Attacks around Afghanistan kill at least 23

Attacks around Afghanistan kill at least 23
Covered bodies of civilians lie in the back of a vehicle in front of the Helmand Provincial Government Office in Lashkar Gah, south of Kabul on Jan. 7, 2021. (AP)
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Updated 07 January 2021

Attacks around Afghanistan kill at least 23

Attacks around Afghanistan kill at least 23
  • In southern Uruzgan province, a suicide car bomber detonated a vehicle full of explosives early Thursday near a military base

KABUL, Afghanistan: Attacks in Afghanistan left at least 23 civilians and security forces dead, officials said Thursday, even as Afghan negotiators were in Qatar to resume talks with the Taliban aimed at finding an end to decades of conflict.
In southern Uruzgan province, a suicide car bomber detonated a vehicle full of explosives early Thursday near a military base, killing six security forces, said a provincial council member who was not authorized to speak with the media.
Mohammad Karim Karimi, deputy head of the provincial council in Uruzgan, confirmed the attack on the military base in Tirin Kot, the provincial capital, but couldn’t provide an exact death toll. He said the explosion was so strong it sent shock waves through the city.
In southern Helmand province, at least five civilians were killed and five others wounded in a suspected airstrike late Wednesday on the outskirts of Lashkar Gah, the provincial capital, according to Attaullah Afghan, head of the provincial council. He said the casualties included children and women.
Abdul Nabi Elham, provincial governor, said officials were investigating to determine whether the assault was an airstrike or some other type of attack.
No one immediately claimed responsibility for either attack.
In northern Kunduz province, Taliban fighters stormed a military checkpoint killing at least 12 security personnel, said a provincial official who was not authorized to speak with the media.
He said about 10 other security forces were missing and may have been taken into custody by the Taliban during the attack. The official said reinforcements were dispatched to the area outside the provincial capital Kunduz.
Two military vehicles were destroyed and weapons and ammunition from the checkpoint were seized by the insurgents, he added.
Inamuddin Rahmani, spokesman for the provincial police chief in Kunduz, confirmed the Taliban attack.
Zabihullah Mujahid, a Taliban spokesman, claimed responsibility for the attack and said Taliban fighters killed around 15 security forces and arrested 11 others.
Mujahid said seven security forces were killed at the checkpoint and eight others from reinforcement units were also killed.
An Afghan negotiating team is in Qatar’s capital of Doha to resume talks aimed at finding an end to decades of relentless conflict even as violence has spiked across the country. The stop-and-go talks come amid growing doubt over a US-Taliban peace deal brokered by outgoing President Donald Trump.


Exclusive: Ethiopian survivors retell horrors of last month’s ‘Houthi holocaust’

Exclusive: Ethiopian survivors retell horrors of last month’s ‘Houthi holocaust’
Updated 4 min 5 sec ago

Exclusive: Ethiopian survivors retell horrors of last month’s ‘Houthi holocaust’

Exclusive: Ethiopian survivors retell horrors of last month’s ‘Houthi holocaust’
  • Witness testimonies confirm that racism underlies Houthis’ abuse of Africans trapped in Yemen
  • Lawyer says 10 women taken to hospital after the March 7 fire are now nowhere to be found

NEW YORK CITY: When Abdel Karim Ibrahim Mohammed, 23, fled the recent violence consuming Ethiopia’s Oromia region, he never imagined he would fall into the hands of Yemen’s Houthis.

In fact, like many of his compatriots desperate to escape conflict-ridden Ethiopia, he had not even heard of the Iran-backed militia, which seized control of Yemen’s capital Sanaa in 2015.

When he first set out on his dangerous voyage across the Red Sea, Abdel Karim had envisioned an arduous overland crossing to one of the Arab Gulf states where opportunity and prosperity awaited him.

Events had taken a frightening turn in his native Ethiopia, where the security situation has continued to deteriorate amid growing unrest and political tensions. Human rights abuses, attacks by armed groups and communal and ethnic violence have forced thousands to seek refuge abroad.

Abdel Karim’s first encounter with the Houthis came just two days after his arrival in Sanaa, when two militiamen approached him in a marketplace. They singled him out in the crowd and demanded to see his ID.

