Daesh retreats online to ‘virtual caliphate’
Daesh retreats online to ‘virtual caliphate’
Back in 2015, when the jihadists held territory the size of Italy, they also commanded a huge digital presence, flooding the web with slick propaganda lionizing their fighters and romanticizing life under their rule.
Today, with many of the top Daesh leaders either dead or on the run, what remains of the group’s once-sophisticated propaganda machine is also a shadow of its former self.
Their media centers destroyed, remaining propagandists find themselves struggling to maintain an Internet connection while battling surveillance from international intelligence services.
The group is less and less vocal on the web, largely leaving supporters whom it cannot control to speak in its name.
“It’s almost as if someone has pressed the mute button on the Islamic State,” said Charlie Winter, a researcher at King’s College London who has been studying Daesh communications for years. Daesh is the Arabic acronym for the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.
Between November 8 and 9 the group even went completely silent for a full 24 hours in what Winter said was an “unprecedented” break from social media.
In 2015, when Daesh was ruling over roughly seven million people in Iraq and Syria, its propagandists produced “content from 38 different media offices from West Africa to Afghanistan,” Winter said.
But by December, more than three quarters of these outlets had been “almost totally silenced,” he added.
Albert Ford, a researcher at US think-tank New America who has studied the exodus of foreign fighters to join Daesh, also said the group’s media output was “falling off considerably.”
“Fewer places to get information, fewer ways to upload it,” he said.
LOST 'GOLDEN AGE'
Back in March as Iraqi forces were ousting Daesh from their long-held bastion Mosul, an AFP journalist was able to pick through the wreckage of what was once a jihadist media center.
Between the burnt walls of the villa in an upscale part of the city were the remains of computers, printers and broadcasting equipment.
In the months before and since, the US-led military coalition fighting Daesh has repeatedly announced the deaths of senior jihadist communications officers, usually in air strikes.
Among them was the top strategist and spokesman Abu Mohamed Al-Adnani, killed in a US strike in northern Syria in August 2016.
These days Daesh propagandists mostly use the web to encourage supporters to launch attacks on their own initiative, with the much-weakened group unable to play a direct hand in organizing them.
These calls are often issued via the “deep web,” a heavily encrypted part of the Internet which is almost impossible to regulate, or the Telegram app.
Winter said he had seen a trend emerging of posts seeking to cultivate a sense of nostalgia among supporters for the height of the group’s power.
By portraying events three years ago a “golden age” stolen by “the enemies of Islam,” Daesh is hoping to convince new recruits that such times could come again if they join the cause, Winter said.
Bruce Hoffman, a terrorism specialist at Georgetown University in Washington, said the principal danger of Daesh now lies in what he calls “enabled attackers.”
A jihadist recruit such as this would have “no previous ties to terrorist organizations,” Hoffman said.
“But he is furnished very specific targeting instructions and intelligence in order to better facilitate and ensure the success of his attack.”
Such wannabe jihadists need look no further than the Internet for abundant advice that has been available online for years — and will merely pop up again after any attempt to remove it.
Indian court eases firecracker ban even as pollution soars
- Diwali festival is on November 7
- Every winter, air pollution in Delhi soars as cooler air traps harmful particles from the various emissions
NEW DELHI: India’s top court on Tuesday eased a ban on fireworks for a major Hindu festival despite air pollution in New Delhi and other cities again reaching danger levels.
The Supreme Court, which last year banned firecrackers for the Diwali festival, rejected a new call for a ban in the capital amidst growing concern over pollution.
Firecrackers set off for the Hindu festival of lights add to the toxic mix created by farmers burning crop stubble, diesel engines, coal-fired power plants and industrial emissions.
The World Health Organization in May listed 14 Indian cities, including Delhi, in the world’s top 15 with the dirtiest air.
Ahead of Diwali on November 7, the Supreme Court ordered that only reduced smoke fireworks — so-called ‘green firecrackers’ — could be sold and that this must be through licensed traders. No fireworks can be sold online, it said.
The court has also set a two hour window from 8:00pm to 10:00pm for the lighting of crackers on Diwali.
“It needs to be enforced strictly,” Gopal Sankarnarayan, a lawyer for the petitioners told NDTV television.
Last year, the Supreme Court suspended the licenses of all firecracker sellers in Delhi for one month because of the pollution crisis which leaves the Indian capital’s 20 million residents gasping for clean air during the winter months.
However, many ignored the ban and purchased crackers illegally or brought out old stocks.
Every winter, air pollution in Delhi soars as cooler air traps harmful particles from the various emissions.
Smog has climbed in recent weeks as temperatures have fallen and smoke from burning wheat fields in neighboring states has reached the capital, mingling with urban pollutants.