Dismantling the oil industry: Rough North Sea waters test new ideas

A workman on board an oil platform in the Clair Ridge oilfield in the North Sea, 45 miles off the coast of Scotland. (AFP)
Updated 27 November 2018

Dismantling the oil industry: Rough North Sea waters test new ideas

  • Aging oil fields in UK could be worth up to £17 billion
  • Platforms removed piece by piece in lengthy process

LONDON: Scottish marine salvage group Ardent is adapting the tanks it used to refloat the Costa Concordia, the cruise ship wrecked off the Italian coast in 2012, to decommission North Sea oil platforms.
It is one of several companies trying new ideas to win business in the market for dismantling disused oil platforms.
In Britain’s aging oil fields alone, the opportunities could be worth up to £17 billion ($21.85 billion) before 2025, according to industry body Oil and Gas UK. The ideas could then be deployed to other maturing fields such as in the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Asia.
Ardent says it needs at least two companies to sign up for a project to get off the ground. Well-Safe, another company offering a new approach, also needs several operators to commit.
So far, Ardent has found it challenging to persuade companies to be the first to sign up.
“Everyone is queuing to be second,” said Ardent’s Decommissioning Director Stuart Martin.
Oil companies are keen to reduce costs in a part of the market dominated by major global players such as TechnipFMC , Schlumberger, Saipem and AllSeas.
Beyond the floating tanks, Ardent has also joined forces with oil services firm WorleyParsons and technology and shipping group Lloyd’s Register, to bring a one-stop-shop service.
This could save money by cutting out the need for lots of different contractors. Well-Safe proposes coordinating decommissioning work across companies to share equipment and staff.
“You got to give Well-Safe and the others a real tip of the hat. We all want them to win. It’s in the best interest of the industry,” said Jim House, CEO of Neptune Energy, which is planning decommissioning for its Juliet and Minke fields in the North Sea.
Oil platforms are usually removed piece by piece and taken to the shore using complex vessels. The floating tanks that Ardent used to lift the Costa Concordia, are much cheaper to use, industry experts say.
“This technology could have significant potential cost efficiencies,” the Oil and Gas Technology Center, which is funded by the British government, said in a report.
But Ardent says it would need contracts for at least two buoyant tanks to go below current costs per ton of steel removed and three to get below its target cost reduction of around a third. Britain’s industry regulator, the Oil and Gas Authority, has set a target of 35 percent cost cuts compared with 2015 levels.
Well-Safe’s main lever for cost reduction also depends on several operators committing to contracts.
Ardent is also proposing to oversee a project from production to scrapping the metal onshore. Worley Parsons would operate the platform and maintain the equipment and Lloyd’s Register would plug the wells.
“It’s a lot about an emerging set of companies and we don’t yet know which is going to be the winning model,” said Boston Consulting Group’s Philip Whittaker.
With other fields maturing and drying up across the world and some experts expecting demand for oil to peak in the 2030s, the North Sea is a test bed for new decommissioning projects.
If a company can plug oil wells without leaks and remove thousands of tons of steel platforms and pipelines, some 50 years old, in the rough, deep seas between Scotland, England and Norway, they should be able to do it anywhere.
Industry body Oil and Gas UK, expects oil companies to spend £17 billion ($22.05 billion) on removing around 1,600 wells, 100 platforms, and 5,500 kilometers of pipelines in the next seven years. Some 840,000 tons of material will be returned to shore to meet environmental regulations.
“We’ve got a mature basin with a steady flow of work,” said Joe Laesk, decommissioning manager at Oil and Gas UK.
“Those resources and expertise can be exportable globally.”
The Gulf of Mexico has had decommissioning projects in its warm, calm waters for years but Southeast Asia is a new hot spot, with more than 1,500 platforms and 7,000 subsea wells expected to be uneconomical by 2038, according to the BCG.
That is followed by Latin America, West Africa and the Middle East Gulf.
With so much potential, more established players are also trying different approaches to make decommissioning cheaper.
Service vessel group Allseas is experimenting with new ideas. It specializes in subsea construction but is converting huge ships to lift structures as heavy as 48,000 tons in one haul.
“We lift in a matter of hours and we’re gone,” said Allseas President Edward Heerema.
The first job for Allseas’ Pioneering Spirit, the biggest construction vessel in the world, was in the Norwegian North Sea removing Repsol’s 13,500 ton Yme production unit.
Shell also used it to remove its 24,000 ton Brent Delta platform in 2017.
“We have taken substantial costs out of our major decommissioning project, the Brent, and we will continue to do so,” said Steve Phimister, head of Shell’s North Sea upstream.
“The whole industry needs to do that by innovating.”