Without so much as glancing at his papers, he was placed under arrest and taken to the city’s Immigration, Passport and Naturalization Authority (IPNA) Holding Facility, where he found hundreds of African migrants languishing.

Among them was Issa Abdul Rahman Hassan, 20, who had been working a shift at a Sanaa restaurant to save for his journey when Houthi militiamen stormed in and carried him off to the detention center.

There he was placed inside a hangar with dozens of others. In a video recorded three months after his arrival, Issa gestures around him. “Look, we are living on top of each other. We have no food. No water. Some people are exhausted, as you can see. They just sleep night and day.

“We don’t even have medicine here. And organizations like UNHCR do not care about us. All of us here are Oromo,” he said, referring to Ethiopia’s largest ethnic group.

Human Rights Watch has corroborated several accounts like Issa’s, describing conditions in the detention center as “cramped and unsanitary, with up to 550 migrants in a hangar in the facility compound.”

On March 7, unable to tolerate these conditions any longer, the migrants went on hunger strike.

According to witness testimonies, the camp’s Houthi guards told the migrants to say their “final prayers” before firing tear gas and what may have been a flash grenade into the hangar. A fire quickly broke out.

Amid the smoke and chaos, migrants trampled one another in their desperation to escape. According to Houthi accounts, 40 migrants succumbed to the smoke and flames. Human rights groups put the figure closer to 450 — not to mention the scores of burn victims and amputees.

Abdel Karim was in the bathroom when the fire broke out. He survived, but suffered severe burns to his arms. He was taken to a government hospital, where he could see from the window a heavy security presence deployed around the medical facility, blocking relatives and aid agencies from reaching the injured.

Afraid he would be rearrested, Abdel Karim discharged himself and escaped.

Despite his injuries, he joined survivors and relatives of the dead outside the UNHCR building in Sanaa to demand international action to hold the perpetrators to account.

They also demanded the names of all those killed, dignified funerals and closure for the families of those still missing.

“UNHCR did not respond to us,” Abdel Karim said in a video, shared with Arab News by the Oromia Human Rights Organization (OHRO).

“Only two days after the protests began, a UNHCR guy came out and told us that they (the agency’s staff) are also refugees like us here, guests who are incapable of doing anything. He told us that since 2016, the refugee file has been in the hands of the Houthis.”

Undeterred, the crowd refused to leave, camping outside the UNHCR building for several weeks. Then, in the early hours of April 2, Houthi militiamen cordoned off the area, and dispersed the protesters with tear gas and live rounds.

“They hit us, dragged us by force, took our fingerprints and photographed us, before loading some of us into cars and shuttling us to the city of Dhamar, where they abandoned us in the rugged mountainous areas,” said Abdel Karim.

“We knew nothing and no one there. We just kept walking. We had no food, no water and hardly any money. When we stopped at one of the small villages, one of us got a bottle of water, and we passed it on to one another. There was only enough water to wet the tips of our tongues.”

The group eventually made it to Aden two days later. From the UNHCR’s headquarters in the port city, Abdel Karim asked to be taken to hospital to have his burns treated.

According to Arafat Jibril, head of OHRO, only 220 of the 2,000 detainees at the detention facility on the day of the fire made it to Aden. The fate of the others remains unknown.

“African migrants just keep disappearing,” Jibril told Arab News. “The numbers of the forcibly disappeared are on the rise. But we have no means of knowing the exact numbers. This would be the job of international organizations, provided they are given access to secret detention centers, many of which are in Sanaa.”

INNUMBERS

550 Migrants in the IPNA hangar before March 7 fire.

6,000 Migrants in detention in mainly Houthi-controlled Yemen.

Source: Human Rights Watch

As a lawyer and activist, Jibril collects eyewitness testimonies from inside Houthi-occupied territories in the form of secret WhatsApp recordings made by determined volunteers compelled to expose the horrors they see committed against African migrants.

Piecing together what happened to the disappeared is proving a challenge. “We know, for example, that 10 women who were taken to hospital are now nowhere to be found,” she said.

“We know that detentions of African migrants are continuing on a large scale, and that there is a long ‘wanted’ list, including the names of protest ringleaders and those migrants who talked to the press.

“And we know that the Houthis sort the migrants out. They send the young and healthy to war, and position them at the forefront of the trenches so ‘the blacks’ — as the Houthis call the African migrants — would die first. We have heard many accounts like that from those who survived the battles and returned to their families.

