Syrian men are just as likely to be victims of abuse, but have nowhere to turn for help

Syrian men are just as likely to be victims of abuse, but have nowhere to turn for help
Updated 11 September 2018

Syrian men are just as likely to be victims of abuse, but have nowhere to turn for help

Syrian men are just as likely to be victims of abuse, but have nowhere to turn for help
  • There are no organizations that take care of them, and men don’t talk: aid worker
  • If it becomes known that a man has suffered sexual violence, “it means he has to leave his community (and go) where nobody knows that he has been sexually abused.”

LONDON: Of all the many horrors of the war in Syria, it is the one least spoken about, even by its victims. Perhaps especially by its victims.

Sexual violence is not a new phenomenon in war, but it is generally assumed to be directed at women and girls. However, a newly published investigation reveals that in Syria, the victims of torture by rape and sexual assault are just as likely to be men and boys.

Yet such is the stigma and so complex the reasons for that stigma, that their suffering is almost completely unacknowledged, let alone reported.

“There are no organizations that take care of them, and men don’t talk,” said one aid worker. 

Instead they suffer in silence, their wounds — both physical and psychological — left untreated.

“It is completely destroying for men,” said another source working with an international NGO. If it becomes known that a man has suffered sexual violence, “it means he has to leave his community (and go) where nobody knows that he has been sexually abused.”

The authors of the report admit that even their research cannot be classed as comprehensive. Between September 2017 and July 2018, field workers from the All Survivors Project (ASP), an international research and advocacy organization, conducted interviews with 66 informants. They included representatives of UN aid agencies, experts in medical care and mental health, NGOs, human rights activist and academics. Two thirds of the interviewees were aware of incidents of sexual violence against men and boys, either through providing medical attention or other humanitarian support or hearing of such cases directly from survivors or from their family, friends or colleagues. Some informants had directly witnessed men and boys being violated.

The resulting report, “Destroyed from within,” is a shocking expose of the sexual torture suffered by men and boys in Syrian prisons, detention centers, at checkpoints and even in refugee centers in neighboring Turkey, supposedly after reaching safety.

Some of the victims were as young as 11. The perpetrators are identified as members of the Syrian state security forces and in particular their military and air force intelligences branches, associated militias and, to a lesser extent, non-state armed groups.

“If you talk about sexual violence … there is no one who goes into detention without this happening to him,” a representative of a Syrian human rights NGO related in November 2017. None of those interviewed for the report is named and no specific locations given to protect them and their families from repercussions.

“Age is no barrier: From children to young men are targeted,” said a program manager with a Syrian NGO working in Turkey. “There is a pattern that young men in their late teens or early 20s are specifically targeted, although it can happen to anybody.”

Armed groups not affiliated or opposed to the Syrian state are no less guilty of such atrocities. The International Independent Commission of Inquiry into Syria (COI) has documented cases of males being raped while being
held by the Al-Nusra Front and
tortured by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).

The use of sexual violence taps into a deeply ingrained trait in Syrian society — the cult of masculinity. Already strong, it has been intensified by the Assad regime.

“Syrians have been raised to glorify masculinity and militarism,” said Dr. Rahaf Aldoughli, a lecturer at Lancaster University and at the Middle East Center of the London School of Economics. 

“The concept of the fatherland is that it is not for those who live in it but those who defend it. So the ideal citizen is the heroic soldier. Children in primary school are shown how to use a Kalashnikov. They are trained to be aggressive.

“Being masculine means you are a hero, which means you are a true Syrian. Masculinity also means the subjugation of other men. Killing or sexually abusing the ‘other’ becomes a passage to masculinity.”

Daesh uses rape as a recruitment tool. A mental health specialist interviewed for the ASP report speaks of teenage boys who were videoed as they were assaulted. If they refused to join Daesh, the assailants told them the videos would be posted online.

Five of the victims were personally known to him: “They say that the perpetrators wanted to shame them into joining.”

