Massive diamond cache detected beneath Earth’s surface

In this file photo taken on December 4, 2017, the Peace Diamond is on display at the Rapaport Group in New York. (AFP)
Updated 18 July 2018
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Massive diamond cache detected beneath Earth’s surface

  • “This shows that diamond is not perhaps this exotic mineral..."
  • These naturally occurring precious minerals are located far deeper than any drilling expedition has ever reached

WASHINGTON: There’s a load of bling buried in the Earth.
More than a quadrillion tons of diamonds to be exact — or one thousand times more than one trillion — US researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported this week.
But don’t expect a diamond rush. These naturally occurring precious minerals are located far deeper than any drilling expedition has ever reached, about 90 to 150 miles (145 to 240 kilometers) below the surface of our planet.
“We can’t get at them, but still, there is much more diamond there than we have ever thought before,” said Ulrich Faul, a research scientist in MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences.
“This shows that diamond is not perhaps this exotic mineral, but on the scale of things, it’s relatively common.”
Using seismic technology to analyze how sound waves pass through the Earth, scientists detected the treasure trove in rocks called cratonic roots, which are shaped like inverted mountains that stretch through the Earth’s crust and into the mantle.
These are “the oldest and most immovable sections of rock that lie beneath the center of most continental tectonic plates,” explained MIT in a statement.
The project to uncover deep Earth diamonds began because scientists were puzzled by observations that sound waves would speed up significantly when passing through the roots of ancient cratons.
So they assembled virtual rocks, made from various combinations of minerals, to calculate how fast sound waves would travel through them.
“Diamond in many ways is special,” Faul said.
“One of its special properties is, the sound velocity in diamond is more than twice as fast as in the dominant mineral in upper mantle rocks, olivine.”
They found that the only type of rock that matched the speeds they were detecting in craton would contain one to two percent diamond.
Scientists now believe the Earth’s ancient underground rocks contain at least 1,000 times more diamond than previously expected.
Still, very few of these gems are expected to make their way to the jewelry store.
Diamonds are made from carbon, and are formed under high-pressure and extreme temperatures deep in the Earth.
They emerge near the surface only through volcanic eruptions that occur rarely — on the order of every few tens of millions of years.


MTV VMAs was a shocking event, for the wrong reasons

Updated 21 August 2018
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MTV VMAs was a shocking event, for the wrong reasons

NEW YORK: With most of music industry’s top acts absent — from Beyonce to Bruno Mars — the MTV Video Music Awards lacked star power and felt flat, and some of the winners turned heads — for the wrong reasons.

Exhibit A: Camila Cabello beat out Drake, Mars, Cardi B, Ariana Grande and Post Malone for artist of the year.

“I can’t believe this is for me,” Cabello said Monday onstage.

Neither can we.

Cabello achieved the unthinkable later in the show when she took home the top prize — video of the year — for “Havana.” Cabello’s song was a No. 1 hit and of the video of the year nominees, “Havana” was the second-most viewed clip behind Drake’s “God’s Plan.” But that’s partly since “Havana” was released last year while the other videos came out this year.

It was the night’s most shocking moment, and MTV seemed to send a message: You’re punished for not showing up and rewarded for attending.

Grande won best pop and Post Malone took home song of the year. Drake, the most successful musician of the last year, didn’t win a single award. Beyonce, Jay-Z, Rihanna and Kendrick Lamar were restricted to technical honors like editing, art direction, cinematography and visual effects. And Gambino picked up best direction, choreography and video with a message for his heralded video “This Is America.”

The show hit another low when Jennifer Lopez, Cardi B and DJ Khaled won best collaboration for “Dinero” — a song that has peaked at No. 80 on Billboard’s Hot 100 chart — besting the record-setting hit “Meant to Be,” by Bebe Rexha and Florida Georgia Line, and Mars and Cardi B’s anthemic “Finesse” remix.

Then there was the Aretha Franklin tribute, a moment Madonna made, well, all about Madonna.

The pop icon rambled and rambled about the early struggles in her career, finally informing the crowd that she sang Franklin’s “(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman” at an audition that became a breakthrough for her.

“None of this would have happened without our lady of soul,” she said. “She led me where I am today ... I want to thank you Aretha for empowering all of us. ... Love live the queen.” It wasn’t clear if Madonna meant Franklin, or herself.

