Ankara’s red lines prevail on Sochi guest list
Ankara’s red lines prevail on Sochi guest list
Following consistent objections from Turkey, the Syrian Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) — considered to be a terrorist organization by Ankara — has not been invited to the talks.
Instead, Syria’s Kurdish representatives will be the Kurdish National Congress and some representatives, selected by Russia, of Kurdish tribes and civil society in Kurdish-dominated areas of Syria.
There had been speculation ahead of the announcement that in return for Turkey’s support to Russian-sponsored peace process in Syria, Russia agreed to respect Ankara’s objection to PYD involvement in the talks and also gave its consent for Turkey to launch its recent Olive Branch Operation to drive Kurdish militias out of Afrin.
The Sochi meeting is part of the Moscow-led initiative seeking a political solution to end Syria’s civil war, which is about to enter its eighth year. The meeting has been delayed for months by Turkey’s objections to the participation of the PYD.
Dr. Dimitar Bechev, non-resident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council’s Eurasia Center, said that sidelining the PYD is a diplomatic courtesy to Ankara, but that it could also be interpreted as a warning to the left-wing party “not to go too far in its partnership with the US.”
In the long term, he said, Russia and the PYD will likely end up working together in Syria’s political transition process.
“Russia wants to start the Sochi process without any further delay. So, keeping the PYD off the guest list is just a temporary precaution of Moscow to satisfy Ankara’s red lines,” Bechev told Arab News.
Since 2016, the PYD has had a political representation office in Moscow, while Russian observers who were based in Afrin until the start of the Turkish offensive had been cooperating with the People’s Protection Units (YPG), PYD’s military wing.
In December, a Russian general and YPG officials met in the Syrian city of Deir Ezzor to evaluate Syria’s post-Daesh period.
Kerim Has, a lecturer in Turkish-Russian relations at Moscow University, believes the PYD’s omission from Sochi can be seen as a Turkish “stick” being wielded by Russia to convince the PYD to agree to Russia’s terms on the future of Syria.
“I’m not sure that Russia has once and for all left the PYD out of the table in peace process,” he told Arab News. “If the Turkish army succeeds in Afrin we will see a much clearer realization of Russia’s vision for Syria, with a narrow scope of autonomy for Kurds. But if Turkey’s losses grow, Ankara will likely be faced with the American (vision of) far-reaching Kurdish autonomy.”
Syrian political analyst Ibrahim Al-Assil, a resident fellow at the Middle East Institute, does not believe the Sochi Congress will achieve a breakthrough in the Syrian conflict without the attendance of the PYD.
“The PYD controls significant areas in Syria, and any negotiations that exclude them won't be able to achieve a sustainable agreement,” he told Arab News.
It seems inevitable that Turkey’s ongoing Afrin offensive will fuel tensions between Russia and the PYD, which holds Moscow responsible. The party has issued a statement claiming that the offensive could not have happened without the permission of Russia, as Moscow controls Afrin’s airspace.
Keno Gabriel, spokesman for the Syrian Democratic Forces — a US-backed umbrella group of fighters led by the YPG — said on Monday that Russia had “betrayed” the YPG by allowing Turkish planes to attack Afrin.
Meanwhile, a high-level delegation from America’s State and Defense Departments arrived in Ankara early on Tuesday to discuss the Afrin operation. Also on Tuesday, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu and his American counterpart Rex Tillerson met in Paris.
The visit came a day after White House spokeswoman Sarah Huckabee Sanders acknowledged in a news conference that the US takes Turkey’s security concerns seriously.
“We are committed to working with Turkey as a NATO ally,” she said.
On the fourth day of the Afrin operation, the Turkish Armed Forces reportedly advanced about 15km into YPG-held territory. Three Turkish soldiers were killed amid fierce clashes in the city of Azaz.
Nursin Atesoglu Guney, dean of the faculty of economics, administrative and social sciences at Bahcesehir Cyprus University, said, “Moscow made a strategic choice vis-a-vis the current regional picture, and is now aware of Turkey’s determination against PYD terror. It therefore stood by Turkey during the offensive.