“They send African women to the battlefield, too, referring to them as Zaynabiyat (the Houthis’ all-female militia), to do the cooking and other services. At least 180 women and 30 children who had been detained were kidnapped two days before the fire. We also know nothing about them.”

Few doubt that racism lies at the core of this maltreatment.

“Shortly after the tragic fire, Houthis were bullying the African migrants, hurling racial slurs at them, calling them ‘the grandchildren of Bilal’ — the Ethiopian companion of the Prophet and the first muezzin in Islam — and threatening ‘to burn you one by one like we burned your friends’,” Jibril said.

She fears these examples are just the tip of the iceberg in a largely overlooked tragedy that, despite its increasing severity, has failed to capture the interest of the international community.

The Houthis are well aware that African migrants have no one looking out for their interests.

“No organization to protect them,” said Jibril. “No one. So, the Houthis say, ‘let’s use them’. The only ‘sin’ these migrants committed was that they were born black.”

_____________________

Twitter: @EphremKossaify


Wrestler representing UK slams ‘cruel’ immigration policy after wife refused visa

Muhammad Mokaev, 20, fled persecution in his native Dagestan in Russia to settle in Britain in 2012. (Twitter/Screenshot/@muhammadmokaev)
Muhammad Mokaev, 20, fled persecution in his native Dagestan in Russia to settle in Britain in 2012. (Twitter/Screenshot/@muhammadmokaev)
Updated 17 April 2021

Wrestler representing UK slams ‘cruel’ immigration policy after wife refused visa

Muhammad Mokaev, 20, fled persecution in his native Dagestan in Russia to settle in Britain in 2012. (Twitter/Screenshot/@muhammadmokaev)
  • Russian-born Muhammad Mokaev said he was “surprised” at the decision

LONDON: A wrestler who has won gold medals for Britain has hit out at the UK’s “cruel” immigration policy after his wife was refused a visa to enter the country.

Muhammad Mokaev, 20, fled persecution in his native Dagestan in Russia to settle in Britain in 2012, and had applied for a visa for his wife so that she could meet his father for the first time.

Mokaev, a professional wrestler, said he was “surprised” after the UK Home Office declined a visitor’s visa for Khava Eldarbekova in February, the Independent reported.

The Home Office said it was “not satisfied” Eldarbekova would leave the UK, as the couple had not provided enough evidence of sufficient ties to Russia, her home country, or Bahrain, where she resides.

The couple applied again, but were refused once more after she failed to “explain the source” of £4,884 ($6,756) in her bank account, which immigration officials said could have “been inflated for the purposes of obtaining an entry clearance.”

Mokaev said the money was” not criminal” and had been earned via a medical therapy job.

“It’s not a lot of money to hold on an account. It’s not criminal. We have no criminal record. She’s not going to stay in the UK illegally. We showed everything on the papers,” he said.

“And there was exactly the same amount of money in her bank account the first time but they didn’t include it in that refusal, only the second time it was an issue. Why didn’t they include it the first time?”

The six-time British wrestling champion told the Independent that the situation was impacting his ability to perform in the sport.

“It is very hard to stay focused with this situation going on and not knowing what’s going to happen,” he said.

“In March, I had a fight in Bahrain, but I had to be in a visa center in the morning. I missed the bus going to the arena. I was meant to be there for media, medicals and signings for sponsors, but I was in the visa center until 1 p.m to sort out the application. It was a headache,” he added.

The couple said they have spent £2,500 on submitting two applications, but with no right to appeal as per UK immigration rules, they warn that they face no choice but to try for a third time or give up.


Egyptian among militants killed in Philippines firefight

Egyptian among militants killed in Philippines firefight
Updated 17 April 2021

Egyptian among militants killed in Philippines firefight

Egyptian among militants killed in Philippines firefight
  • “One less suicide bomber,” says Philippines army chief after troops kill 3 fighters
  • The bodies of the dead militants, along with their assault rifles, a grenade launcher and bandoliers of ammunition, were recovered

