Leading refugee advocate tells faith leaders they ‘must do more’

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Updated 18 August 2023

Leading refugee advocate tells faith leaders they ‘must do more’

Leading refugee advocate tells faith leaders they ‘must do more’
  • Rally your congregations, urges MedGlobal’s Dr. Zaher Sahloul
  • Addresses gathering of 10,000 leaders, activists hosted by Parliament of the World’s Religions in Chicago

CHICAGO: The head of one of the world’s leading aid organizations told religious leaders at a gathering in Chicago this week that they were “not doing enough” to raise public awareness of the globe’s growing refugee crisis.

Dr. Zaher Sahloul, president and founder of MedGlobal, which organizes relief and medical support for refugees around the world including in the Middle East, said public concerns for vulnerable groups have been pushed aside over the past few years. This was because of an increase in violence, conflict, natural disasters and the effects of people campaigning on social media for individual concerns.

Addressing a gathering of nearly 10,000 religious leaders and activists at a convention hosted by the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Chicago, Sahloul said the refugee problem was a crisis that continues to worsen. He urged those in attendance to rally their congregations to increase public awareness, empathy and support.

“I blame our faith leaders and policymakers. Maybe social media has a role also because we are bombarded by many crises and people are fixated on certain things. And maybe we are numbed as a society or global community because you have ... wildfire in Maui that killed 95 people. You have wars everywhere. You have Ukraine. You have climate change. You have all kinds of stuff. And then the refugees,” Sahloul said, noting that all three major religions, Islam, Christianity and Judaism, prescribe great care for refugees.

“I blame faith leaders because they are not making this a priority to their communities. So, we are not hearing that much in churches, in temples, in synagogues or in mosques about refugees despite the refugee crisis. We are not paying attention. In order to sympathize with people you have first of all to know that these people are suffering and then you need to pay attention and educate your community and tell them this is important in our tradition. It is not happening.”

Citing an example, Sahloul alleged that the Russian Orthodox Church was taking sides in the Ukraine war rather than speaking out in defense of refugees.

During an appearance on The Ray Hanania Radio Show Wednesday Aug. 16, Sahloul said tragedies involving refugees have become “so common” that they do not receive the urgency or the heightened attention that they had in the past. The refugee crisis, he said, has become “normalized.”

“It’s huge, boiling under the surface as they say. Right now we have more displaced people and refugees than ever since World War II,” Sahloul said.

“So, some of the estimates from the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) is that we have about 100 million displaced persons in the world. When we talk about displaced persons, we have to differentiate that from refugees. Refugees are the ones, the persons displaced outside of their country, while a displaced person could be also displaced within their country. We can give an example in Syria because we have a civil war that started 13 years ago, half of the population of Syria are displaced inside their country. So, someone from Damascus lives in Idlib, in Raqqa or in Homs because their areas was completely destroyed or was unsafe and now they are displaced within their countries.”

Sahloul said there are about 30 million refugees, mostly from the Middle East, with Syria being the primary nation of origin.

“(The) refugee is the person who fled their countries because of persecution or because of war. For whatever reason, civil war or external war, to other countries. And there are about 30 million refugees today most of them are from the Middle East,” Sahloul said.

“Syria is still the first country in terms of exporting refugees. There are 6.5 million Syrian refugees, that means people who left Syria to neighboring countries and beyond neighboring countries to Europe and other countries. (That’s) 6.5 million in a country, Syria, that has a population of 22 million. That means one-third of that population left Syria and they are outside of Syria because of the war.”

Sahloul said the top three countries of origin for refugees are Syria with 25 percent, Ukraine and Afghanistan.

But Sahloul said there are also refugees from Sudan, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Eritrea and Myanmar, which includes the Rohingya community. The largest refugee camp is of Rohingyas in Bangladesh with more than 750,000 people.

He said that the public often confuses terms when addressing refugees noting there are different categories of people who have left their homes for various reasons — they are Refugees, Displaced Persons, Economic Migrants and Forced Humanitarian Migrants.

The Parliament of the World’s Religions was launched during the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. This featured among its many displays, a huge exhibit called “Street in Cairo”  with 26 buildings, including a mosque and shops. In addition, there was also a “typical” Arab home featured, that of the leading gold merchant Gamal Al-Din Al-Dhahabi, and an Egyptian Luxor Temple.