A Syrian psychiatrist told the ASP researchers about men in opposition areas who had come from outside Syria seeking boys to draft into their militias “and
while they are in the militia, they abuse them.”

Children forced into labor by the war are especially vulnerable to being exploited. “In areas under regime control there are Shabiba. These are gangs, they are trading in everything … they run the sex industry, they are like mafia. These people are trying to use the youngsters, males or females, especially those who are very vulnerable, like Iraqi refugees,” said the Syrian psychiatrist.

The dangers do not lessen for those who manage to escape from Syria. Turkey is host to more Syrian refugees than any country in the world, but border controls are now far stricter than they were two years ago, leading refugees to resort to riskier ways of reaching what they believe is a safe place. An international aid worker interviewed by ASP told of helping one man who had been raped by four men involved in people-smuggling.

Another source told of boys, especially those who are unaccompanied, being exploited by smugglers. “This is true especially of those fleeing from Turkey to Greece. This is one way that young minors and unaccompanied minors pay for their journey. They do it out of desperation,” she said.

Even if men are able to overcome the stigma, there is almost nowhere for them to go for help, said Charu Lata Hogg, founder of ASP, who conducted some of the interviews for the report. The law offers no protection as Syria does not acknowledge male rape, she said. Society does not recognize the crime against them and what little support exists for victims of sexual violence is aimed at women and girls.

Some humanitarian workers even bemoan the lack of understanding within their own organizations and the humanitarian community in general.

“Girls and women are considered the primary victims, so in practice services are designed to exclude men and boys,” said Hogg. “We cannot exclude a section of society because we think that they are not suffering enough.” 

The legal framework in Turkey does offer protection for men
and boys, but few have any confidence in it.

As ever, the call is for more funding for better medical care and psychological support. But the real remedy lies much deeper and is far more difficult to access. 

“We need to reconstruct national identity,” said Dr. Aldoughli. “We need to go beyond idealizing physical power.”


Nearly 100 people injured after train derails in Egypt

Nearly 100 people injured after train derails in Egypt
Updated 50 min 55 sec ago

Nearly 100 people injured after train derails in Egypt

Nearly 100 people injured after train derails in Egypt
  • 58 ambulances rushed to the site and moved the injured to three hospitals in the province

CAIRO: Ninety-seven people have been injured after a train derailed in Egypt's Qalioubia province north of Cairo, the health ministry said in a statement.
58 ambulances rushed to the site and moved the injured to three hospitals in the province, it said.

Egypt’s health minister Hala Zayed is heading to Qalioubia province to check up on those injured in the incident. 
The train departed Cairo at 1:20 P.M. and was due to arrive in Mansoura at 5:00 P.M. 
At least 20 people were killed and nearly 200 were injured in March when two trains collided near Tahta in Sohag province.


Iran asks Interpol to arrest Natanz ‘sabotage’ suspect – media report

Iran asks Interpol to arrest Natanz ‘sabotage’ suspect – media report
Updated 18 April 2021

Iran asks Interpol to arrest Natanz ‘sabotage’ suspect – media report

Iran asks Interpol to arrest Natanz ‘sabotage’ suspect – media report
  • National television has published a photo and identified the alleged saboteur as Reza Karimi
  • A Red Notice is a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person