MANILA: An Egyptian national was among three militants killed in a clash with government forces late on Friday in the southern Philippines province of Sulu, officials said.
Western Mindanao Command chief Lt. Gen. Corleto Vinluan, Jr. said the firefight took place around 10:45 p.m. in the Igasan village of Patikul town.
Troops carrying out operations in the area clashed with members of the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) — a terror unit led by Mudzrimar “Mundi” Sawadjaan and with links to Daesh — in an exchange that lasted about 10 minutes.
The bodies of the dead militants, along with their assault rifles, a grenade launcher and bandoliers of ammunition, were recovered.
Officials told Arab News that information provided by villagers helped troops trace the militants.
Wesmincom spokesperson Lt. Col. Alaric Delos Santos said the Egyptian, identified as Yusof, was the son of two foreign militants who died in separate suicide attacks in Basilan and Sulu provinces in 2018 and 2019.
Yusof was one of the five remaining foreign terrorists being monitored in the southern Philippines.
His father, a Moroccan identified as Abu Khatir Al-Maghribi, staged the first reported suicide bombing in the Philippines, which took place at a military roadblock in Lamitan, Basilan, in July, 2018.
Eleven people were killed in the incident, including Al-Maghribi, who drove the bomb-laden van used in the attack.
Yusof’s mother, Reda Mohammed Mahmud, was identified as the Egyptian national involved in a foiled suicide bombing at an army base in Indanan town in Sulu province in September, 2019.
Mahmud, who died when she detonated the bomb, was the lone fatality.
According to Delos Santos, Yusof’s family arrived in Mindanao in 2018 and subsequently joined the late Hatib Hadjan Sawadjaan, the ASG leader designated as Daesh emir in the Philippines.
“He was still young when his parents brought him to Sulu about four years ago,” Delos Santos told Arab News.
The family also had been seen in videos of encounters between the ASG and government forces obtained by the military.
Following her husband’s death, Yusof’s mother married another Egyptian suicide bomber identified only as Abduramil, who was killed in a clash at an army checkpoint in November, 2019.
The military said then that the killing of Abduramil and his two companions helped thwart an “imminent suicide attack.”
Lt. Jerrica Manongdo, a spokesperson for the Joint Task Force Sulu, told Arab News that Yusof had been “tagging along” with Mundi Sawadjaan, a notorious ASG leader and bomb-maker, and was reportedly “volunteering to be a suicide bomber.”
Sawadjaan helped plan the bloody 2019 Sulu Cathedral attack, which left dozens dead, and other suicide bombings in the island province.
“This is one less suicide bomber,” Joint Task Force Sulu and 11th Infantry Division Commander Maj. Gen. William Gonzales said of Yusof’s death.
“I commend our ground forces for this monumental accomplishment. These neutralized terrorists are the cohorts of Mundi in executing atrocities. Without them, the possibility of another attack is slimmer,” he said in a statement.
“Moreover, financial support sent to ASG in Sulu from their foreign terrorist affiliates are cut off. We are optimistic that Mundi will soon meet his end.”
Gonzales said that air, naval and ground forces are being used in all-out offensive against the remaining foreign terrorists and ASG members in the province.
“We are coordinating with local leaders to ensure the safety of the people,” he added.
Besides Yusof, Abu Khattab Jundullah, known as “Saddam,” a trained bomb-maker, and another ASG member yet to be identified were also killed in Friday’s military operation.
Since January, the Joint Task Force Sulu has accounted for 70 ASG members, seven of whom were captured, while 60 surrendered and three were killed.
Delos Santos said that “the remaining number of ASG militants is between 50 to 70.”
But he voiced optimism that the military “can soon bring an end to this small but violent militant group.”


Queen Elizabeth II stands alone to bid farewell to her ‘strength’ Prince Philip

Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in St. George’s Chapel during the funeral of Prince Philip, the man who had been by her side for 73 years, at Windsor Castle, Windsor, England. (AP)
Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in St. George’s Chapel during the funeral of Prince Philip, the man who had been by her side for 73 years, at Windsor Castle, Windsor, England. (AP)
Updated 17 April 2021

Queen Elizabeth II stands alone to bid farewell to her ‘strength’ Prince Philip

Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in St. George’s Chapel during the funeral of Prince Philip, the man who had been by her side for 73 years, at Windsor Castle, Windsor, England. (AP)
  • The queen in 1997 described Philip as her "strength and stay" over their decades of marriage
  • Mourners at the ceremony in Windsor Castle, including Prince Charles and his sons Princes William and Harry, were limited in number