“The US’ latest attempts to establish a Kurdish-led border guard force in Syria have also been a triggering factor for Moscow in sidelining the PYD,” she added.
But, according to Moscow University’s Has, Russia is still trying to open discussions about Kurdish autonomy in Syria, whether the proposal comes from PYD or other Kurdish participants in the Congress.
“As Moscow plans to organize a Sochi Congress more than once, the role and status of the PYD in Sochi will depend on the advance of the Turkish army on the ground in Afrin on one side, and on a possible deal between the PYD and the Syrian regime about the transfer of power in Afrin on the other,” he noted.
UN chief proposes options to protect Palestinians, Israel says ‘no’
- Israel rejects report saying the protection should be against Palestinian leaders
- The UN chief stressed that for each of the options, cooperation by Israel and the Palestinians would be necessary
UNITED NATIONS: UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres on Friday presented four options aimed at boosting the protection of Palestinians in Israeli-occupied territories, from sending UN rights monitors and unarmed observers to deploying a military or police force under UN mandate.But the report has been rejected by the Israelis. Israel’s UN Ambassador Danny Danon said in a statement late Friday that “the only protection the Palestinian people need is from their own leadership.”
“Instead of suggesting ways to protect the Palestinian people from Israel, the UN should instead hold the Palestinian leadership accountable for continually endangering its own people,” Danon said.
“The report’s suggestions will only enable the Palestinians’ continued rejectionism.”
The proposals were contained in a report requested by the General Assembly in response to a surge of violence in Gaza, where 171 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli fire since late March.
The UN chief stressed that for each of the options, cooperation by Israel and the Palestinians would be necessary. It remained unlikely however that Israel would agree to the proposals.
In the 14-page report, Guterres proposed:
• Providing a “more robust UN presence on the ground” with rights monitors and political officers to report on the situation.
• Pouring in more UN humanitarian and development aid to “ensure the well-being of the population.”
• Creating a civilian observer mission that would be present in sensitive areas such as checkpoints and near Israeli settlements, with a mandate to report on protection issues.
• Deploying an armed military or police force, under a UN mandate, to provide physical protection to Palestinian civilians.
A UN mandate for a protection force would require a decision from the Security Council, where the United States could use its veto power to block a measure opposed by Israel.
A small European-staffed observer mission was deployed in the West Bank city of Hebron in 1994, but Israel has since rejected calls for an international presence in flashpoint areas.
In the report, Guterres said the United Nations was already undertaking many protection initiatives but that “these measures fall short” of the concerns raised in a General Assembly resolution adopted in June.
In that measure, the 193-nation assembly condemned Israel for Palestinian deaths in Gaza and tasked Guterres with the drafting of proposals for “an international protection mechanism” for the Palestinians.
Guterres argued that a political solution to the conflict was needed to address the safety of Palestinians but that “until such a solution is achieved, member-states may further explore all practical and feasible measures that will significantly improve the protection of the Palestinian civilian population.”
“Such measures would also improve the security of Israeli civilians.”
On Friday, Israeli troops shot dead two Palestinians taking part in protests along the Gaza border and 270 other Palestinians were wounded.
Israel has defended its use of live ammunition in Gaza by invoking its right to self-defense. One Israeli soldier was shot dead by a Palestinian sniper in July.
“The targeting of civilians, particularly children, is unacceptable,” Guterres said in the report, adding that “those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law must be held accountable.”
UN efforts to ensure the well-being of Palestinians must strengthened, he added, singling out the funding crisis at the UN’s Palestinian refugee agency UNRWA as being “of particular concern.”
UNRWA is facing a major budget shortfall after President Donald Trump’s administration decided to withhold its contribution to the agency.
The report released to all UN member-states comes amid a vacuum in Middle East peace efforts as European and other big powers await a peace plan from the Trump administration that has been under discussion for months.
UN diplomats have recently begun questioning whether the US peace plan will ever materialize.
The United Nations has warned that a new war could explode in Gaza.
Israel and Palestinian militants in Gaza, including its Hamas rulers, have fought three wars since 2008.