China forms new economic team as President Xi kicks off second term

Newly-appointed officials take the oath of office during a plenary session of China’s National People’s Congress (NPC) at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. (AP)
Updated 20 March 2018
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China forms new economic team as President Xi kicks off second term

BEIJING: China elevated a key confidante of President Xi Jinping to one of the top positions in government on Monday as Beijing cracks down on riskier financing and a debt build-up that may pose systemic risks to the world’s second-largest economy.
The endorsement of Liu He as a vice premier by the country’s largely rubber-stamp parliament also comes as the US presses China to cut its trade surplus by $100 billion. Harvard-educated Liu, 66, was the most prominent envoy to visit Washington recently to prevent the outbreak of a trade war.
While most of the personnel changes on the government’s economic team were widely anticipated, the choice of Yi Gang as the new head of the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) was unexpected.
Yi had been a vice governor of PBOC and a protege of outgoing chief Zhou Xiaochuan. His appointment was seen as pointing to continuity in monetary policy even as one of the world’s biggest central banks was gaining considerable new regulatory powers.
Yi will have a weighty first test — the US Federal Reserve is expected to raise interest rates on March 21, a day after China’s annual parliament ends, and markets are keen to see if the PBOC follows with a modest move of its own.
The head of a newly merged banking and insurance regulator is also expected to be announced soon. Reform-minded Guo Shuqing, 61, the current chair of the China Banking Regulatory Commission, is viewed as the leading candidate.
Liu He is expected to help improve supervision and coordination among regulators and the central bank to fend off financial risks, as head of the cabinet-level Financial Stability and Development Commission (FSDC).
That would put Liu on a similar standing with former economic tsar Zhu Rongji, known for his tough handling of hyperinflation and the economic chaos in the 1990s.
Zhu held both the posts of vice premier and central bank governor simultaneously from 1993 to 1995, and went on to become China’s premier in 1998-2003.
As Xi begins his second five-year term as president, Beijing is streamlining regulators and ministries to reduce inefficiencies while expanding the remit of others such as the central bank to boost their policymaking powers.
Xi has also promoted top graft-buster Wang Qishan, a major ally, to the post of vice president.
“China’s ministries are giant, nationwide silos and fiefdoms that never talk to one another,” Cliff Tan, east Asian head of global markets research at Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, said in a note.
“Hence, in order to accomplish anything major, the command must come from the top down. Only they can get ministries to work together.”
Liu has a deep understanding of the country’s economic issues, and was elected last October into the 25-member Politburo, the second-highest tier in Beijing’s political power structure after the seven-member Politburo Standing Committee.
Liu won a top Chinese economics study award in 2015 for his research on the global financial crisis, and is widely seen as masterminding Xi’s supply-side reforms which are cutting excess factory capacity and pivoting the economy away from low-value industries.
Liu, who speaks fluent English, gained a master’s degree in public administration at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government in 1995.
He had been the head of the General Office of the ruling Communist Party’s Central Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs and a vice minister of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) — China’s top economic planner.
US-educated Yi Gang, 60, had been vice PBOC governor since 2008. He was seen as instrumental in steering monetary and currency policy, including the landmark devaluation of the yuan in 2015 and more recently a tightening in capital controls.
The PBOC and other regulators are trying to rein in risks from an increasingly complex financial system and a rapid build-up in debt without jolting markets or hurting economic growth.
“The main task right now is to implement prudent monetary policy, push forward financial sector reform and opening up, and keep the financial sector stable,” Yi told reporters on the sidelines of Monday’s parliament session.
Yi said PBOC would roll out policies and measures to reform and open up the financial sector between now and the next Boao Forum, known as Asia’s Davos, in April. He did not elaborate.
But Yi is not regarded as a heavyweight like his boss Zhou, and he may play a supportive role with Liu overseeing the economy and finance sector on the whole, some economists said.
Yi’s nomination is “a bit unexpected as he holds a relatively low political ranking as the alternative member of CPC Central Committee,” said Tommy Xie, China economist at OCBC Bank in Singapore. The committee is the largest of the party’s elite decision-making bodies.
“In terms of implication, we see policy continuation as Yi will support Liu He to drive economic reform. Both are the main driver to China’s reform in the past few years,” Xie said.
Yi, one of the highest-ranking “sea turtles” — a colloquialism for Chinese returning from overseas — has a PhD in economics from the University of Illinois. He was also the head of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE) from 2009 to 2016.
With Yi’s background and his reputation of being pro-reform, his nomination would be good news for foreign investors, Xie said.
Zhou, 70, who is China’s longest-running central bank head, having taken the job in 2002, is expected to announce his retirement soon.