INTERVIEW: ‘A rule for life — don’t lose money’

Updated 17 November 2019

INTERVIEW: ‘A rule for life — don’t lose money’

  • The Blackstone co-founder talks about his career at the top of the financial tree — and Saudi Arabia’s ambitious transformation plans

DUBAI: I must confess I was a little nervous about telling Stephen Schwarzman, co-founder and CEO of the gigantic financial group Blackstone, that I had not read every single word of his recently published book “What is Takes — Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence.”

Ahead of our intercontinental conference-call interview, his aides had told me that he could work out pretty quickly if an interviewer had read it or not, and a recent interview in the Financial Times had made the point that he is not the type of man to indulge perceived lapses equably.

There was a long silence when I told him that, although I had read large chunks of it, I had not quite finished it, but I needn’t have worried. I have seen Schwarzman speak on many occasions, most recently at the Future Investment Initiative in Riyadh, and he was as pleasant and softly spoken on the phone with me as he had invariably been on those occasions. No expletives or combativeness during our phone call.

Schwarzman is pretty high up the list of the most powerful people in the world. Worth some $18 billion, he is one of the financial “masters of the universe” who count presidents, kings and princes among his circle of friends, and who has the fate of hundreds of thousands of employees in Blackstone’s portfolio companies in his hands.

Why did he write the book, which is a mixture of autobiographical memoire and self-help advice?

“I was mostly trying to give people advice and used myself as a literary device. My life’s been pretty interesting, and I’m writing about the types of things that happen to almost everyone — how through dejection and disappointment you scramble to reinvent yourself and learn from your mistakes to establish a new paradigm,” he explained.

The message from the book seems to be encapsulated in the first of his “25 rules for work and life”: “It’s as easy to do something big as to do something small, so reach for a fantasy worthy of your pursuit, with rewards commensurate with your effort.”

The response to publication has been “marvellous,” he said, including a story about a woman who had passed it on to her children as a primer for life.

Schwarzman’s own life is one that, arguably, could only have been possible in the post-war US. From small-town beginnings in suburban Philadelphia, the son of second generation immigrants who ran a linen store, he worked hard at school, got into Yale, was a track-star who signed up for the Vietnam-era army reserve and ended on Wall Street, after Harvard Business School.

A decade of fast-learning at Lehman Brothers in the 1970s — where he rose to be head of global mergers and acquisitions — gave way to disillusionment when the venerable firm was sold, and gave him the spark for what was to become Blackstone, one of the world’s foremost private equity investors.

I suggested that he had “invented” the private equity business, but he was not having that. “Inventing may be a bit too grand. What we did do was invent in effect the full-line alternative assets firm, you could call it the full-line private equity firm, which doesn’t just buy companies, which a normal private equate firm does. We also buy real estate, we also lend money, we buy credit products, we also have a big hedge fund operation.


BIO

Born: Philadelphia, US, 1947

Education

  • Abingdon Senior High School, Philadelphia
  • Yale University, bachelor of arts
  • Harvard Business School, master’s in business administration.

Career

  • Analyst, Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette.
  • Managing director and head of global M&A, Lehman Brothers.
  • Co-founder and CEO, Blackstone.
  • Numerous political advisory and philanthropic positions.

 

“We started out with one private equity fund, but we now have over 50 different business lines. We were pioneers in looking at new things that could be done within a private framework. Our high performance products typically earn double the stock market and almost never lose money,” he said.

He and his co-founder, Peter Peterson, put $400,000 into Blackstone in 1985. The firm now has $554 billion in assets and $62 billion in market value. Innovation has been the key to that success, identifying new sectors, new geographies and new financial products.

