Time is running out for extremists on social media

Time is running out for extremists on social media
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At the moment, if the police need to get involved, it is the public purse paying for a problem created by Facebook. – Fiyaz Mughal, Founder of TellMAMA
Time is running out for extremists on social media
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The British parliament is considering a law that would force online platforms to ban extremist content while the EU wants to fine sites if they fail to remove content within an hour. (Reuters)
Updated 16 September 2018

Time is running out for extremists on social media

Time is running out for extremists on social media
  • The UK and EU are planning laws to hold Facebook and Twitter accountable for those who hide behind ‘secret’ groups
  • Social media companies fail to act even when online abuse spills over into real life

LONDON: They are the new autocrats. Social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Google rule the world, unhindered by borders and apparently unhampered by regulation. But not, perhaps, for much longer.
The British parliament is to consider introducing a law that would force online platforms to remove and ban extremist content of any nature, whether racist, xenophobic, Islamophobic or sexist. And in Brussels, the EU wants to fine online sites if they fail to remove “illegal and extremist” content within one hour.
But campaigners say such measures — well-intentioned as they are — are doomed to failure.
“The EU directive will change little. Less than 1 percent of the material out there is illegal because the staff on Google remove it automatically anyway. The other 99 percent is not illegal, even if it is extremist in nature,” said Fiyaz Mughal, founder of TellMAMA (Measuring Anti-Muslim Attacks). “This is just political bamboozling.”
In her proposed Online Forums Bill, British member of parliament Lucy Powell aims to “tackle online hate, fake news and radicalization” by a) making moderators and administrators of social media platforms legally responsible for what appears on their sites; and b) making public the name of every secret Facebook group and how many members it has.
Her bill has broad appeal. Powell, a member of the opposition Labour party, has garnered strong support from political opponents in the Conservative party.
She is especially concerned with how Facebook, the world’s most popular social network with 1.8 billion active users, circulates extremist material and opinions through secret or closed groups, where membership is by invitation only. “Social media has given extremists a new tool with which to recruit and radicalize,” she said. “It is something we are frighteningly unequipped to deal with.”
“Worryingly, it is on Facebook, which most of us in Britain use, where people are being exposed to extremist material. Instead of small meetings or obscure websites in the darkest corners of the Internet, our favorite social media site is increasingly where hate is cultivated. Extremist views go unchallenged. Unacceptable language is treated as the norm. There are no societal norms in the dark crevices of the the online world.”
Fiyaz Mughal of TellMAMA agrees; he said he has made the same argument countless times to officials. “I’ve been called in by politicians and senior civil servants dozens of times, both at the Home Office (interior ministry) and the Ministry of Culture, Media and Sport, and what you get is a lot of hand-wringing and talk about free speech,” he said. “The English Defense League, a far-right group, regularly post material which is racist and Islamophobic — extremist — but it is not seen as illegal.”
Closed Facebook groups may disguise their true nature, he said. “There is a group supposedly for atheists which is in reality a forum for the far right. How do we know? Because they sprinkle insignia associated with the (far-right) English Defense League all over the site. That closed group reaches 50,000 to 60,000 people, spreading hate against Muslims. Yet Facebook rejected our complaint, saying it did not contravene their standards.”
Social media companies fail to act even when online abuse spills over into real life, said Mughal. “A Muslim woman got some abuse for something she had said and told the person to go away and leave her alone. The man who posted the abusive comment then turned up at the woman’s workplace and took photos, which he sent to her. It was intimidation, to show her he could get to her.
“The police took action and were willing to arrest the man, but the woman said that would inflame the situation and asked for him to be cautioned only. I reported the incident to Facebook, but it took them four or five months to respond, and even then it was to say it did not contravene their standards. This was clearly a case of harassment and cyber-bullying, which are offenses. They clearly have no understanding of the law so who exactly is setting those standards for Facebook and all the rest?”
In Brussels, the EU has also run out of patience. Back in March, Internet firms were given three months to show they were acting more speedily to keep extremist material off their sites.
But their efforts have failed to impress. In his State of the Union address to the European parliament on Wednesday, EU chief executive Jean-Claude Juncker said that only legislation would force the companies to do the right thing. Under the proposed EU directive, they must within an hour take down any content that incites or advocates extremist offenses or shows how to commit such offenses or promotes extremist groups. If they miss that deadline they will face hefty fines of up to 4 percent of their annual global turnover, although they will also have the right to challenge removal orders. “One hour is the decisive time window (during which) the greatest damage takes place,” Juncker said.
Mughal agreed that “the greatest dissemination of hate” happens in the first hour after posting. But the directive must be accepted by all 28 EU member states and also requires each country to put in place the capacity to identify extremist content online. “But what if the different states have different ideas about what constitutes extremist or hate speech? There is no single set of laws on this and the EU’s snail-like pace in tackling the far right is hardly encouraging.”
There are solutions, he added. One is to re-classify all social media firms as publishers. “Publishers already bear responsibilities under the law, which means they can be taken to court and made to change. Or there should be an independent arbitrator with the power to impose fines. At the moment, if the police need to get involved, it is the public purse paying for a problem created by Facebook.”
In a statement, Facebook defended secret groups as places where people could come together “in a safe way to discuss sensitive issues which might otherwise put them at risk in their society.”
The statement went on: “Like all parts of Facebook, people in these groups must adhere to our Community Standards, which lay out what is and isn’t allowed on our service. These include strict rules around hate speech, harassment, bullying and terrorist and extremist content. When people break these rules, including in secret groups, we take action.”
The company has invested in security to detect problem content “without anyone needing to report it,” and of the 2.5 million pieces of hate speech removed from Facebook since January, 38 percent were “proactively flagged” by Facebook before anyone reported it.
On the EU directive, Facebook said: ”There is no place for terrorism on Facebook, and we share the goal of the European Commission to fight it and believe that it is only through a common effort across companies, civil society and institutions that results can be achieved. We’ve made significant strides finding and removing terrorist propaganda quickly and at scale, but we know we can do more.”
Twitter and Google did not respond to requests for comment.