The Ray Hanania Radio show is broadcast every Wednesday on the US Arab Radio Network in Detroit on WNZK AM 690 and in Washington D.C. on WDMV AM 700 radio.

You can listen to the radio show’s podcast by visiting ArabNews.com/rayradioshow.

Boeing may avoid criminal charges over violations: report

Boeing may avoid criminal charges over violations: report
Updated 2 sec ago

Boeing may avoid criminal charges over violations: report

Boeing may avoid criminal charges over violations: report
  • After substantial internal debate, Justice officials “appear to have concluded that prosecuting Boeing would be too legally risky,” the NY Times reported
NEW YORK: The US Department of Justice is considering a deal with Boeing that would avoid criminal prosecution of the aerospace giant but may appoint a federal supervisor to oversee company progress on safety improvements, The New York Times reported Friday.
People familiar with the discussions told the daily that the terms of the possible alternative settlement, known as a deferred prosecution agreement, or DPA, are still subject to change.
A DOJ official involved in the case, Glenn Leon, chief of the fraud section criminal division, said in an email to a civil party lawyer seen by AFP that the department “has not made a decision” on the path it will take with respect to Boeing.
The DOJ is determining its next steps after concluding in May that Boeing could be prosecuted for violating a criminal settlement following two fatal 737 MAX crashes in 2018 and 2019 which claimed 346 lives.
But the Times, citing sources familiar with the discussions, reported that after substantial internal debate, Justice officials “appear to have concluded that prosecuting Boeing would be too legally risky.”
Officials also reportedly believe that the appointment of a watchdog would be “a quicker, more efficient way” to ensure safety and quality control improvements are made, the newspaper said.
Last month, the DOJ told the judge in the case it would give its decision no later than July 7.
The DOJ’s Leon emailed Paul Cassell, a lawyer for families in the criminal case against Boeing, saying the Times reporting “was simply not correct.”
Boeing did not respond to AFP requests for reaction.

The troubled planemaker had contested the department’s conclusions in mid-June, but has recognized the gravity of the safety crisis and CEO Dave Calhoun told Congress that Boeing is “taking action and making progress.”
In January 2021, Justice announced an initial DPA in which Boeing agreed to pay $2.5 billion to settle fraud charges over certification of the 737 MAX.
But since early 2023, the manufacturer has experienced multiple production and quality control problems on its commercial aircraft, as well as mid-flight incidents including in January when a door plug panel flew off an Alaska Airlines 737 Max 9.
The DOJ says Boeing’s violation of several provisions of the initial agreement, including measures requiring it to bolster its internal controls to detect and deter fraud, opened the company to prosecution.
Victims’ families have called for the criminal prosecution of Boeing and its executives, and are seeking a nearly $25 billion fine.
A new DPA would allow the US government to resolve Boeing’s violations without a trial.
That could serve as a victory of sorts for Boeing, a company seen as critical to the US aviation industry as well as national security.
Cassell, the families’ lawyer, warned against sealing an agreement avoiding trial.
“We hope that the Department is not using its claim to have not yet made a ‘final decision’ as a ploy to gain additional time to hammer out a DPA deal with Boeing,” Cassell said in a statement.
“The first DPA deal failed. There is no reason to think a second one would be any better,” he said, adding it’s time for “moving forward with a trial and obtaining a guilty verdict against Boeing.”
Such lawsuits in the past have forced companies into filing for bankruptcy, the Times reported, and a conviction could potentially prevent Boeing from receiving government contracts.
Boeing’s defense, space and security segment generated $25 billion in 2023, nearly a third of the company’s sales.

4 members of a billionaire family get prison in Switzerland for exploiting domestic workers

4 members of a billionaire family get prison in Switzerland for exploiting domestic workers
Updated 21 June 2024

4 members of a billionaire family get prison in Switzerland for exploiting domestic workers

4 members of a billionaire family get prison in Switzerland for exploiting domestic workers


GENEVA: An Indian-born billionaire and three family members were sentenced to prison on Friday for exploiting domestic workers at their lakeside villa in Switzerland by seizing their passports, barring them from going out and making them work up to 18 hours a day.

