Rabbi predicts ‘historic times’ ahead for Jews, Muslims in Gulf

The religious leader and president of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding predicts that diplomatic relations between one or two Gulf states and Israel could be established by as soon as the end of this year. (AN Photo/Ziyad Alarfaj)
Updated 05 February 2019
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Rabbi predicts ‘historic times’ ahead for Jews, Muslims in Gulf

  • The religious leader and president of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding predicts that diplomatic relations between one or two Gulf states and Israel could be established by as soon as the end of this year
  • There are five interfaith centers involving countries from the GCC, with the Saudi center located in Vienna, Austria

ABU DHABI: The Middle East is on the brink of embarking on an “historic” new era of cooperation between Jews and Muslims, according to “Rabbi to the Gulf” Marc Schneier.
The religious leader and president of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding predicts that diplomatic relations between one or two Gulf states and Israel could be established by as soon as the end of this year. 
Schneier told Arab News that stronger relations between the ruling families of the Arabian Gulf and Israel, as well as common economic interests, made the need for increased understanding between Jewish and Muslim communities vital in the face of the “existentialist threat” each faced from Iranian expansion.
Speaking on the sidelines of the Global Conference of Human Fraternity, being held in Abu Dhabi, and coinciding with the visit of Pope Francis to the UAE, Schneier said these were “hopeful times” for the whole region.
“I have nothing against the Iranian people and there is a hope that they will come to their senses at this point. But the Iranian regime is a threat to the Gulf and to Israel,” the rabbi said.
He added that he and his organization had nothing against Shiite Muslims, and that he enjoyed good personal relations with Ilham Aliyev, president of Azerbaijan, the only official Shiite state in the world other than Iran.
But Schneier expects even closer relations to be formed between Arab Gulf states and Israel. “I would be so bold as to predict that by the end of 2019 we will see the establishment of diplomatic relations between one or two Gulf states and Israel.”
Another reason for improving bonds between Jews and Muslims, he said, was the desire by Arab leaders to strengthen ties with the US under President Donald Trump. 
Schneier said he believed Arab leaders were still “concerned” about the issue of Palestine, and that Gulf involvement could help bring about a peaceful solution in the Palestine-Israel confrontation.   
He did not rule out a visit by the pope to Saudi Arabia sometime in the future. “I can foresee it because Pope Francis has a very pure agenda. He also needs to build relations between Christians and Muslims. The Kingdom is heading in the right direction by being more progressive and recognizing a common faith.”
Schneier’s New York-based Foundation for Ethnic Understanding was established in 1989 as a vehicle to soothe tensions between African Americans and Jews in the US. In 2004 Schneier said he felt it was “mission accomplished” in that respect and decided to approach the problem of relations between Jews and Muslims. “It is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century to bridge the gulf between them,” he said.
In 2007 he was asked by the late King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia to get involved in an initiative for interfaith dialogue that took place under Saudi auspices in Madrid, Spain.
There are five interfaith centers involving countries from the GCC, with the Saudi center located in Vienna, Austria. Others are in the UAE, Bahrain, Oman and Qatar.
“I like to be able to visit Vienna. It is a multicultural city, and that is where my family came from before they moved to the US, after surviving the Jewish Holocaust in Europe,” he added.
Last Saturday Schneider attended a sabbath service at a Jewish synagogue in Dubai, which for some years has been the center for Jewish worship in the emirate, serving the religious needs of Jewish business visitors to the UAE.  


‘Two is Enough,’ Egypt tells poor families as population booms

Updated 21 February 2019
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‘Two is Enough,’ Egypt tells poor families as population booms

  • The new initiative is the first governmental family planning program in Egypt trying to change traditional mindsets favoring big families
  • Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi says population growth is one of the biggest problems in the country