NEOM CEO talks AI health care, flying taxis with WIRED Middle East

Nasr — who will be appearing on a magazine cover for the first time — shared new details about the use of AI-powered health-care systems and flying taxis. (Supplied/WIRED)
Nasr — who will be appearing on a magazine cover for the first time — shared new details about the use of AI-powered health-care systems and flying taxis. (Supplied/WIRED)
Updated 54 min 10 sec ago

NEOM CEO talks AI health care, flying taxis with WIRED Middle East

Nasr — who will be appearing on a magazine cover for the first time — shared new details about the use of AI-powered health-care systems and flying taxis. (Supplied/WIRED)
  • Saudi Arabia’s Chief Executive of NEOM Nadhmi Al-Nasr has shared new details about the ambitious mega city project
  • The cover issue, which will be released this week, features interviews with key executives from NEOM

DUBAI: Saudi Arabia’s Chief Executive of NEOM Nadhmi Al-Nasr has shared new details about the ambitious mega city project changing the landscape of tackling environmental challenges in urban planning.

“I dream of 200 or 300 years from today, when there is a NEOM model being developed worldwide that has helped reduce emissions, reduce the environmental challenge,” Nasr told WIRED Middle East in a rare media interview.

Nasr — who will be appearing on a magazine cover for the first time — shared new details about the use of AI-powered health-care systems and flying taxis, a press release shared with Arab News said.

The cover issue, which will be released this week, features interviews with key executives from NEOM who paint a picture of how urban planners are attempting to create a city that is expected to span centuries with the use of new technologies.

Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman first announced the project NEOM at the Future Investment Initiative conference in Riyadh 2017. The crown prince said that the 170-km coastal strip in the northwest of the country would be free of cars and streets, with zero carbon emissions.

The smart city will be powered entirely by clean energy, a major step in Saudi Arabia’s shift away from an oil-based economy.

The first phase of the $500 million project is scheduled for completion by 2025.


Veteran producer, cameraman in Iraq dies of COVID-19

Veteran producer, cameraman in Iraq dies of COVID-19
This 2003 photo shows Khodeir Majid at the AP office at the Palestine hotel. (AP)
Updated 17 April 2021

Veteran producer, cameraman in Iraq dies of COVID-19

Veteran producer, cameraman in Iraq dies of COVID-19
  • He went on to cover the breakdown in security and the sectarian bloodbath that prevailed for years, as well as the US occupation, the rise of the Al-Qaeda terror network, and finally, the war against the Daesh group

