiology, in Stoke-on-Trent in Britain.
Four-fifths of all cardiovascular disease can be attributed to a proven set of “risk factors“: advanced age, being a man, high-blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes.
Marriage, in other words, could be an important share of the missing 20 percent.
More precisely, living together — with or without a wedding band — is probably the operative factor, if indeed conjugal status has any impact at all.
But most of the 34 studies reviewed by Wong and colleagues did not identify couples out of wedlock or same-sex unions, so it was not possible to know whether, statistically, such arrangements were the equivalent of being wed.
Because the study was observational rather than based on a controlled experiment — something scientists can do with mice but not humans — no clear conclusions could be drawn as to cause-and-effect.
That leaves open the question of why marriages may be “protective.”
“There are various theories,” the researchers said in a statement.
Having someone around to take care of one’s health problems and keep track of one’s meds is probably a plus, as are two incomes or pensions instead of one.
More intangibly, not living alone is thought to be good for morale, and for neural stimulation. People living in couples, earlier research has shown, also have lower rates of dementia.