Saudi animals in focus on World Wildlife Day

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This photo taken on 1 March 2018 shows an Arabian Oryx runs in Najran’s desert. (SPA)
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This photo taken on 1 March 2018 shows an Arabian Oryx runs in Najran’s desert. (SPA)
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This photo taken on 1 March 2018 show a flock of ostriches in Najran. (SPA)
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An Arabian wolf scouting the mountainous plains of the Arabian Peninsula. (Photo credit: Social media)
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The Arabian leopard, sand gazelle, Nubian ibex, and striped hyena, some of the critically endangered animals native to Saudi Arabia. (Photo credit: Social media)
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A sand cat hunkering down in the desert in Saudi Arabia. (Photo credit: Social media)
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A sand cat on the prowl in the desert. (Photo credit: Social media)
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An Arabian wolf scouting the mountainous plains of the Arabian Peninsula. (Photo credit: Social media)
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A sand cat preying on a common food source, a viper. (Photo credit: Social media)
Updated 03 March 2018
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Saudi animals in focus on World Wildlife Day

JEDDAH: World Wildlife Day has arrived and all eyes are on animals native to Saudi Arabia.
Familiar to many is the Kingdom’s national animal, the Arabian camel, as well as the world-renowned Arabian horse, celebrated for its striking beauty, elegance and intelligence. Today, however, two animals will be showcased and they are seldom seen in Saudi Arabia, partly due to their nocturnal habits but mainly due to their endangered status.

MEET THE SAND CAT
Do not let this cute domestic-looking feline fool you — this is a predatory carnivorous wildcat.
Predominantly found in the western part of Saudi Arabia, sand cats are the only species of the cat family to live exclusively in the desert. They can weigh between 5-8lb and reach lengths of 2-3ft. From hot sunny days to cold windy nights, they adapt well to the extreme weather changes found in the desert. Their feet are covered with a thick coat of hair insulating their paws from hot and cold temperatures. Their padded paws also allow them to walk on the sand without sinking, leaving footprints that are nearly untraceable.
A defense mechanism of crouching down and shutting their eyes when a light is shone on them is common, which prevents light reflecting from their eyes and hinders being tracked by larger predatory animals. Sand cats are primarily nocturnal hunters, silently roaming the desert for prey.
National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) Director Ahmed Al-Bourg spoke to Arab News about the importance of improving animal conservation.
“NWRC is working on awareness campaigns to educate citizens and residents alike about the importance of these species in our system, and how they play a vital role in our environmental balance,” he said. “NWRC has 15 animal sanctuaries and wildlife reserves in the Kingdom, including three marine reserves.”
The sand cat has had a revival in numbers of late. It is currently categorized as of “least concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) after being endangered for the past couple of decades, especially during the Gulf War when their livelihood and habitats were greatly impacted.
During the Gulf War the Saudi government sent eight sand cats to S.O.S. Care, an international California-based conservation organization, in an effort to preserve the species, which has proved highly successful.
National Geographic photojournalist Steve Winter highlighted the importance of conservation efforts for endangered animals, specifically big cats such as the Arabian leopard.
In a statement to Arab News, he said: “Everybody loves big cats, and the land in which they live is vitally important to us as humans. You save the top predator in any ecosystem, you save everything underneath that, which means the land they live on also. If we can rally around them, and try to save them, we can help save ourselves.”

THE ARABIAN WOLF
Another animal not often seen in the Kingdom is the Arabian wolf. The Arabian wolf is a smaller sub-species of the gray wolf, and like the sand cat is predominately nocturnal. Most Arabian wolves can be found roaming the mountainous desert regions of Najd and Tabuk. The weight of an Arabian wolf averages 25kg (55lb) and their length can reach up to 5ft.
Unlike the majority of wolves, the Arabian wolf does not hunt in packs but rather alone or in pairs. Arabian wolves will attack and eat any animal the size of a goat or smaller, most often small- to medium-sized prey such as rodents, rabbits, small gazelles and small ibexes. Occasionally they will feed on carrion and livestock when near human settlements.
Since they occasionally prey on farm animals such as sheep, goats and chickens, livestock owners often set traps for the wolves and even hunt them to protect their livelihood. Habitat loss from industry and intensive agriculture has also become a significant threat to the wolf.
There are an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 Arabian wolves left in the wild and they are currently categorized as “endangered” by the IUCN.
Today is World Wildlife Day, a day to remember the beautiful animals that share our land. The sand cat and the Arabian wolf are just two of the many species facing the threat of extinction. They are out there in the wild and often out of sight, but with the right conservation efforts, not out of mind.