A Swiss court dismissed more serious charges of human trafficking against 79-year-old tycoon Prakash Hinduja; his wife, Kamal; son Ajay and daughter-in-law Namrata on the grounds that the workers understood what they were getting into, at least in part. The four received between four and 4 1/2 years in prison.

A fifth defendant — Najib Ziazi, the family’s business manager — received an 18-month suspended sentence.

Lawyers for the members of the Swiss-Indian family — who were not present in court — said they would appeal the verdict.

The workers were mostly illiterate Indians who were paid not in Swiss francs but in Indian rupees, deposited in banks back home that they couldn’t access.

The four were convicted of “usury” for having taken advantage of their vulnerable immigrant staff to pay them a pittance.

“The employees’ inexperience was exploited,” judge Sabina Mascotto said in her judgment. “They had little education or none at all and had no knowledge of their rights.

“The defendants’ motives were selfish,” she said, adding that the Hindujas were motivated “by the desire for gain.”

The court acquitted them of the more serious charge of human trafficking, on the grounds that the workers had traveled to Switzerland willingly.

Dogs treated better

During the trial the family were accused of bringing servants from their native India and confiscating their passports once they got to Switzerland.
Prosecutor Yves Bertossa accused the Hindujas of spending “more on their dog than on their domestic employees.”
The family paid the household staff about 325 francs ($363) a month, up to 90 percent less than the going rate, the judge said.
“The four Hinduja defendants knew the weak position their employees were in and knew the law in Switzerland,” Mascotto said.
The family denied the allegations, claiming the prosecutors wanted to “do in the Hindujas.”
They had reached a confidential out-of-court settlement with the three employees who made the accusations against them, leading them to drop their legal action, said the defense.
Despite this, the prosecution had decided to pursue the case due to the seriousness of the charges.
Following the verdict, Bertossa requested an immediate detention order for Ajay and Namrata Hinduja, claiming a flight risk.
The judged denied it, accepting the defense argument that the family had ties to Switzerland. It noted that Kamal Hinduja was hospitalized in Monaco and the three other family members were at her bedside.
Both the elder Hindujas had been absent since the start of the trial for health reasons.
A statement from the defense lawyers announcing the appeal said they were “appalled and disappointment” at the court’s ruling.
But it added: “The family has full faith in the judicial process and remains confident that the truth will prevail.”

The defense had argued that the three employees received ample benefits, were not kept in isolation and were free to leave the villa.
“We are not dealing with mistreated slaves,” Nicolas Jeandin told the court.
Indeed, the employees “were grateful to the Hindujas for offering them a better life,” his fellow lawyer Robert Assael argued.
Representing Ajay Hinduja, lawyer Yael Hayat had slammed the “excessive” indictment, arguing the trial should be a question of “justice, not social justice.”
Namrata Hinduja’s lawyer Romain Jordan had also pleaded for acquittal, claiming the prosecutors were aiming to make an example of the family.
He argued the prosecution had failed to mention extra payments made to staff on top of their cash salaries.
“No employee was cheated out of his or her salary,” Assael added.
With interests in oil and gas, banking and health care, the Hinduja Group is present in 38 countries and employs around 200,000 people.

Excessie sentence?

Robert Assael, a lawyer for Kamal Hinduja, said he was “relieved” that the court threw out the trafficking charges but called the sentence excessive.
“The health of our clients is very poor, they are elderly people,” he said, explaining why the family was not in court. He said Hinduja’s 75-year-old wife was in intensive care and the family was with her.
Last week, it emerged in court that the family had reached an undisclosed settlement with the plaintiffs. Swiss authorities have seized diamonds, rubies, a platinum necklace and other jewelry and assets in anticipation that they could be used to pay for legal fees and possible penalties.
Along with three brothers, Prakash Hinduja leads an industrial conglomerate in sectors including information technology, media, power, real estate and health care. Forbes magazine has put the Hinduja family’s net worth at some $20 billion.
The family set up residence in Switzerland in the 1980s, and Hinduja was convicted in 2007 on similar charges. A separate tax case brought by Swiss authorities is pending against Hinduja, who obtained Swiss citizenship in 2000.
In this case, the court said the four were guilty of exploiting the workers and providing unauthorized employment, giving meager if any health benefits and paying wages that were less than one-tenth the pay for such jobs in Switzerland.
Prosecutors said workers described a “climate of fear” instituted by Kamal Hinduja. They were forced to work with little or no vacation time, and worked even later hours for receptions. They slept in the basement, sometimes on a mattress on the floor.


