ASTM sets maximum limit of lead in zinc for making galvanized steel

Updated 09 September 2015
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ASTM sets maximum limit of lead in zinc for making galvanized steel

Considering the negative effect of lead on the performance of galvanized steel sheets, the ASTM (the American Society for Testing and Materials) — which is an internationally recognized organization engaged in issuing international specifications for thousands of products — has introduced a limit of maximum 90 mg/kg of lead in zinc bath used for manufacturing of galvanized steel in accordance with ASTM A 653/A653M.
This limit was reached by consensus involving balloting among the ASTM technical committee members followed by a meeting held in May, and has resulted in the publication of newly revised ASTM A653/A653M.
The purpose of this important amendment to the ASTM Standard is to enhance the performance of galvanized steel as some galvanized steel manufacturers add excessive amounts of lead to the zinc bath used in the galvanizing process to obtain larger and brighter spangles, while disregarding its negative effects on the performance of the produced galvanized steel sheets.
Both theoretical studies and practical experiments have demonstrated that this addition of lead leads to darkening of the spangles over time, thereby impairing the aesthetics of the galvanized steel sheet.
Studies have also shown that adding lead to the zinc bath can cause a problem called "delayed adhesion failure" in hot-dip zinc coatings. Being immiscible with zinc, lead solidifies at the spangle boundaries to produce sites where corrosion cells form in humid climates. After some months this results in cracking and peeling of the coating when the product has been formed using sharp bending.
On the other hand, it is widely known that lead is a toxic substance with severe health risks for humans if it is used in quantities that exceed safe limits.


Almosafer Academy to hone next-gen travel advisers

Updated 21 September 2019

Almosafer Academy to hone next-gen travel advisers

Almosafer, an omni-channel travel brand in Saudi Arabia, celebrated the launch of Almosafer Academy, which offers a 10-week specialized recruitment program focused on shaping a new generation of Saudi male and female travel advisers. The inauguration ceremony was held at a state-of-the-art facility in Riyadh and was attended by senior officials from the company as well as several VIPs and stakeholders.

With the rollout of 25 new interactive stores across the Kingdom by the end of this year, Almosafer is utilizing the academy to equip passionate Saudi nationals with the skills and industry knowledge they need to succeed and grow as travel consultants within the company. Forty-eight Saudi recruits from key cities such as Riyadh, Jeddah and Makkah, will begin the program this month, with a female-to-male ratio of 56 to 44 percent.

The program will entail various familiarization trips to top destinations identified by Almosafer as well as dedicated destination training sessions delivered by tourism boards and travel specialists, including VisitBritain, Dubai Tourism, Mauritius Tourism Promotion Authority, Azerbaijan Tourism Board, Bahrain Tourism and Exhibitions Authority as well as Experience Hub — the trade and promotion arm of Yas Island Abu Dhabi.

Fahad Mohammed Al-Obailan, VP retail of Almosafer, said: “At a time when global travel brands are scaling back on a brick-and-mortar presence, it’s very exciting to have the opportunity to give the brand a physical presence that works in perfect synergy with our other channels. With 50 new retail outlets scheduled to open in key cities across the Kingdom by Q1 2020, we believe that having the option of booking travel face-to-face with a specialized travel adviser will enrich customers’ experience and help them find tailored packages to suit their every need. 

“Almosafer Academy is an integral part of our retail transformation as we are immersing Saudi talent in intensive and specialized training that will give them the knowledge and skills to help customers make the right travel decisions.”

Sofia Santos, GCC country manager at VisitBritain, said: “We are excited about our collaboration with the Almosafer Academy, and the opportunity to be part of training the next generation of Saudi travel advisers. Most Saudi travelers are familiar with London. We will use this opportunity to showcase hidden gems in London and less well-known areas beyond London, such as the Cotswolds and Lake District.” 

Abdulla Yousuf, acting director, proximity markets at Dubai Tourism, said: “We’re giving graduates from Almosafer Academy the opportunity to visit and experience Dubai’s ever-changing choice of tourist attractions, landmark hotels and world-class restaurants and shopping destinations.”

Sevinj Zeynalli, director of international market management at Azerbaijan Tourism Board, said: “Educating Almosafer’s new recruits about our country will not only help raise further awareness around it as a tourism destination but will also boost inbound tourism from Saudi Arabia to Azerbaijan.”