At least MTV did played a clip of Franklin, who died last week, singing “I Say A Little Prayer.”

The VMAs, at Radio City Music Hall in New York, also lacked oomph with its performances throughout the night: Grande was a bore during “God Is a Woman,” but added some excitement when she was joined by her mother, grandmother and cousin onstage at the end of the performance. Travis Scott, whose album is No. 1 for a second week, had strong energy while onstage, but the performance felt like it belonged more to singer James Blake, who is featured on Scott’s album and performed just as long as Scott during the segment.

There were a few highlights. Maluma, the Colombian singer who was nominated twice in the best Latin category, did have an exciting performance as he danced onstage with gyrating dancers. And Lopez started off slow — Kylie Jenner and Scott’s unamused faces perfectly captured the vibe — but she hit a strong stride when she sang old smashes like “Jenny from the Block,” “I’m Real” — where Ja Rule joined her onstage — and “All I Have,” which showed the skilled dancer’s vocal range.

But Lopez’s speech was more stirring than her performance: She was emotional as she thanked her children and beau Alex Rodriguez onstage when she earned the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award for lifetime achievement.

She was teary-eyed and looked at her “two little angels,” as she called them, and said, “I stand here stronger and better than ever ... so thank you Max and Emme.” She called Rodriguez, who filmed her performance with his phone, “my twin soul.”

“My life is sweeter and better with you in it,” she said.

Cardi B, who gave birth last month, won three awards and said people told her she was “gambling your career” when she decided to become a mother.

“I had the baby, I carried the baby and now I’m still winning awards,” she said.

She also seemed to take aim at Nicki Minaj, who while promoting her new album last week said other musicians have hired fans to listen to their music.

Cardi said she’s been blessed with fans “that you can’t buy,” looking into the camera and shouting an expletive.

Minaj won the first televised award — best hip hop — and checked comedian Tiffany Haddish for dissing girl group Fifth Harmony, now on hiatus.

After congratulating ex-Fifth Harmony member Cabello on her five nominations, Haddish said sarcastically, “Hi Fifth Harmony.” When Minaj accepted an award moments later, she looked to Haddish and said, “Don’t be coming for Fifth Harmony because Normani is that (chick).” Normani currently has her first hit apart from the group with the Khalid-assisted “Love Lies.”

Minaj, who has been a trending topic this week after she madly tweeted about why her new album debuted at No. 2 behind Travis Scott, also provided the first bleeped moment of the night when she told the audience to listen to her Apple Music radio show this week to hear “who the (expletive) of the day award is going to.”

There was just one political moment, orchestrated when Logic was joined onstage by young immigrants wearing T-shirts that read, “We are all human beings” to protest the Trump administration’s separation of migrant children from their parents after they illegally crossed the US-Mexico border. The rapper, best known for the suicide prevention anthem “1-800-273-8255,” wore a T-shirt that read, “(Expletive) the wall.”

There was one posthumous winner: Avicii, who died in April, won for best dance for “Lonely Together” alongside Rita Ora.



THE WINNERS’ LIST
Video of the year: Camila Cabella, “Havana”
Artist of the year: Camila Cabello
Song of the year: “Rockstar,” Post Malone featuring 21 Savage
Best new artist: Cardi B
Best collaboration: “Dinero,” Jennifer Lopez featuring DJ Khaled & Cardi B
Best pop: “No Tears Left to Cry,” Ariana Grande
Best hip hop: “Chun-li,” Nicki Minaj
Best Latin: “Mi Gente,” J Balvin and Willy William
Best dance: “Lonely Together,” Avicii featuring Rita Ora
Best rock: “Whatever It Takes,” Imagine Dragons
Video with a message: “This is America,” Childish Gambino
Song of summer: ““I Like It,” Cardi B featuring Bad Bunny and J Balvin
Best art direction: “Ape----,” (The Carters) Jan Houlevigue
Best choreography: “This is America,” (Childish Gambino), Sherrie Silver
Best cinematography: “Ape----,” (The Carters), Benoit Debie
Best direction: “This is America,” (Childish Gambino) Hiromurai
Best editing: “Lemon,” (N.E.R.D. and Rihanna), Taylor Ward
Best visual effects: “All the Stars” (Kendrick Lamar and SZA), Loris Paillier
Push artist of the year: Hayley Kiyoko