How does heat kill a person?

How does heat kill a person?
Updated 21 June 2024

How does heat kill a person?

How does heat kill a person?
  • Much of United States, Mexico, India and Middle East continue to suffer blistering heat waves 
  • Severe heat can cause people to suffer from strokes, cardiac arrests and dehydration, say doctors

As temperatures and humidity soar outside, what’s happening inside the human body can become a life-or-death battle decided by just a few degrees.
The critical danger point outdoors for illness and death from relentless heat is several degrees lower than experts once thought, say researchers who put people in hot boxes to see what happens to them.
With much of the United States, Mexico, India and the Middle East suffering through blistering heat waves, worsened by human-caused climate change, several doctors, physiologists and other experts explained to The Associated Press what happens to the human body in such heat.
Key body temperature
The body’s resting core temperature is typically about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius).
That’s only 7 degrees (4 Celsius) away from catastrophe in the form of heatstroke, said Ollie Jay, a professor of heat and health at the University of Sydney in Australia, where he runs the thermoergonomics laboratory.
Dr. Neil Gandhi, emergency medicine director at Houston Methodist Hospital, said during heat waves anyone who comes in with a fever of 102 or higher and no clear source of infection will be looked at for heat exhaustion or the more severe heatstroke.
“We routinely will see core temperatures greater than 104, 105 degrees during some of the heat episodes,” Gandhi said. Another degree or three and such a patient is at high risk of death, he said.
How heat kills
Heat kills in three main ways, Jay said. The usual first suspect is heatstroke — critical increases in body temperature that cause organs to fail.
When inner body temperature gets too hot, the body redirects blood flow toward the skin to cool down, Jay said. But that diverts blood and oxygen away from the stomach and intestines, and can allow toxins normally confined to the gut area to leak into circulation.
“That sets off a cascade of effects,” Jay said. “Clotting around the body and multiple organ failure and, ultimately, death.”
But the bigger killer in heat is the strain on the heart, especially for people who have cardiovascular disease, Jay said.
It again starts with blood rushing to the skin to help shed core heat. That causes blood pressure to drop. The heart responds by trying to pump more blood to keep you from passing out.
“You’re asking the heart to do a lot more work than it usually has to do,” Jay said. For someone with a heart condition “it’s like running for a bus with dodgy (hamstring). Something’s going to give.”
The third main way is dangerous dehydration. As people sweat, they lose liquids to a point that can severely stress kidneys, Jay said.
Many people may not realize their danger, Houston’s Gandhi said.
Dehydration can progress into shock, causing organs to shut down from lack of blood, oxygen and nutrients, leading to seizures and death, said Dr. Renee Salas, a Harvard University professor of public health and an emergency room physician at Massachusetts General Hospital.
“Dehydration can be very dangerous and even deadly for everyone if it gets bad enough — but it is especially dangerous for those with medical conditions and on certain medications,” Salas said.
Dehydration also reduces blood flow and magnifies cardiac problems, Jay said.
Attacking the brain
Heat also affects the brain. It can cause a person to have confusion, or trouble thinking, several doctors said.
“One of the first symptoms you’re getting into trouble with the heat is if you get confused,” said University of Washington public health and climate professor Kris Ebi. That’s little help as a symptom because the person suffering from the heat is unlikely to recognize it, she said. And it becomes a bigger problem as people age.
One of the classic definitions of heat stroke is a core body temperature of 104 degrees “coupled with cognitive dysfunction,” said Pennsylvania State University physiology professor W. Larry Kenney.
Humidity matters
Some scientists use a complicated outside temperature measurement called wet bulb globe temperature, which takes into account humidity, solar radiation and wind. In the past, it was thought that a wet-bulb reading of 95 Fahrenheit (35 Celsius) was the point when the body started having trouble, said Kenney, who also runs a hot box lab and has done nearly 600 tests with volunteers.
His tests show the wet-bulb danger point is closer to 87 (30.5 Celsius). That’s a figure that has started to appear in the Middle East, he said.
And that’s just for young healthy people. For older people, the danger point is a wet bulb temperature of 82 (28 degrees Celsius), he said.
“Humid heat waves kill a lot more people than dry heat waves,” Kenney said.
When Kenney tested young and old people in dry heat, young volunteers could function until 125.6 degrees (52 degrees Celsius), while the elderly had to stop at 109.4 (43 degrees Celsius). With high or moderate humidity, the people could not function at nearly as high a temperature, he said.
“Humidity impacts the ability of sweat to evaporate,” Jay said.
Rushing to make patients cool
Heatstroke is an emergency, and medical workers try to cool a victim down within 30 minutes, Salas said.
The best way: Cold water immersion. Basically, “you drop them in a water bucket,” Salas said.
But those aren’t always around. So emergency rooms pump patients with cool fluids intravenously, spray them with misters, put ice packs in armpits and groins and place them on a chilling mat with cold water running inside it.
Sometimes it doesn’t work.
“We call it the silent killer because it’s not this kind of visually dramatic event,” Jay said. “It’s insidious. It’s hidden.”