BEIRUT: Khodeir Majid, who covered Iraq’s numerous conflicts as a video producer and cameraman for The Associated Press for over 17 years, has died, relatives said Friday. He was 64.
The cause of death was complications due to the coronavirus. Majid had been hospitalized for about three weeks, but his condition rapidly deteriorated in the last few days and he died Friday morning.
Majid joined the AP in Baghdad in March 2004, a year after the US-led invasion that toppled Saddam Hussein in 2003. He went on to cover the breakdown in security and the sectarian bloodbath that prevailed for years, as well as the US occupation, the rise of the Al-Qaeda terror network, and finally, the war against the Daesh group.
Killings, kidnappings and bombings were an everyday occurrence, sometimes with multiple bombings on the same day.
Through it all, Majid, known as Abu Amjad to family and friends, was a beloved colleague and a calming presence in the Baghdad bureau. He was a dedicated journalist and a good friend to many, working quietly and behind the scenes to make sure accreditation and paperwork were secured, badges were collected, interviews were nailed and stories were covered. “Abu Amjad was a rare source of joy during difficult times working in Baghdad for the past 17 years. He will be remembered as a kind and dedicated professional,” said Ahmed Sami, the AP’s senior producer in Baghdad.

BACKGROUND

Majid was buried in Iraq’s Shiite city of Najaf Friday. He is survived by his wife and five children.

Samya Kullab, the AP’s correspondent in Baghdad, recalled Majid’s dedication and commitment toward getting evasive ministers and officials to grant the AP interviews. “He chased the Transport Ministry for months recently. ‘He keeps saying next week but don’t worry, I will not stop calling’ — such was his dedication to getting the story.”
“I never forget,” he would say.
Kullab and other Baghdad colleagues also recalled his kindness.
“His wife would make these date biscuits he shared with me on one occasion. I mentioned casually that I liked them,” Kullab said. “The next day I had date biscuits to last a month.”
Majid was buried in Iraq’s Shiite city of Najaf Friday. He is survived by his wife and five children.


Acclaimed Turkish actor sued for ‘insulting president’ with Twitter posts

Acclaimed Turkish actor sued for ‘insulting president’ with Twitter posts
Genco Erkal. (Photo/Twitter)
Updated 18 April 2021

Acclaimed Turkish actor sued for ‘insulting president’ with Twitter posts

Acclaimed Turkish actor sued for ‘insulting president’ with Twitter posts
  • Genco Erkal, one of the most popular stage actors and theatre directors in Turkey, has claimed in speeches that playwrights were censoring their plays to receive financial support from local municipalities

ISTANBUL: Leading Turkish actor Genco Erkal, 83, announced on Saturday that he is facing an investigation for exercising his freedom of expression.

Erkal, an outspoken government critic, is being investigated for “insulting the Turkish president” and will give his testimony on Monday.

His social media postings on Twitter since 2016 are being examined, Erkal said, without giving further details.

“Insulting the president” has become a widespread excuse for launching investigations against prominent popular figures, with several top actors and musicians being investigated despite their age.

Charged with “insulting the president publicly” over critical remarks made during a TV program, veteran actors Mujdat Gezen and Metin Akpinar attended three hearings this year but were acquitted.

On the program, 79-year-old Akpinar blamed the social polarization in the country on the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) and said that “maybe leaders could be hung from their feet or poisoned in cellars” if Turkey’s democratization process couldn’t be achieved peacefully.

During the same broadcast, 77-year-old veteran actor Gezen said, “[Erdogan] tells the people ‘know your place.’ Look Recep Tayyip Erdogan, you cannot test our patriotism. Know your place.”

Genco Erkal, one of the most popular stage actors and theatre directors in Turkey, has claimed in speeches that playwrights were censoring their plays to receive financial support from local municipalities and said that his award-winning theater, Dostlar (Friends) Theatre, had not received any support for years because of the support he gave to the anti-government Gezi protests in 2013.

Dostlar Theatre, founded in 1969, is known for staging plays that are critical of the government’s political line and that try to raise social awareness on specific topics.

In his Twitter posts, Erkal criticized the wrongdoings of the government and highlighted social problems.

Even at his age, Erkal still organizes countrywide tours each year to reach a wider audience in every province of the country and has staged a critical play — “On Living” — about the late Turkish poet Nazim Hikmet.

Erkal recites one of Hikmet’s poems when on tour: “Living is no joke, you must live with great seriousness like a squirrel, for example, I mean expecting nothing except and beyond living, I mean living must be your whole occupation.”

An administrative court in Ankara ruled in 2014 that the refusal of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to offer funding to Erkal’s theater was “against the principles of justice and equality.”