Global carmakers show off SUVs, electrics as China promises reforms

Updated 11 min 24 sec ago
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Global carmakers show off SUVs, electrics as China promises reforms

BEIJING: Global carmakers touted their latest electric and SUV models in Beijing on Wednesday, as China promises a more level playing field in the world’s largest auto market where domestic vehicles are making major inroads.
Industry behemoths like Volkswagen, Daimler, Toyota, Nissan, Ford and others are displaying more than 1,000 models and dozens of concept cars at the Beijing auto show.
Thousands of Chinese auto enthusiasts are expected to wander the halls of the mega exhibition center this week, with electric cars and gas-guzzling sport-utility vehicles grabbing the spotlight.
Nissan presented its first Made in China electric car produced for Chinese consumers, the four-door Sylphy Zero Emission, with a drive range of 338 kilometers.
“The new Sylphy Zero Emission is the next step in our electrification strategy for China,” said Jose Munoz, Nissan’s chief performance officer, adding that the company will unveil 20 electrified models over the next five years.
Auto executives may have their minds on the boiling trade war between Beijing and Washington, with every twist and turn fanning fears that it could bring their plans for China to a screeching halt.
But last week Beijing announced it will liberalize foreign ownership limits in the sector, a move seen as a possible olive branch to President Donald Trump, who has railed against China’s policies in the sector.
China currently restricts foreign auto firms to a maximum 50 percent ownership of joint ventures with local companies.
The changes will end shareholding limits for new energy vehicle firms as soon as this year, followed by commercial vehicles in 2020 and passenger cars in 2022.
Foreign automakers who account for more than half of vehicle sales in China have cautiously welcomed the changes, with VW saying it has “strong” local partners in their joint ventures.
“This will have no impact on our JVs. But the overreaching principle is important. Hopefully, liberalization will as well help for fair competition, and having a level playing field,” Jochem Heizmann, CEO of Volkswagen Group China, told reporters.
The show comes as China’s market hits a transition period — the explosive growth in car sales seen over the last decade slowed last year and data from early this year point to a continued slump for many vehicle types.
Chinese consumers are following their American peers toward SUVs while policymakers in Beijing push an all-electric future.
Ride-sharing is also on the up. On Tuesday Didi — China’s answer to Uber — announced it had joined forces with some 30 partners, including Renault and Volkswagen, to develop vehicles and products specifically tailored for ride-sharing.
Accounting for some 28.9 million car sales last year, the Chinese market could soon match those of the European Union and United States combined.
General Motors sold over four million cars here last year, more than in the US. Volkswagen sold more than three million, roughly six times its home market.
But domestic firms are outselling foreign firms in the SUV segment.
In the electric car market the figures are even more lopsided, as Beijing has heaped money on projects to dominate what it sees as the future.
At the auto show, the domestic upstarts have a separate exhibition hall mostly to themselves — 124 of the 174 electric car models on display are homegrown.
Government subsidies help consumers purchase the green cars, while policymakers are planning a quota system to force producers to build electric vehicles, with plans to one day phase out gas vehicles altogether.
Volkswagen announced Tuesday investments of €15 billion in electric and autonomous vehicles in China by 2022.
“China is our second home,” recently installed chief executive Herbert Diess said at a Beijing press conference, with its market set to be “the biggest” worldwide for electric cars.