ASTM sets maximum limit of lead in zinc for making galvanized steel

Updated 09 September 2015
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ASTM sets maximum limit of lead in zinc for making galvanized steel

Considering the negative effect of lead on the performance of galvanized steel sheets, the ASTM (the American Society for Testing and Materials) — which is an internationally recognized organization engaged in issuing international specifications for thousands of products — has introduced a limit of maximum 90 mg/kg of lead in zinc bath used for manufacturing of galvanized steel in accordance with ASTM A 653/A653M.
This limit was reached by consensus involving balloting among the ASTM technical committee members followed by a meeting held in May, and has resulted in the publication of newly revised ASTM A653/A653M.
The purpose of this important amendment to the ASTM Standard is to enhance the performance of galvanized steel as some galvanized steel manufacturers add excessive amounts of lead to the zinc bath used in the galvanizing process to obtain larger and brighter spangles, while disregarding its negative effects on the performance of the produced galvanized steel sheets.
Both theoretical studies and practical experiments have demonstrated that this addition of lead leads to darkening of the spangles over time, thereby impairing the aesthetics of the galvanized steel sheet.
Studies have also shown that adding lead to the zinc bath can cause a problem called "delayed adhesion failure" in hot-dip zinc coatings. Being immiscible with zinc, lead solidifies at the spangle boundaries to produce sites where corrosion cells form in humid climates. After some months this results in cracking and peeling of the coating when the product has been formed using sharp bending.
On the other hand, it is widely known that lead is a toxic substance with severe health risks for humans if it is used in quantities that exceed safe limits.


Marriott hotel, apartments open in Riyadh’s DQ

Updated 21 March 2019
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Marriott hotel, apartments open in Riyadh’s DQ

Marriott International and Dur Hospitality this week celebrated the opening of the Riyadh Marriott Hotel Diplomatic Quarter and Marriott Executive Apartments Riyadh, Diplomatic Quarter. The complex is strategically located in the heart of one of the most sought-after areas in the city with easy access to key embassies and major corporate headquarters, and a 30-minute drive from King Khalid International Airport. 

“We are delighted to enhance our footprint in Saudi Arabia with the opening of two strategically important hotels that not only complement each other but also deliver very distinct brand experiences. Saudi Arabia continues to be one of our key markets and we are delighted to further strengthen our partnership with Dur Hospitality,” said Alex Kyriakidis, president and managing director, Middle East and Africa, Marriott International.

The hotel is inspired by Wadi Hanifa, a beautiful desert oasis running through Riyadh. The low-rise hotel resembles the smooth, dry canyon walls that make for a dramatic arrival experience. Once you step inside, the waterways guide the way into the building, ushering guests through the arrival court into the palm-dotted oasis in the hotel’s courtyard. Planted cacti, flowering vines, plentiful blooming desert flora and native date palm trees create a calming ambiance, providing shade from the desert sun. 

The complex is the first five-star full service hotel in the Diplomatic Quarter and features 80 spacious modern rooms, and 140 fully equipped apartments. The deluxe rooms feature modern décor and ample work space, allowing guests to stay connected with in-room technology, including high-speed WiFi and bedside USB outlets. Guests staying in one of the six Premium Suites or the Presidential Suite can enrich their experience in the M Club Lounge offering an international buffet, hors d’oeuvre and local specialties 24 hours a day. 

The Riyadh Marriott Hotel Diplomatic Quarter houses three dining venues, Goji Kitchen — an all-day dining destination, a la carte restaurant Mesquite and Agave Café located in the lobby. The hotel offers multiple recreational areas surrounded by lush greenery. 

Muin Serhan, general manager of Marriott Hotels in Riyadh, said: “The opening of Marriott Riyadh and Marriott Executive Apartments Riyadh Diplomatic Quarter is considered an important milestone in our developing journey in the hospitality field; we are keen to provide a very special experience to our valuable guests whatever they are traveling for — business or leisure.”

He added: “And we are very proud to be part of the new Marriott travel program ‘Marriott Bonvoy,’ built on the belief that travel enriches its members and the world around them. Launching in February 2019, Marriott Bonvoy replaces Marriott Rewards, The Ritz-Carlton Rewards and Starwood Preferred Guest (SPG).”