Biden’s 2 steps on immigration could reframe how US voters see a major political problem for him

Biden’s 2 steps on immigration could reframe how US voters see a major political problem for him
Updated 21 June 2024

Biden’s 2 steps on immigration could reframe how US voters see a major political problem for him

Biden’s 2 steps on immigration could reframe how US voters see a major political problem for him
  • Trump and top Republicans have ripped Biden for record-high numbers of encounters at the border

TEMPE, Arizona: Over the course of two weeks, President Joe Biden has imposed significant restrictions on immigrants seeking asylum in the US while also offering potential citizenship to hundreds of thousands of people without legal status already living in the country.
The tandem actions — the first to help immigrants illegally in the US, the second to prevent others from entering at the border — give the president a chance to address one of the biggest vulnerabilities for his reelection campaign.
Americans give Biden poor marks for his handling of immigration and favor the approach of presumptive Republican nominee Donald Trump, whose administration imposed hard-line policies such as separating immigrant families and who now has proposed the largest deportation operation in US history if elected again.
While the White House said its most recent actions aren’t meant to counterbalance each other, the election-year policy changes offer something both for voters who think border enforcement is too lenient and for those who support helping immigrants who live in the US illegally. They echo the White House’s overall approach since Biden took office, using a mix of policies to restrict illegal immigration and offer help to people already in the country.
Trump and top Republicans have ripped Biden for record-high numbers of encounters at the border, with some suggesting without evidence that Biden is abetting a so-called “invasion” to affect the election. Tightening asylum rules as Biden did could reduce border crossings.
Helping people long established in the country obtain citizenship, meanwhile, might defuse criticism of immigration advocates and liberal parts of Biden’s Democratic coalition who opposed the new border restrictions unveiled earlier this month.
An Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research poll conducted in March found that only about 3 in 10 Americans approved of Biden’s handling of immigration. A similar share approved of his handling of border security. In the same poll, about half of US adults said that Biden is extremely or very responsible for the current situation at the US-Mexico border, compared to about one-third who said Trump was extremely or very responsible.
Biden’s latest action was endorsed by Rep. Tom Suozzi of New York, a moderate Democrat who won a special election in February to replace expelled former Republican Rep. George Santos. Suozzi’s race centered heavily on immigration and New York City’s struggles to accommodate thousands of immigrants bused there from the US-Mexico border.
Suozzi described first being elected mayor of Glen Cove, New York, in 1994 and helping organize centers to assist groups of immigrants waiting on street corners for day-laborer jobs, which he said still informs how he sees the issue.
“The reality is, those same guys that were on the street corners in 1994, today own their own businesses, own their own homes and their kids went to school with my kids,” Suozzi said on a call with reporters. “We’ve got to take action. People are sick of this.”
Van Callaway, a hairstylist from Mesa, Arizona, who uses they/them pronouns, voted for Biden four years ago but was disappointed to hear the president was making it harder to claim asylum. But they were also skeptical whether the president’s plan to help legalize spouses who are married to US citizens would actually come to fruition.
“I wish that it was an easier process so people who need to be here could be here,” said Callaway, 29. “And I wish that there was more love and acceptance about it. And more empathy. I feel like if there was a lot empathy on immigration as a whole, the world would be a lot better.”
The Department of Homeland Security estimates that around 500,000 spouses of US citizens will be protected under Biden’s latest action, as will 50,000 children of a noncitizen parent. The White House said those benefiting have been in the US for an average of 23 years.
That won’t be the case for most of the new arrivals to the US-Mexico border who find themselves unable to apply because of Biden’s other executive action. The White House notes, however, that it has taken several other actions to make it easier for new immigrants to enter the country.
With congressional Republicans “refusing to address our broken immigration system,” the administration “has taken action to secure our border and to keep American families together in the United States,” said Angelo Fernández Hernández, a White House spokesman.
That includes creating a program last year allowing people from Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua and Venezuela to come to the US if they have a financial sponsor, pass a background check and fly into a US airport — which nearly 435,000 people had used by the end of April. The administration also expanded H-2 temporary work visa programs, and established processing centers away from the US border, in countries including Guatemala and Columbia.
Republican House Speaker Mike Johnson nonetheless accused Biden of “trying to play both sides.”
And Trump dismissed Biden’s action on asylum as “all for show,” suggesting the president is “giving mass amnesty and citizenship to hundreds of thousands of illegals who he knows will ultimately vote for him.”
Callaway said deciding whom to vote for this year will be excruciating, “a real hard conundrum.” They’re worried about Trump’s second-term agenda but also furious about Biden’s approach to Israel’s war in Gaza, and not excited to support a third-party candidate who probably can’t win. More harsh border policies would be another knock against Biden, they said.
“They’ll tell you what you want to hear, but they’re not often going to follow through on it,” Callaway said. “It feels like the things they follow through on are fueled by prejudice and this weird sense of victimhood.”

