Do vitamins block disease? Some disappointing news

Updated 17 December 2013
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Do vitamins block disease? Some disappointing news

There’s more disappointing news about multivitamins: Two major studies found popping the pills did not protect aging men’s brains or help heart attack survivors.
Millions of people spend billions of dollars on vitamin combinations, presumably to boost their health and fill gaps in their diets. But while people who don’t eat enough of certain nutrients may be urged to get them in pill form, the government doesn’t recommend routine vitamin supplementation as a way to prevent chronic diseases.
The studies released Monday are the latest to test if multivitamins might go that extra step and concluded they don’t.
“Evidence is sufficient to advise against routine supplementation,” said a sharply worded editorial that accompanied Monday’s findings in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.
After all, most people who buy multivitamins and other supplements are generally healthy, said journal deputy editor Dr. Cynthia Mulrow. Even junk foods often are fortified with vitamins, while the main nutrition problem in the US is too much fat and calories, she added.
But other researchers say the jury’s still out, especially for the most commonly used dietary supplement — multivitamins that are taken by about a third of US adults, and even more people over the age of 50. Indeed, the US Preventive Services Task Force is deliberating whether vitamin supplements make any difference in the average person’s risk of heart disease or cancer. In a draft proposal last month, the government advisory group said for standard multivitamins and certain other nutrients, there’s not enough evidence to tell. (It did caution that two single supplements, beta-carotene and vitamin E, didn’t work). A final decision is expected next year.
“For better or for worse, supplementation’s not going to go away,” said Dr. Howard Sesso of Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. He helps leads a large multivitamin study that has had mixed results — suggesting small benefits for some health conditions but not others — and says more research is needed, especially among the less healthy.
Still, “there’s no substitute for preaching a healthy diet and good behaviors” such as exercise, Sesso cautioned.
As scientists debate, here are some questions and answers to consider in the vitamin aisle:
Why the new focus on multivitamins?
Multivitamins have grown more popular in recent years as research showed that taking high doses of single supplements could be risky, such as beta-carotene.
Multivitamins typically contain no more than 100 percent of the daily recommended amount of various nutrients. They’re marketed as sort of a safety net for nutrition gaps; the industry’s Council for Responsible Nutrition says they’re taken largely for general wellness.
What are the latest findings?
With Alzheimer’s on the rise as the population ages, Harvard researchers wondered if long-term multivitamin use might help keep older brains agile. They examined a subset of nearly 6,000 male doctors, age 65 or older, who were part of a larger study. The men were given either multivitamins or dummy pills, without knowing which they were taking.
After a decade of pill use, the vitamin-takers fared no better on memory or other cognitive tests, Sesso’s team reported Monday in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.
Did that Harvard study find any other benefit from multivitamins?
The results of the Physicians Health Study II have been mixed. Overall it enrolled about 15,000 health male doctors age 50 and older, and the vitamin-takers had a slightly lower risk of cancer — 8 percent. Diet and exercise are more protective. They also had a similarly lower risk of developing cataracts, common to aging eyes. But the vitamins had no effect the risk for heart disease or another eye condition, Sesso said.
Might vitamins have a different effect on people who already have heart disease?
As part of a broader treatment study, a separate research team asked that question. They examined 1,700 heart attack survivors, mostly men, who were given either a special multivitamin containing higher-than-usual doses of 28 ingredients or dummy pills. But the vitamins didn’t reduce the chances of another heart attack, other cardiovascular problems, or death.
What about women?
Research involving postmenopausal women a few years ago also concluded multivitamins did not prevent cancer or heart disease. But it was not nearly as rigorous a study as Monday’s research, relying on women to recall what vitamins they used.
What’s the safety advice for multivitamin users?
The preventive services task force cited no safety issues with standard multivitamins. But specialists say to always tell your doctor what over-the-counter supplements you use. Some vitamins interact with some medications, and Sesso said anyone worried about nutrition should be discussing their diet with their doctor anyway.