Taking a bite out of diabetes: How Saudi Arabia and neighbors are fighting back against the disease

Experts say the number of people living with diabetes could more than double by 2045. (Shutterstock)
Updated 18 November 2018
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Taking a bite out of diabetes: How Saudi Arabia and neighbors are fighting back against the disease

  • As the region faces a health epidemic, the Kingdom is fighting the disease with a diet of awareness and early prevention
  • ‘The target is to have a zero percent rise in deaths due to diabetes by 2025’

Countries across the Gulf need to implement strict protocols to restrict access to junk food, encourage healthier lifestyles and ensure diabetics are diagnosed in the early stages of the disease or the number of people in the region living with the condition could more than double by 2045, experts say.

Almost 4 million people in Saudi Arabia are living with diabetes while countries in the Middle East and North Africa top worldwide charts when it comes to allocating health care budgets to treat the soaring number of people suffering from the chronic disease.

Global experts have hailed measures in the Kingdom — including taxing sugary drinks, fitness initiatives and focusing on preventative care — to stem the rising epidemic. However, Prof. Adel El-Sayed of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, said that “there is a lack of urgency to reverse the trend” across the wider region.

“They absolutely need to improve diabetes prevention programs if they are to avoid a future health crisis,” said El-Sayed, adding that “diabetes estimates have been on the rise for several decades.”

The latest IDF estimates indicate that 39 million adults (20-79 years) are living with diabetes in the MENA region. Specifically in Saudi Arabia, 3.8 million adults are estimated by the IDF to be living with diabetes, while 1.2 million adults are estimated to have diabetes in the UAE.

El-Sayed said that Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries such as Saudi Arabia (17.7 percent) and the UAE (17.3 percent) have significantly higher diabetes prevalence rates than global (8.8 percent) and regional (10.8 percent) rates. Last year there were 14,665 diabetes-related deaths in Saudi Arabia.

El-Sayed praised work done by the Kingdom but stressed the need for further work both in the country and across the wider region. “The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is focusing on strengthening health care by improving the access to care at the primary health-care centers. Screening for non-communicable diseases including diabetes management is a must.

“It is a big task and more needs to be done very aggressively. The target is to have a zero percent rise in deaths due to diabetes by 2025.”

According to the IDF, about 425 million people worldwide have diabetes and more than 39 million of those live in the MENA region. By 2045, this number will rise to 82 million. About 90 percent of cases are Type 2 diabetes, which is largely preventable through regular physical activity and a healthy and balanced diet.

In 2014, worldwide governments committed to attempt to reduce the rise in diabetes to zero percent following recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). As yet, just five countries are on track to achieve this goal.

“Not enough is being done to implement cost-effective programs and policies to prevent Type 2 diabetes,” said El-Sayed. “Improving awareness, investing in education to promote prevention, early diagnosis and treatment, and ensuring affordable access to medication and care are critical to controlling the epidemic.”

Diabetes can cause heart and kidney disease, strokes, leg amputation, blindness and mental diseases such as depression. 

“Over the past decade, the evolution in global health-care expenditure on diabetes in adults (20-79 years) has been tremendous, growing from $232 billion in 2007 to $727 billion in 2017,” said El-Sayed. This economic burden is projected to grow by 7 percent by 2045. “This is a very conservative estimate as it assumes that the average expenditure per person will remain constant,” said El- Sayed. The IDF MENA region has the highest percentage (17 percent) of health-care budget allocated to diabetes of all the IDF regions.”

