Pasta and petrol: Smuggling crackdown stirs dissent in Tunisia’s south

1 / 2
A deserted petrol station is seen due to fuel smuggling stirs in Remada, Tunisia October 10, 2018. (REUTERS)
2 / 2
A man fills containers with gasoline at the edge of Remada town south Tunisia, October 11, 2018. (REUTERS)
Updated 30 October 2018
0

Pasta and petrol: Smuggling crackdown stirs dissent in Tunisia’s south

  • The growing dissent is a worry for the government, the ninth since the Arab Spring and the 2011 fall of leader Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, as it clings to power

REMADA: Tunisian Zubair Abdel-Moula lost his work selling smuggled fuel on the streets of a poor southern town after the government tightened controls with Libya to stop militants crossing the 460km (286 miles) border.
The 32-year-old, who has never had a full-time job, now sits on a mattress blocking traffic in Remada's main street with other unemployed protesters, demanding state jobs and aid.
Tunisia started digging trenches and setting up monitoring systems provided by Western allies on the Libyan border in 2015.
Routes that had been used for decades to smuggle cheap fuel, pasta and wheat from Libya to Tunisia, were also being used by Islamic militants and to transport drugs and arms.
Officials say shutting the routes has helped prevent a repeat of attacks such as the one in 2015 when a Libyan-trained Tunisian shot dead dozens of tourists on a Tunisian beach.
But the crackdown took the livelihood of thousands, many of whom have joined the protests. The growing dissent is a worry for the government, the ninth since the Arab Spring and the 2011 fall of leader Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, as it clings to power.
“We won't go,” said Abdel-Moula. “I don’t hope of things getting better.”
Southern Tunisia sits on the oil and phosphate that drive the overall economy but the good jobs in those sectors rarely go to locals who often lack engineering skills. The area around Remada is poorer than the capital Tunis, 600 km to the north.
“The south provides everything for Tunisia. There are foreign companies making money here but we locals can’t get jobs at oilfields.” said Abdel-Moula.
Fellow protester Abdullah used to spend his nights in remote borderlands buying fuel from Libyan truck drivers to sell in Remada. Due to subsidies, the pump price of petrol in Libya is 10 times cheaper than in Tunisia.
With the crackdown, the work has become too dangerous.
“I used to have a fuel (distribution) station with seven other families to buy (Libyan) fuel but it has become too dangerous,” said Abdullah, asking not to use his full name.
Western countries have praised Tunisia as the only democratic success of the Arab Spring. It transitioned to democracy after toppling long-serving leader Ben-Ali without triggering widespread violence or civil war.
It has held free elections and in 2014 approved a constitution guaranteeing fundamental rights in contrast to autocratic systems and turmoil elsewhere in region.
But the succession of governments since Ben Ali's overthrow has been unable to resolve deep-rooted economic problems. Prime Minister Youssef Chahed is fighting for survival with his coalition locked in a row about how to reform the economy.
Investors have been scared away from North Africa by turmoil in Libya, inflation hit 7.4 percent in September, the highest since 1990, and the jobless rate is 15 percent.
In the southern province of Tataouine, which includes Remada and much of the Libyan border, unemployment is 32 percent.
“We have a problem with unemployment,” said Gov. Adel Ouerghi. “Most of our youth want to work (on oilfields) in the desert because salaries are high there.”
Many Tunisians used to cross the border to work in Libya but now feel the country is too dangerous.
“If the situation was stable 300,000 to 400,000 could find work there,” he said.
Tunisia tolerated the smuggling for decades as a way to help the south which missed out on industries concentrated mostly in the north and eastern coast.
Some 3,000 Tunisians have joined Daesh and other extremists in Libya, Syria and Iraq, many of which came from the south or equally neglected central hinterland.
But the chaos in Libya led to a spike in arrivals of militants, drugs and weapons, diplomats say, forcing the government to act.
Libya's state oil firm, NOC, was also keen for a crackdown. It estimates the smuggling cost the economy at least $750 million each year.
"We think most of the fuel goes to Tunisia and to Europe via Malta," NOC said in a statement. "Some local economies have become oriented around smuggling and this affects the fabric of communities who become dependent on criminal activity."
The smuggling has also caused fuel shortages in some Libyan towns, officials say.
"It has been also agreed with other towns and tribes to disassociate all those involved in smuggling," said Mustafa al-Barouni, mayor of Zintan, a western Libyan town.

Esclation
Tunisian officials say it will be impossible to stop smuggling completely.
The border can't be sealed in mountain regions and some Tunisian guards, often related to smugglers, look the other way for a bribe, residents say.
Fuel stalls seen by Reuters on the road between Remada and the provincial capital Tataouine were abandoned but some youths were still selling gasoline, even on the same street as the governor's office.
But for the protesters too many people have lost their livelihood.
"Thousands of families depend on this," said Salem Bounhas, secretary general of the powerful labor union UGTT in Tataouine.
The protestors have threatened to escalate road blocks to cut off access to oil refineries unless the government finds them other work.
The government has focused too much on closing borders without dealing with unemployment, said Chloe Teevan, a North Africa researcher at the European Council on Foreign Relations.
"Such policies are contributing to the rising disillusionment that has followed the revolution."


Lebanon to form body to probe civil war disappearances

Updated 12 November 2018
0

Lebanon to form body to probe civil war disappearances

  • The long-awaited law would empower an independent national commission to gather information about the missing
  • Families and rights groups have been campaigning for the law since 2012, when it first went to parliament

BEIRUT: Lebanon’s parliament on Monday approved the formation of an independent commission to help determine the fate of thousands of people who went missing during the country’s civil war, which ended nearly three decades ago.
The long-awaited law would empower an independent national commission to gather information about the missing, collect DNA samples and exhume mass graves from the 1975-1990 conflict.
Families and rights groups have been campaigning for the law since 2012, when it first went to parliament.
“This is the first step toward giving closure to families of the missing hopefully,” said Rona Halabi, spokeswoman for the International Committee for the Red Cross. “This represents a milestone for the families who have waited for years to have answers.”
The Hague-based International Commission on Missing Persons says more than 17,000 people are estimated to have gone missing during the Lebanese civil war.
Lebanon’s National News Agency said lawmakers approved the law after voting on each of its 38 articles.
LBC TV said lawmakers initially protested, saying calls for accountability may affect current officials. The broadcaster said they were reassured the 1991 amnesty for abuses committed by militias during the war remains in place.
Many of Lebanon’s political parties are led by former warlords implicated in some of the civil war’s worst fighting.
“For the first time after the war, Lebanon enters a genuine reconciliation phase, to heal the wounds and give families the right to know,” Gebran Bassil, the country’s foreign minister tweeted.
The ICRC began compiling DNA samples from relatives of the disappeared in 2016 and has interviewed more than 2,000 families to help a future national commission.
DNA samples have been stored with the Lebanese Internal Security Forces and the ICRC. The law would allow Lebanese security forces to take part in the sample collection.