TEHRAN: Iran has asked Interpol to help arrest a suspect in a sabotage attack on its Natanz nuclear facility which it blames on Israel, a local newspaper reported Sunday.
National television has published a photo and identified the man as 43-year-old Reza Karimi, saying the intelligence ministry had established his role in last week’s “sabotage” at Natanz.
The broadcaster said the suspect had “fled the country before the incident” and that “legal procedures to arrest and return him to the country are currently underway.”
Neither state TV nor other media provided further details on the suspect. The intelligence ministry has not issued an official statement.
The ultraconservative Kayhan daily reported in its Sunday edition that “intelligence and judicial authorities” are engaged in the process.
It added that “after his identity was established, necessary measures were taken through Interpol to arrest and return” the suspect.
Kayhan did not specify what form of Interpol assistance had been requested.
As of Sunday noon, Interpol’s public “red notice” list online returned no results for Reza Karimi.
A Red Notice is a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender or similar legal action, according to Interpol’s website.
A “small explosion” hit the Natanz plant’s electricity distribution system a week ago, according to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran.
The Iranian foreign ministry accused arch-foe Israel of an act of “nuclear terrorism” and vowed revenge.
Israel has neither confirmed nor denied involvement but public radio reports said it was a sabotage operation by the Mossad spy agency, citing unnamed intelligence sources.
The New York Times, quoting unnamed US and Israeli intelligence officials, also said there had been “an Israeli role” in the attack.
Iran’s foreign ministry spokesman Saeed Khatibzadeh last week indirectly accused Israel of attempting to scuttle talks underway in Vienna aimed at reviving a landmark nuclear agreement.
The talks are focused on bringing the US back in to the accord after former president Donald Trump withdrew from it in 2018 and reimposed sanctions on Tehran, and to bring Iran back into compliance with key nuclear commitments it suspended in response to the sanctions.


Syria to hold presidential vote on May 26: parliament

Syria to hold presidential vote on May 26: parliament
Updated 18 April 2021

Syria to hold presidential vote on May 26: parliament

Syria to hold presidential vote on May 26: parliament

DAMASCUS: Syria is to hold a presidential election on May 26, the parliament speaker announced Sunday, the country's second in the shadow of civil war, seen as likely to keep President Bashar Al-Assad in power.
Syrians abroad will be "able to vote at embassies" on May 20, Hamouda Sabbagh said in a statement, adding that prospective candidates could hand in their applications from Monday.
Assad, who took power following the death of his father Hafez in 2000, has not yet officially announced that he will stand for re-election.
He won a previous election three years into Syria's devastating civil war in 2014, with 88 percent of the vote.
Under Syria's 2012 constitution, a president may only serve two seven-year terms -- with the exception of the president elected in the 2014 poll.
Candidates must have lived continuously in Syria for at least 10 years, meaning that opposition figures in exile are barred from standing.
Candidates must also have the backing of at least 35 members of the parliament, which is dominated by Assad's Baath party.
This year's vote comes after Russian-backed Syrian government forces re-seized the vital northern city of Aleppo and other opposition-held areas, placing Damascus in control of two-thirds of the country.
But the poll also comes amid a crushing economic crisis.
The decade-long civil war has left at least 388,000 people dead and half of the population displaced.


Cyprus meeting, Riyadh visit latest examples of regional coalitions coming together

Cyprus meeting, Riyadh visit latest examples of regional coalitions coming together
Updated 18 April 2021

Cyprus meeting, Riyadh visit latest examples of regional coalitions coming together

Cyprus meeting, Riyadh visit latest examples of regional coalitions coming together
  • Foreign ministers of Greece, Israel, Cyprus, UAE met in Paphos on Friday
  • ‘Greater Mediterranean region emerging based on new partnerships, initiatives,’ expert tells Arab News

ATHENS: Common interests are bringing together regional coalitions of like-minded countries in the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean — favoring stability, combating extremism and respecting international law — in bilateral and multilateral formats.

The latest examples of this diplomatic activism are the meeting of the foreign ministers of Greece, Israel, Cyprus and the UAE that took place on Friday; and the forthcoming visit of Greek Foreign Minister Nikos Dendias and Defense Minister Nikos Panagiotopoulos to Saudi Arabia.

The four-way talks in the Cypriot city of Paphos marked the first time that the UAE had participated in one of the multilateral forums that have been created in the eastern Mediterranean since 2010.

In Riyadh, Dendias and Panagiotopoulos will sign a Status of Forces Agreement that will pave the way for the development of a Patriot-2 antimissile battery in Saudi Arabia in order to help the Kingdom in its fight against the Houthi militia in neighboring Yemen.