But old-fashioned bricks-and-mortar has also played a big role. Schwarzman saw a buying opportunity in the US real estate market when property prices fell, and Blackstone is now the “largest owner of real estate in the world,” he said.

I asked whether the current trend for valuation was up or down — for instance in New York.

His response echoed the recent comments from his friend President Donald Trump who moved his permanent residence from his home town to Florida. “New York has some special circumstances and doesn’t have as good prospects as some other places. We have extremely high taxes in New York which discourages people,” he said.

I think the Kingdom has got very ambitious plans for both growth and reform, individual rights especially for women.

 

Other parts of the US real estate market are more appealing. “You do the best typically when you buy near water, so the east and west coasts tend to be the best places to buy.” But the best property asset classes are warehouses, he said, which are benefiting from the logistics boom brought about by the likes of Amazon’s home delivery services. He has around $1 billion in warehouse assets.

Blackstone went public in 2007, just ahead of the global financial which it navigated much more successfully than many on Wall Street, including his old employer Lehman Brothers which became the largest bankruptcy in American history.

Schwarzman was able to use to broad spread of Blacktone’s global business to “see what was going on, this massive housing bubble,” before the crisis hit. He stopped investment in some real estate projects, sold down property related loans and shorted sub-prime mortgages, even making some money out of the meltdown, though he admits to some “very minimal damage.”

“We had exited, while many of the others were like the people sitting on a beach in Thailand watching the tsunami coming in. We were already a few miles inland by the time it hit,” he said. Blackstone has grown sixfold since the crisis.

Another reason for my initial trepidation on talking to Schwarzman was a warning from his advisers not to ask him too early in the conversation about the Middle East. For the past few years, he has been a confidant and business partner of Saudi Arabia, appearing on panels and forums in the Kingdom and speaking supportively of the Vision 2030 strategy, but the region does not figure too prominently in the book.

Founded in 1985 with with just a $400,000 capital, Blackstone now has $554 billion in assets and $62 billion in market value. (AP file photo)

 

There are only a couple of references to the Gulf — a capital-raising trip in the early 1990s that “bombed,” and a Kuwait-Dubai visit that nearly turned into disaster when a colleague had to be evacuated after a medical emergency by a private plane that developed engine trouble over Iran. (All ended well.)

The book ends before his most recent involvement with Saudi Arabia, the $40 billion infrastructure fund jointly invested with the Public Investment Fund, but he is happy to update his relationship with the Middle East.

“We have extensive relationships with the region. Let me give you some perspective: Since my first trip to Riyadh, it has grown seven times in population; many of the roads were dirt roads back then, but now the city is a huge, super-modern city. It’s changing so fast.

“I was in Kuwait six weeks after the Iraqi invasion was thrown back, and you could still smell cordite and see bullet holes all over. That’s where we got our first money in the region, the Kuwaitis were so grateful and we were the first Americans many of them had seen,” he said.

Saudi Arabia has been a Blackstone focus for the past couple of years. “I think the Kingdom has got very ambitious plans for both growth and reform, individual rights especially for women. Those are all good things.

“There’s a huge emphasis on the digital economy there, which is quite unusual by the historic background, and 70 percent of the population is under 30. There has been a positive response from them for what is going on there,” he added.

The $40 billion fund with PIF was “going quite well,” he said, especially against the background of low interest rates. He and PIF have bought one of the biggest ports businesses in north America and a big US pipeline business.

Like many wealthy self-made men, philanthropy is an increasing element of his personal philosophy. Schwarzman estimated he has given away something over $1 billion to a variety of philanthropic ventures, ranging from a cultural center at Yale University to the biggest ever donation to a British educational institute, a £150 million ($193 million) gift to Oxford University.

He seems most proud of the Schwarzman Scholars, a program at Tsinghua University in China which he hopes will help defuse the tensions between the US and China that have resulted in trade wars that have damaged the global economy.

That fits in perfectly with the Schwarzman philosophy. Rule number 19 in his 25-item list is: “Don’t lose money,” but he noted: “You might say that’s the No.1 rule.”