Turkey ranked 154th out of 180 countries in the 2020 Reporters Without Borders’ press freedom index.

Between 2014 and 2019, Turkish authorities launched 128,872 investigations into insults against Erdogan, and Turkish courts sentenced 9,556 of those charged with insulting the president, including politicians, journalists, actors, elder people and even children.


Facebook launches #MonthofGood campaign for Ramadan

Facebook launches #MonthofGood campaign for Ramadan
Updated 17 April 2021

Facebook launches #MonthofGood campaign for Ramadan

Facebook launches #MonthofGood campaign for Ramadan
  • Instagram initially developed its Ideas of Good campaign, now in its third year, as a result of a key insigh

This Ramadan, Facebook is marking the holy month with a global campaign across its family of apps. The #MonthofGood campaign, which brings together Facebook, Instagram, Messenger and WhatsApp, aims to celebrate charity, collaboration and community.

Despite the social distancing resulting from the pandemic, Ramadan remains a time for charity and celebration. Globally, in 2020 people raised twice as much as in 2019 through Ramadan-related fundraisers across Facebook and Instagram. “We saw our users rally behind multiple causes, raising over $5 billion for nonprofits and personal causes through fundraisers on Facebook and Instagram,” Ramez Shehadi, Managing Director at Facebook MENA, told Arab News.

Instagram initially developed its Ideas of Good campaign, now in its third year, as a result of a key insight, said Shehadi, which was that “Ramadan is the kindest time of the year on the platform.”

“In 2019, we saw people post about not only charitable activities, but also finding time to reflect as well as bond with their families,” he said. There were more than 16 million uses of the word Ramadan and references to Ramadan hit 4 million in the 30 days leading up to the holy month. There was a 40 percent growth in the use of the word “kindness” on Instagram across the world in the 30 days leading up to the holy month.

“Last year was drastically different – we saw Muslims around the world spend their first Ramadan in lockdown and it was a unique experience to observe a season known for its strong sense of togetherness and collaboration, in isolation,” he said. However, the Muslim community found new ways of gathering, donating and celebrating virtually, which inspired the initial Instagram campaign.

In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and Turkey, more than 6.5 million people joined the Ramadan-related groups created in 2020. For instance, “LyedFeLyed اليد في اليد ” is a group created last year that aims to connect families in need with donors and associations. “As of May last year, it had already helped 700 families, within days of opening the group,” said Shehadi. Other groups that arose during the pandemic are “Stop and Help”, founded by Heather Harries, her husband and two sons from the UAE, which aims to lift community spirits during the pandemic by offering support to families in need of basic essentials and “UAE Fusion Socialites,” which is founded by Sharjah-based Pakistani mother, Ayesha Sohail, who uses her social media skills to help low-income families.

This year, Facebook has extended the campaign across all its platforms as the #MonthofGood because it’s a “no-brainer,” according to Shehadi. “As a collective for four apps, we have the opportunity to amplify this effect, providing more platforms and more tools for organisations and individuals to explore, express and inspire good.”

Facebook will be running various activations across the globe in locations including India, US, UK, Nigeria and MENA focusing on the pillars of kindness, community and charity.

These include:

“Ideas of Good,” a list of 30 kind deeds and do-good moments to act on virtually.

“Guide to Ramadan” by Canadian creator Sarah Sabry, in collaboration with her Muslim followers.

A pay-it-forward chain globally, which will be kicked off by creators such as Haifa Beseisso, Nabih Alkayali, Raha Moharrak, Logina Salah, and Adel Aladwani in the MENA region.

Live Suhoor Talks, a global series hosted by Muslim creators across the UK, Asia and MENA, featuring weekly conversations about topics ranging from food and fasting to mental health and wellbeing.

Facebook Watch and IGTV series with creators such as Khalid Al-Ameri and Manal Al-Alem and networks MBC, TVision, and Zee Entertainment.

A MENA-specific collaboration with Jordan-based Arabic podcast network Sowt spotlighting inspiring community leaders from the regional diaspora to talk about how they use Facebook Apps for virtual acts of kindness during Ramadan.

Spotlighting zakat-eligible nonprofits such as Rahma Worldwide, UNHCR, Heroic Hearts, Molham Volunteering Team and Zakat Foundation of America with active Ramadan fundraisers and campaigns to provide food baskets, supplies and medical aid to orphans, widows and refugees.