WINDSOR: Queen Elizabeth and her family paid their last respects to Prince Philip on Saturday at a funeral that celebrated his naval past, his international heritage and seven decades of service in which he helped guide the queen through repeated crises.
Elizabeth, dressed in black and in a white trimmed black mask, stood alone as the funeral service began in St George's Chapel, which dates back to 1475.
Mourners at the ceremony in Windsor Castle, including Prince Charles and his sons Princes William and Harry, were limited in number and separated due to COVID-19 rules.
"We are here today in St George’s Chapel to commit into the hands of God the soul of his servant Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh," the Dean of Windsor, David Conner, said.
"We have been inspired by his unwavering loyalty to our Queen, by his service to the Nation and the Commonwealth, by his courage, fortitude and faith."


After the nation observed a minute's silence in brilliant sunshine, Harry and William took up their places on opposite sides of the chapel with the final resting place of Tudor monarch Henry VIII dividing them.
Philip, officially known as the Duke of Edinburgh, died aged 99 on April 9. The queen in 1997 described Philip as her "strength and stay" over their decades of marriage.
His naval cap and sword lay on top of the coffin, which was covered with the Duke of Edinburgh's personal standard featuring the Danish coat of arms, the Greek cross, Edinburgh Castle and the stripes of the Mountbatten family.
The choir sang a sailors' hymn, "Eternal Father, Strong to Save", and shortly before he is lowered into the Royal Vault, the Russian "Kontakion of the Departed", a hymn of the Orthodox and Eastern churches, will echo around the ancient church.
Philip's coffin was borne to the chapel on a bespoke Defender TD 130 in military green as a minute gun fired eight times.
Before the procession, military bands spaced out across the quadrangle of Windsor Castle to play the prince's chosen music, including "I Vow To Thee My Country,", "Jerusalem" and "Nimrod".
Philip, who married Elizabeth in 1947, helped the young queen adapt the monarchy to the changing world of the post-World War Two era as the loss of empire and the decline of deference challenged the world's most prominent royal family.
She has now been widowed just as she grapples with one of the gravest crises to hit the royal family in decades - allegations of racism and neglect by it from her grandson Harry and his American-born wife Meghan.
Attention on Harry
Much media attention will focus on the royals' behaviour towards Harry as he made his first public appearance with the family since the couple gave an explosive interview to Oprah Winfrey last month.
In the interview they accused one unnamed royal of making a racist comment, and said Meghan's pleas for help when she felt suicidal were ignored.
The couple, who moved to Los Angeles and quit royal duties last year, laid bare their perceptions of the family's attitudes in what amounted to a critique of the old-fashioned customs of an ancient institution.
Meghan said she had been silenced by "the Firm" while Harry said his father, Charles, had refused to take his calls. Harry said both Charles and his brother William were trapped in the royal family.
Meghan watched the funeral at her home in California after she was advised by her doctor not to travel while pregnant, a source familiar with the situation said. US networks showed the funeral live as did British TV stations.
Mourners eschewed the tradition of wearing military uniforms, a step newspapers said was to prevent embarrassment to Harry, who despite serving two tours in Afghanistan during his army career, is not be entitled to wear a uniform because he was stripped of his honorary military titles.
Prince Andrew, who stepped down from public duties in 2019 over controversy surrounding his what he termed his "ill-judged" association with late US financier Jeffrey Epstein, had wanted to wear an admiral's uniform at the funeral, British media reported.
Queen alone
The palace emphasised beforehand that while the occasion would have the due pageantry that marks the passing of a senior royal, it remained an occasion for a mourning family to mark the passing of a husband, father, grandfather and great-grandfather.
There were just 30 mourners inside the chapel for the service because of continuing coronavirus restrictions in Britain.
Philip's dedication to his duty earned him widespread popularity in Britain, but he was also criticised by some for a number of off-the-cuff racist or abrupt comments which shocked princes, priests and presidents.
"He was authentically himself, with a seriously sharp wit, and could hold the attention of any room due to his charm and also because you never knew what he might say next," Harry said of his grandfather.
Philip was a decorated Royal Navy veteran of World War Two and his funeral, much of which was planned in meticulous detail by the prince himself, will have a strong military feel, with personnel from across the armed forces playing prominent roles.