FBI may have disrupted major cyber attack on Ukraine

Updated 24 May 2018
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FBI may have disrupted major cyber attack on Ukraine

  • Ukraine has been locked in a years-long struggle with Russia-backed separatists in the country’s east and has repeatedly been hit by cyberattacks of escalating severity. Last year witnessed the eruption of the NotPetya worm, which crippled critical system
  • Network technology company Cisco Systems and antivirus company Symantec have warned that a half-million Internet-connected routers had been compromised in a possible effort to lay the groundwork for a cyber-sabotage operation against targets in Ukraine.

LONDON: The FBI has put a spoke in the wheel of a major Russian digital disruption operation potentially aimed at causing havoc in Ukraine, evidence pieced together from researchers, Ukrainian officials and US court documents indicates.
On Wednesday, network technology company Cisco Systems and antivirus company Symantec warned that a half-million Internet-connected routers had been compromised in a possible effort to lay the groundwork for a cyber-sabotage operation against targets in Ukraine.
Court documents simultaneously unsealed in Pittsburgh the same day show the FBI has seized a key website communicating with the massive army of hijacked devices, disrupting what could have been — and might still be — an ambitious cyber attack by the Russian government-aligned hacking group widely known as Fancy Bear.
“I hope it catches the actors off guard and leads to the downfall of their network,” said Craig Williams, the director of outreach for Talos, the digital threat intelligence unit of Cisco that cooperated with the bureau. But he warned that the hackers could still regain control of the infected routers if they possessed their addresses and the right resources to re-establish command and control.
FBI Assistant Director Scott Smith said the agency “has taken a critical step in minimizing the impact of the malware attack. While this is an important first step, the FBI’s work is not done.”
Much about the hackers’ motives remains open to conjecture. Cisco said the malicious software, which it and Symantec both dubbed VPNFilter after a folder it creates, was sitting on more than 500,000 routers in 54 countries but mostly in Ukraine, and had the capacity to render them unusable — a massively disruptive move if carried out at such a scale.
“It could be a significant threat to users around the world,” said Williams.
The US Justice Department said the malware “could be used for a variety of malicious purposes, including intelligence gathering, theft of valuable information, destructive or disruptive attacks, and the mizattribution of such activities.”
Ukraine’s cyberpolice said in a statement that it was possible the hackers planned to strike during “large-scale events,” an apparent reference either to the upcoming Champions League game between Real Madrid and Liverpool in the capital, Kiev, on Saturday or to Ukraine’s upcoming Constitution Day celebrations.
Ukraine has been locked in a years-long struggle with Russia-backed separatists in the country’s east and has repeatedly been hit by cyberattacks of escalating severity. Last year witnessed the eruption of the NotPetya worm, which crippled critical systems, including hospitals , across the country and dealt hundreds of millions of dollars in collateral damage around the globe. Ukraine, the United States and Britain have blamed the attack on Moscow — a charge the Kremlin has denied.
Cisco and Symantec both steered clear of attributing the VPNFilter malware to any particular actor, but an FBI affidavit explicitly attributed it to Fancy Bear, the same group that hacked into the Democratic National Committee in 2016 and has been linked to a long series of digital intrusions stretching back more than a decade. The US intelligence community assesses that Fancy Bear acts on behalf of Russia’s military intelligence service.
An FBI affidavit — whose existence was first reported by The Daily Beast — said the hackers used lines of code hidden in the metadata of online photo albums to communicate with their network of seeded routers. If the photo albums disappeared, the hackers turned to a fallback website — the same site whose seizure the FBI ordered Tuesday.
An email sent to the website’s registered owner was returned as undeliverable.
When asked why the FBI specifically named Fancy Bear where Cisco did not, Williams noted that while attribution was extremely tricky based on malware analysis alone, “if you combine that knowledge with a traditional intelligence apparatus interesting things can come to light.”
In any case, he said, “we have a high degree of confidence that the actor behind this is acting against the Ukraine’s best interest.”
Cisco said in a research note that the malware affected devices geared for small and home offices from manufacturers including Netgear, TP-Link and Linksys and had the potential to disable “Internet access for hundreds of thousands of victims worldwide or in a focused region.”
The malware’s principal capabilities, the company said, included stealthy intelligence-collecting, monitoring industrial-control software and, if triggered, “bricking” or disabling routers. It also persists on the infected routers after they are rebooted.