ICC unveils arrest warrant for top Sahel militant leader

ICC unveils arrest warrant for top Sahel militant leader
Updated 21 June 2024

ICC unveils arrest warrant for top Sahel militant leader

ICC unveils arrest warrant for top Sahel militant leader
  • Iyad Ag Ghaly is said to be the undisputed leader of the Al-Qaeda-linked Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims, which operates in Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger
  • Ag Ghaly previously led the Ansar Dine militant group that invaded the city known as the “Pearl of the Desert” more than a decade ago

THE HAGUE: International Criminal Court judges on Friday made public an arrest warrant for one of the Sahel’s top militant leaders over alleged atrocities in the fabled Malian city of Timbuktu from 2012 to 2013.
Iyad Ag Ghaly, age not given, is said to be the undisputed leader of the Al-Qaeda-linked Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims (JNIM), which operates in Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger.
The JNIM is accused of numerous attacks against national forces and atrocities against civilian populations.
Ag Ghaly previously led the Ansar Dine militant group that invaded the city known as the “Pearl of the Desert” more than a decade ago.
Also known as “Abou Fadl,” Ag Ghaly is wanted for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Timbuktu, the ICC said.
These included murder, rape and sexual slavery and attacks on buildings dedicated as religious and historic monuments.
Judges issued the warrant against Ag Ghaly in mid-2017, but the document has been kept under wraps for the past seven years because of “potential risks to witnesses and victims.”
The ICC “at the request of the Prosecutor, made public an arrest warrant against Iyad Ag Ghaly for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in northern Mali between January 2012 and January 2013,” the Hague-based tribunal said in a statement.
“Mr Ghaly is not detained by the ICC,” the court said.
Ansar Dine occupied Timbuktu in 2012, taking pickaxes to 14 of the city’s famous mausoleums of Muslim saints. The group also conducted a reign of terror among the local population.
Ag Ghaly is a veteran of Mali’s internecine conflicts.
An ethnic Tuareg from northern Mali, he first leapt onto the stage during a Tuareg rebellion in the 1990s.
After it subsided, he went into business, before publicly returning to militancy again in 2012, with the newly created group called Ansar Dine.
That year, Tuareg separatists launched a rebellion in northern Mali, which was quickly commandeered by militants.
The event triggered a bloody conflict, which has now spread to the center of the country, and neighboring Burkina Faso and Niger.
Opening its doors in 2002, the ICC is the only independent court that investigates and prosecutes the world’s worst crimes.
However, the court does not have the capacity to apprehend suspects and relies on member states to carry out arrests.