El-Sayed praised initiatives in the Kingdom such as measures introduced last June when Saudi Arabia became the first GCC country to impose an excise tax at 100 percent on tobacco products and energy drinks, and 50 percent on soft drinks.

Kamil M. Salamah, secretary- general of the Saudi Diabetes and Endocrine Association (SDEA), said that the GCC, as well as Saudi Arabia, are among the worst globally in terms of prevalence of diabetes. “Prevalence is on the rise — at an average approximating 24 percent and rising with the exception of Oman. Unless strict measures are enacted, the prevalence is expected to reach 35 percent, if not higher.” Despite the figures, there are many GCC residents in Saudi Arabia and the wider GCC who have “hidden diabetes” and are failing to be diagnosed or treated, said Salamah.

“Early diagnosis is very important because either it can be reversed to normal by adopting healthy lifestyles or managed properly to prevent complications, which are very costly.”

Salamah said that steps have already been taken in Saudi Arabia and the wider GCC to encourage personal responsibility for health care to stem the rising epidemic. Measures include implementing front-of-pack food labelling and wide-ranging fitness initiatives.

“In addition, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has officially kicked off various female sports initiatives, while the General Sports Authority has been created to help both genders in their physical activities needs and initiatives.”

About 90 percent of cases are Type 2 diabetes, which is largely preventable through regular physical activity and a healthy and balanced diet. (Shutterstock)

Salamah said that the Saudi Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) will also impose strict criteria on the healthy content of foods and beverages with clear labelling of sugar, salt, fats, fiber etc and penalties for violation will be enforced.

“Additionally, the Kingdom’s Ministry of Health has committed to, and started, the transformation of health care by focusing on primary health-care centers to be the real ‘access to care’ — where the focus is the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which includes diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. These centers will ensure continuity of care and management of disease to prevent complications. This is a very core part of the transformation.”

Soaring rates of diabetes come with a high price tag.

“Economically, diabetes costs no less than 35 percent of the annual budget of the Ministry of Health (in Saudi Arabia); and this is just the cost of management, not including the complications,” said Salamah.

He said initiatives that could curb the prevalence of diabetes include introducing zero tolerance to sugar-sweetened drinks in schools, colleges and universities; heavily taxing food with a high sugar content; better integration
of physical activity in schoolcurriculums; holding sports championships in schools and universities; developing “exercise-friendly cities” where families can exercise and walk; and encouraging companies to develop green environments for their employees.

More controversial tactics, he said, could include banning fast-food chains and late-night takeaway deliveries after 7pm to prevent unhealthy late-night eating and banning media advertisements of unhealthy foods and beverages.

“The Kingdom’s goal is to halt the rise of diabetes by 2030 to level the curve,” he said. “That would be a remarkable achievement.”

Dr. Shaimaa Mashal, a specialist in internal medicine at the UAE’s Bareen International Hospital, said that the prevalence of diabetes is on a “rapid upsurge” in the region.

“It is extremely worrying that the MENA region contains five of the top 10 countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes worldwide. There is an urgent need for epidemiological initiatives to address this problem,” she said.

“Diabetes is placing huge economic strain on health providers, governments and insurers — but with early detection and disease management, as well as strong prevention programs, that cost can be reduced. In some cases, with careful and often drastic lifestyle alterations, Type 2 diabetes can even be reversed.”

Dr. Fathi Yousef Al-Giurani, a consultant in internal medicine at the UAE’s Medeor 24x7, said that diabetes has risen about tenfold in the past three decades in Saudi Arabia.

“The health burden due to diabetes in Saudi Arabia is predicted to rise to very high levels unless a wide-ranging epidemic control program begins, with a great emphasis on advocating a healthy diet, including exercise and active lifestyles, and weight control,” warned Al-Giurani. “However, both increasing population and a greater understanding of the condition among the communities have also contributed to the increase in patients diagnosed with diabetes.”