Additionally, Facebook will spotlight small and medium businesses (SMBs) that have inspired good this Ramadan. “These are businesses that have gone above and beyond to help people around them and their communities, with their acts of charity and kindness,” said Shehadi.

The increased time spent on Facebook’s apps during the holy month also presents a significant opportunity for advertisers. “Ramadan is one of the biggest and longest global festive moments. Given the current circumstances we are in, people need positivity during the holy month and therefore feel-good themes always work at Ramadan if you do it right.”

“It’s also powerful if you can connect people to a real-life opportunity to do good,” he said. For instance, in 2018, Facebook partnered with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the creative agency Leo Burnett Beirut to boost blood donations during Ramadan in a campaign called “Giving is in your blood,” which reached more than 28 million people across the Middle East and increased blood donations by 36 percent on average.

“We see a lot of brands engage with consumers in a personalised and relevant way during Ramadan too,” he added. For instance, Nestlé MENA developed a bilingual, informative bot for Messenger, in partnership with Facebook’s Creative Shop, that raised awareness of the content and services provided by its brands during Ramadan and helped Nestlé to gain insights about its consumers’ eating habits and preferences.


Why technology meant to bring humanity closer is driving it apart

In this photo illustration, a Twitter logo is displayed on a mobile phone with a President Trump's picture shown in the background on May 27, 2020, in Arlington, Virginia. (AFP/File Photo)
In this photo illustration, a Twitter logo is displayed on a mobile phone with a President Trump's picture shown in the background on May 27, 2020, in Arlington, Virginia. (AFP/File Photo)
Updated 17 April 2021

Why technology meant to bring humanity closer is driving it apart

In this photo illustration, a Twitter logo is displayed on a mobile phone with a President Trump's picture shown in the background on May 27, 2020, in Arlington, Virginia. (AFP/File Photo)
  • Modern Arab writers ponder why digital tools are not making societies more tolerant, cosmopolitan and sociable
  • The same technology that accelerated globalization seems to have left many feeling more isolated and intolerant of others

DUBAI: If asked, most people would likely admit that they would have struggled to survive the mental toll of isolation brought about by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic without access to social media, online shopping, and video conferencing to make up for the loss of human contact.

And yet, these very same technologies, which have accelerated globalization and brought distant cultures together for the first time at the tap of a keypad, have in fact left many feeling more lonely, alienated, and inward-looking than ever before.

Far from making societies more tolerant, cosmopolitan, and sociable, the addiction to mobile devices, “likes” as a form of validation, and the instant gratification of streaming and home delivery has left many people aggressively intolerant, proudly parochial, and unhealthily introverted.

Activists of United Hindu Front (UHF) hold placards and a picture of Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg during a demonstration in New Delhi on February 4, 2021. (AFP/File Photo)

“Globalization has brought us all together in one world forum, where we are all assembled,” said Amin Maalouf, one of the world’s foremost modern Arab writers and author of Adrift: How Our World Lost its Way among other books.

“But being assembled didn’t make us closer to each other. It made us look for what differentiates us from the person next to us.”

Participating in this year’s Dubai-hosted Emirates Airline Festival of Literature, the Paris-based Lebanese-born French author described the situation as “the great paradox” of our time.

Paris-based Lebanese-born French author Amin Maalouf, one of the world’s foremost modern Arab writers. (AFP/File Photo)

“We are more and more like each other, we have the same vision of the world, and the same instruments in our hands, and we know the same things. We have the same aspirations. Yet, at the same time, we want to think that we are very different,” he said.

Anyone who has ever shared an unpopular opinion on social media will tell you how tribal and dogmatic internet users can be from the safety of online anonymity. Political disagreements can take the form of personal, vitriolic attacks, while facts are often brushed aside in place of tropes and conspiracies.

These disagreements may not be such a big problem if they remained online. But as was demonstrated by the US Capitol riots on Jan. 6, unsubstantiated claims about election fraud were enough to incite real-world mob violence.

With so many sources of biased information and agenda-driven news on the world wide web, all of them competing for hits, clicks, and shares to shape the mainstream narrative, it is hard to know who or what to trust.

As a result, members of the public often fall back on familiar narratives and imagined communities in place of rigorous fact-checking and openness to differing viewpoints.

South Korea, after boasting for years advanced technology from high-speed Internet to Samsung smartphones, is now taking pains to try to pull its tech-crazed youth away from digital addiction. (AFP/File Photo)

“I think it is very normal, because we have been brought together very quickly by the acceleration of science and technology and we have not yet assimilated,” Maalouf added.