UN urges Dhaka to relocate Rohingya to island in ‘phased manner’

UN urges Dhaka to relocate Rohingya to island in ‘phased manner’
Updated 17 April 2021

UN urges Dhaka to relocate Rohingya to island in ‘phased manner’

UN urges Dhaka to relocate Rohingya to island in ‘phased manner’
  • Report follows a three-day study of remote Bhasan Char by UN experts

DHAKA: The UN has followed up a review of a remote island facility set up by Bangladesh for Rohingya refugees by calling on Dhaka to carry out the relocation process in a “phased manner.”
The recommendation comes despite warnings by rights groups that the site is vulnerable to severe weather and flooding.
A UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) spokesperson in Dhaka, Charlie Goodlake, told Arab News on Saturday that the UN team is recommending that any future relocations “are undertaken in a gradual and phased manner.”
The UN planned to hold “further discussions” with Dhaka on the initiative, he said.
“It would help to ensure that the governance structure, facilities and services on the island meet the needs of Rohingya refugees living there,” Goodlake added.
The UN report released to the media late on Friday comes a month after 18 UN experts conducted their first visit to Bhasan Char island on March 17.
Soon after the UN’s visit, a 10-member team of diplomats — comprising heads of missions of embassies and delegations from Turkey, the EU, US, UK, France, Germany, Japan, Australia, Canada and the Netherlands — also visited the island on April 3 to review the facilities.
Bangladesh has moved 18,500 Rohingya refugees from crammed camps in its Cox’s Bazar district to Bhasan Char, dubbed Rohingya island, since December last year.
It wants to eventually relocate 100,000 of the more than a million refugees from the overcrowded camps to the remote island, located in the Bay of Bengal and 60 km from the mainland.
Bhasan Char was built by Dhaka in 2006 using Himalayan silt and sediment to ease the overcrowded camps in Cox’s Bazar district. The project cost more than $360 million.
Each Bhasan Char house has five-square-meter concrete rooms with small windows, and a toilet for 11 people.
However, the UNHCR said it was concerned about the island’s vulnerability to severe weather and flooding, leading to a UN proposal in December 2019 for a “technical assessment” of the site.
The three-day visit in March marked a breakthrough in the proposal and follows attempts by the UN refugee agency to visit the island amid concerns about whether the relocation of the Rohingya refugees to the island was safe.
Similar concerns were raised by several international rights organizations, which urged Bangladesh not to relocate the Rohingya to Bhasan Char, warning that the island was located in an area prone to cyclones and could be submerged during a high tide.
Dhaka said that it had set up 120 cyclone shelters — built more than a meter above ground — which could be used as hospitals, schools and community centers throughout the year.
However, in its latest report, the UN said it “recognizes the prevailing humanitarian and protection needs of the Rohingya refugees already relocated to Bhasan Char” and proposed holding more talks on the process with Dhaka soon.
“We hope the discussions will take place as early as possible. The discussions would be on the UN’s future operational engagement on Bhasan Char, including on the policies that govern the life and wellbeing of Rohingya refugees on the island,” Goodlake told Arab News.
He said the UN team recognizes the extensive investments made by the Bangladesh government in Bhasan Char, “including the facilities and infrastructure and other offshore coastal protection measures.”
However, he said that to further mitigate risks, the UN is calling for an “emergency management plan in the case of severe weather events, including the pre-positioning of essential supplies and goods on the island.”
The UN report also recommended that Bhasan Char be managed by “civilian authorities in an inclusive and consultative manner.”
On Friday, Bangladesh Foreign Minister Dr. A. K. Abdul Momen said that the UN had made “very good and positive observations” in its latest report.
In previous comments to Arab News, Momen also urged the UN to start its operations on Bhasan Char as it would be a “huge task to manage 100,000 refugees on the island.”
Bangladesh is currently hosting more than 1.1 million Rohingya at Cox’s Bazar refugee camp, believed to be the world’s largest refugee settlement.
The Rohingya are members of an ethnic and religious minority group, many of whom fled persecution in Myanmar during a military crackdown in 2017.
Buddhist-majority Myanmar considers the Rohingya to be “Bengalis” from Bangladesh, even though their families have lived in the country for generations.
Almost all have been denied citizenship for decades, and are also denied freedom of movement and other basic rights.