Chile’s rock art llamas divulge secrets of ancient desert culture

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Archaeologist Jose Bereguer, above, curator at Santiago’s Museum of Pre-Columbian Art, describes the site as “the most complex in South America” because of its astronomical importance as well as the significance to local shepherds. (AFP)
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Chilean archaeologist Jose Berenguer shows drawings at the Taira Cave left by shepherds almost three millennia ago on the walls of the rocks that flank the course of the Loa River. (AFP)
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Above, the drawings at the Taira Cave located at a height of 3,150 meters about 75 kilometers north of Calama, Chile. (AFP)
Updated 31 July 2018

Chile’s rock art llamas divulge secrets of ancient desert culture

  • Conservationists working in Chile’s Atacama Desert want UNESCO to recognize the Taira Valley drawings as a heritage site so they can develop sustainable tourism in the region
  • First rediscovered by Swedish archaeologist Stig Ryden in 1944, the Taira rock art is between 2,400 and 2,800 years old

ATACAMA, Chile: Open air rock paintings in the world’s driest desert pay testament to the importance of the llama to millennia-old cultures that traversed the inhospitable terrain.
Conservationists working in Chile’s Atacama Desert want UNESCO to recognize the Taira Valley drawings as a heritage site so they can develop sustainable tourism in the region.
Taira is “a celebration of life,” said archaeologist Jose Bereguer, describing the site as “the most complex in South America” because of its astronomical importance as well as the significance to local shepherds.
The rock art was a “shepherd’s rite” needed to ask the “deities that governed the skies and the earth” to increase their llama flocks.
First rediscovered by Swedish archaeologist Stig Ryden in 1944, the Taira rock art is between 2,400 and 2,800 years old.
It is made up of a gallery of 16 paintings more than 3,000 meters (9,842 feet) above sea level on the banks of the Loa River that traverses the desert.
The jewel in the crown are the Alero Taira drawings some 30 meters from the Loa in a natural shelter, in which the importance of the llama becomes abundantly clear.
Not just the principal source of wealth for desert dwellers over thousands of years, the llama has been used in ritual ceremonies throughout the Andes for just as long, such as in the “Wilancha,” or sacrifice to “Pacha Mama,” or Mother Earth.
“No one can understand the things done 18,000 years ago because the cultures that did them have disappeared,” said Berenguer, curator at Santiago’s Museum of Pre-Columbian Art.
“Here, it’s possible to delve into the meaning because we have ethnography and because there are still people living in practically the same way as in the past.”
According to Rumualda Galleguillos, one of around 15 indigenous people still raising llamas in the Atacama Desert like their ancestors, these pictures are a “testament” to forefathers who could neither read nor write.
Around 90 percent of the engravings, painted mainly in red but also ochre yellow and white, depict llamas of various sizes, some pregnant, others suckling their young.
But the remaining 10 percent depict the desert’s diversity, such as foxes, snakes, ostriches, partridges and dogs.
The few human figures that appear are tiny, as if those painting them “wanted to go unnoticed in front of the greatness of animals that were so important to their economy,” said Berenguer.
What the paintings also demonstrate is that 2,500 years ago, people were already studying the stars in an area that has more recently become the astronomy capital of the world with some of the most powerful telescopes ever built.
A book written in conjunction with the Atacama observatory called “The Universe of our Grandparents,” claims that the ancient inhabitants of this area studied the stars to help learn how to domesticate the inhospitable desert and survive its dangers.
In this vision, the universe is made up of the skies and Earth as one whole, with the skies forming the horizon of life. What is seen in the skies is a reflection of what there is on Earth.
Unlike the Greeks, though, ancient Atacama astrologists didn’t see Orion, Gemini or Cancer.
They saw llamas, their eyes, corrals, a loaded slingshot and a shepherd standing with his legs spread wide and arms in the air, worrying about foxes, said Silvia Lisoni, a professor of history and amateur astronomer.
Taira is located on an axis that aligns the sacred Sirawe “sandy eye” quicksand from where locals would pray for rain, the San Pedro volcano, the Colorado hill, and the Cuestecilla pampas, another sacred spot.
Volcanoes, like springs, were considered deities by the Atacama natives, while llamas were thought to have been born of springs.
The Alero Taira is positioned so that it is completely illuminated by the sun on both the winter and summer solstices.
“There’s evidence that this site was built here for specific reasons,” said Berenguer.
Taira is not the oldest example of rock art in this part of Chile, though. To the north in the copper mining Antofagasta region lies Kalina, around 1,000-1,200 years older than Taira, and Milla.
This style of art has been found also in the Puna de Atacama plateau in neighboring Argentina, but Taira “has few equals in terms of beauty and complexity,” said Berenguer.
One day, he hopes that Taira will be afforded UNESCO World Heritage Site status like the rock art in the Cave of Altamira in Spain or France’s Lascaux caves.


Sharon Stone, Sarah Paulson talk Netflix horror ‘Ratched’

Updated 23 September 2020

Sharon Stone, Sarah Paulson talk Netflix horror ‘Ratched’

LOS ANGELES: Hollywood loves a good villain and in Netflix’s new horror-drama series, audiences can find out the evil origins of the classic character, Nurse Ratched. The latest series from Ryan Murphy, creator of “Glee” and “American Horror Story,” “Ratched” promises stylish and surreal scares with an incredible cast.

One of those cast members is Hollywood icon Sharon Stone, who plays eccentric heiress Lenore Osgood.

“I got to play Lenore opposite some astounding actors,” Stone told Arab News. “You know every day, someone amazing was put in front of me.”

Inspired by the novel and movie “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest,” the series follows Mildred Ratched, a former army nurse in World War II. She begins working at a mental hospital and, as the story unfolds, turns into a controlling and manipulative monster to her patients.

“Mildred is really motivated by trying to be reunited with the most important person in her life,” said series lead, Sarah Paulson, who plays the younger version of Nurse Ratched that actress Louise Fletcher won an Oscar for playing in the 1975 film. “There ends up being obviously complicated things that happen once that reunion has happened, but she has to do some dangerous and morally reprehensible things to do something that matters to her more than anything in the world and she’s willing to do that,” Paulson added.

Sharon Stone as eccentric heiress Lenore Osgood. Supplied

“Ratched’s” gruesome story and characters are made all the more mind bending by how gorgeous the show looks. The scenes of horror stand out all the more when paired against a vibrant color palette, beautiful sets and incredible costumes.

“This costume designer Lou, who I’ve worked with on many Ryan (Murphy) things, I think she’s so wonderful” Paulson said.

“It was that beautiful thing where the minute I put on the costume I sort of knew what to do with the character.”

The series is slated for 18 episodes and comes just in time for the Halloween season. With few horror film releases on the horizon, “Ratched” is poised to be one of biggest frights of this fall.