“But one can be confident in the long run. The main trend is a trend toward unifying the world, unifying humankind, which will eventually, one day, become a nation of very different people, but having a sense of common destiny.

“But, in the short run, the affirmation of specific identities is more and more aggressive, and it will take time to accept the reality created by new technology.”

The Middle East and North Africa are among the world’s top regions for internet penetration. According to Internet World Stats, which tracks global internet usage, social media engagement, and online market research, almost 67 percent of the region was plugged in by 2019 compared to the world average of 58.8 percent.

Saudi Arabia, similar to other Gulf states, scored especially high by this metric. The Kingdom’s internet penetration among its 35.3 million-strong population stood at more than 90 percent, exposing Arabs to a world of ideas and identities, but also its divisions.

The paradox explored by Maalouf was widely acknowledged by the literary community that participated in the Emirates Airline Festival of Literature.

Virtual platforms like Netflix and Zoom have emerged as lifelines for a pandemic-hit world forced indoors, but in sanctioned Syria where both websites are blocked, people feel increasingly disconnected. (AFP/File Photo)

Saudi novelist Badriah Al-Bishr, the first woman to win the Arab Press Award for best newspaper column in 2011, told Arab News that although the adoption of new technologies was a major achievement for humankind, it had led to an information overload.

“Information is not knowledge. We formulate knowledge from data, the same way we bake bread from flour. Technology is a positive for humanity — the issue is how it is used,” she said.

To sift through this ocean of data, tech firms have created sophisticated algorithms based on interactions to target users with relevant content. However, the algorithms used by social media giants, such as Facebook, can “lock” users into a narrow, blinkered worldview of “what it thinks they want to see. This is the danger of algorithms,” Ahlam Bolooki, director of the Emirates Airline Festival of Literature, told Arab News.

In August, five months before the US Capitol riots, data scientists working for Facebook warned the company’s top executives that the platform was playing host to a worrying number of groups promoting hate speech.

Facebook usage has held steady in the US despite a string of controversies about the leading social network, even as younger users tap into rival platforms such as TikTok, a survey showed on April 7, 2021. (AFP/File Photo)

Internal documents seen by The Wall Street Journal in January said, “70 percent of the top 100 most active US civic groups are considered non-recommendable for issues such as hate, misinformation, bullying, and harassment.”

Executives were told one of the groups with the highest level of engagement “aggregates the most inflammatory news stories of the day and feeds them to a vile crowd that immediately and repeatedly calls for violence.”

The researchers added: “We need to do something to stop these conversations from happening and growing as quickly as they do.”

Facebook has since pledged to overhaul its algorithms.

Al-Bishr noted that the pace of change was also causing a generational rift.

A Twitter logo is displayed on a mobile phone with President Trump's Twitter page shown in the background, the account of whom was suspended following a string of unsubstantiated claims on the platform. (AFP/File Photo)

“The millennium generation, which was born during this period of technological advancement, believes this is what life is — they don’t know what they are missing. But we, the older generation, can see the gaps,” she added.

Naouel Chaoui, an Algerian-Italian who runs a popular book club that was forced online during the COVID-19 pandemic, pointed out that technology, despite its practicality, was no substitute for human contact.

“Because of technology, we are losing the need for contact, real contact, human contact; a tap on the shoulder, a hug. Body language is a huge part of our communication, which, when missing, loses its authentic expression,” she told Arab News.

“I feel that the new generations are missing this crucial part of getting together. They meet through games, over screens, or through their phones.”

Perhaps one solution, once the pandemic has passed, would be for people to unplug a little more often, challenge their preconceptions, and expand their horizons.

Elif Shafak, a prominent British-Turkish author, speaking during her session. (Supplied)

Elif Shafak, a prominent British-Turkish author, whose work has been translated into 54 languages, said experiencing a diversity of viewpoints was vital to the learning process.

“We humans don’t learn through repetition. We don’t learn as much from sameness as we learn from differences,” Shafak, the author of 10 Minutes 38 Seconds in This Strange World and The Forty Rules of Love, told the Emirates Airline Festival of Literature.

“When people from different backgrounds with different stories come together, they challenge each other, and they help each other’s cognitive flexibility, shifting perspectives.

“I am a big believer in the importance of cosmopolitan encounters, in the importance of bringing people with different stories together and letting them talk to each other.”

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Twitter: @jumanaaltamimi