“The evolving web of regional cooperation is creating a new narrative, one that is cracking the glass ceiling of the prevailing, restrictive narrative of our neighborhood as a region of turmoil, conflict and crisis,” said Nikos Christodoulides, Cypriot foreign minister and host of the Paphos meeting.

The four-way talks will benefit from the recent normalization of ties between Israel and the UAE, and could offer an opportunity for the latter to join other regional efforts.

“A partnership that comprises both Israel and the UAE is very important for regional stability,” said Dendias. “We also welcome other regional initiatives undertaken with the aim of regional peace, such as the AlUla Accord, as well as the Saudi initiative that aims at bringing peace to the conflict in Yemen.”

Spyridon N. Litsas, professor of international relations at the University of Macedonia in Greece, and at the Rabdan Academy in Abu Dhabi, told Arab News: “The meeting of Greece, the UAE, Cyprus and Israel in Paphos signals two main facts. Firstly, the UAE and Israel seem able and willing to jointly contribute to the stabilization of the region. Secondly, smart diplomatic deterrence is taking a more definitive shape, and is oriented toward countering Turkish revisionism in the region.”

Ankara’s actions in the eastern Mediterranean, and its support of the Muslim Brotherhood, have raised regional concerns.

“Alliances are formed either to balance the threat of an aggressor, or to balance the power of a revisionist actor,” Litsas said.

“Greece, the UAE, Cyprus and Israel prove that alliances can also be formed on the basis of a smart approach toward Αnkara’s atavism. Turkey produces more revisionism than neighboring states can tolerate.”

The visit of Greece’s foreign and defense ministers to Riyadh has been long in the making, having been postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Athens wants to enhance its defense cooperation with Saudi Arabia, as it has done with the UAE.

Saudi F-15 fighter aircraft were stationed in Greece’s Souda Bay airbase last summer, and the two countries have engaged in political consultations at the highest level.

Athens aims to advance its role in linking the eastern Mediterranean and the Gulf. “A Greater Mediterranean region is emerging based on new partnerships and initiatives linking the Gulf with Mediterranean states,” Aristotle Tziampiris, professor of international relations at the University of Piraeus, told Arab News.

“Greece is in the middle of this important development that’s based on common interests and viewpoints, which include viewing Turkey as an increasingly unpredictable actor and Iran as a potentially serious, even existential threat.”

In February, “Athens established the Philia (Friendship) Forum, comprising Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Saudi Arabia and the UAE,” said Tziampiris.

“Greece is coming, without any doubt, closer to several Gulf countries aiming to contribute to regional stability.”


Israel rescinds outdoor coronavirus mask requirement

Israel rescinds outdoor coronavirus mask requirement
Updated 18 April 2021

Israel rescinds outdoor coronavirus mask requirement

Israel rescinds outdoor coronavirus mask requirement
  • Police-enforced wearing of protective masks outdoors scrapped from Sunday
  • But requirement still applied for indoor public spaces

JERUSALEM: Israel rescinded the mandatory wearing of face masks outdoors and fully reopened schools on Sunday in the latest return to relative normality, boosted by a mass-vaccination campaign against the COVID-19 pandemic.
With almost 54 percent of its 9.3 million population having received both shots of the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, Israel has logged sharp drops in contagion and cases.
The police-enforced wearing of protective masks outdoors, ordered a year ago, was scrapped from Sunday, but the Health Ministry said the requirement still applied for indoor public spaces and urged citizens to keep masks to hand.
With Israeli kindergarteners, elementary and high school students already back in class, middle school pupils who had been kept at home or attended class sporadically returned to pre-pandemic schedules.
The education ministry said that schools should continue to encourage personal hygiene, ventilation of classrooms and to maintain social distancing as much distance as possible during breaks and lessons.
Israel counts East Jerusalem Palestinians among its population and has been administering the vaccines there.
The 5.2 million Palestinians in the occupied West Bank and the Islamist Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip have been receiving limited supplies of vaccines provided by Israel, Russia, the United Arab Emirates, the global COVAX vaccine-sharing scheme and China.