SOHAG, Egypt: Nesma Ghanem is hoping for a fourth child even though her doctor says her body can’t handle a pregnancy at the moment. She has three daughters and would like them to have a brother.
“In the future he could support his father and the girls,” said Ghanem, 27, who lives in a village in Sohag, an area with one of Egypt’s highest fertility rates.
The family depends on her husband’s income from a local cafe. “If I have a son people, here in the village can say that he will carry on his father’s name,” she said.
As Egypt’s population heads toward 100 million, the government is trying to change the minds of people like Ghanem. “Two Is Enough” is the government’s first family-planning campaign aiming to challenge traditions of large families in rural Egypt. But Ghanem’s wish to have a son shows how hard that could be.
“The main challenge is that we’re trying to change a way of thinking,” said Randa Fares, coordinator of the campaign at the Social Solidarity Ministry. “To change a way of thinking is difficult.”
Egypt’s population is growing by 2.6 million a year, a high rate for a country where water and jobs are scarce and schools and hospitals overcrowded. President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi says the two biggest threats to Egypt are terrorism and population growth.
“We are faced with scarcity in water resources ... scarcity in jobs, job creation, and we need to really control this population growth so that people can feel the benefits of development,” Minister of Social Solidarity Ghada Wali told Reuters.
Decades ago, Egypt had a family-planning program, supported by the United States. The fertility rate fell from 5.6 children per woman in 1976 to 3.0 in 2008 while the use of contraceptives went up from 18.8 percent to 60.3 percent. Large amounts of contraceptives were made available and advertisements increased demand for birth control.
Support for family planning from the Egyptian government and large sums from donors helped make the program successful, said Duff Gillespie, who directed USAID’s population office from 1986 to 1993.
Donor support
But Egypt was relying on donor support and when that assistance went away, family planning was neglected. By 2014 the fertility rate had gone up to 3.5. The United States is supporting family planning in Egypt again, providing more than $19 million for a five-year project ending in 2022 and $4 million for a smaller private sector project ending in 2020.
Those amounts are significantly lower than the $371 million the United States spent on family planning in Egypt between 1976 and 2008.
“Two Is Enough” is mainly financed by Egyptian money, with the Social Solidarity Ministry spending $4.27 million and the UN providing almost $570,000, according to the ministry.
The two-year campaign targets more than 1.1 million poor families with up to three children. The Social Solidarity Ministry, with local NGOs, has trained volunteers to make home visits and encourage people to have fewer children.
Mothers are invited to seminars with preachers who say that Islam allows family planning, and doctors who answer questions. Billboards and TV ads promote smaller families. The government aims to reduce the current fertility rate of 3.5 to 2.4 by 2030.
At a session teaching volunteers how to speak to mothers and fathers about family planning in a village in Giza, Asmaa Mohammad, a 25-year-old volunteer, told Reuters she would rather have three children than two.
“Since I was a child I knew I wanted three children,” said Mohammad who is unmarried and doesn’t have children yet.
Deeply rooted traditions and lack of education explain why many Egyptians have big families. Al-Azhar, Egypt’s top Sunni Muslim authority, endorses family planning, but not all Egyptians agree.
Some view children as a future source of support. Others who only have girls keep having more until they get a boy who can carry on the family name.
During a visit from a campaign volunteer, Ghanem said her wish to have a boy was not the main reason she wasn’t using contraceptives. She stopped using an IUD after suffering from bleeding.
Contraceptives
About one in three Egyptian women stop using contraceptives within a year, often due to misinformation about the side effects or lack of information about alternatives, according to the United Nations Population Fund.
Nearly 13 percent of married women of reproductive age in Egypt want to use contraceptives but are unable to, according to official data from 2014.
Now the government has renovated clinics, added staff and provided more free contraceptives. Under “Two is Enough” the goal is to have 70 new clinics up and running in March.
But when Reuters visited a clinic in Sohag last month, there were no contraceptives left. Nema Mahmoud, who had traveled from her village, was told to come back the next day.
Sohag, one of Egypt’s poorest governorates, also has one of the highest fertility rates at 4.3. The National Population Council said contraceptive use in Sohag is the lowest among six governorates surveyed.
For years Mahmoud, 33, didn’t use contraceptives consistently even though she wanted a small family. Her mother-in-law kept her from traveling to the city to get contraceptives when the local clinic was out, she said.
It was only after her mother-in-law died that she started using contraceptives properly. By then Mahmoud had three children and three miscarriages.
Since January, the government has limited cash assistance to poor families to two children instead of three in an attempt to push them to have fewer kids. Mahmoud will receive less cash every month. Her husband works only a few days a month, making 45 Egyptian pounds ($2.60) a day, she said.
Mahmoud and her neighbor Sanaa Mohammad, a 38-year-old mother of three, said the change should apply to new families, not women like them who already benefit from the program and have more than two children.
“It’s not fair to give someone something and then take it away,” said Mohammad.
The government sees the population boom as a threat to its economic reform plans. Every year, 800,000 young Egyptians enter the labor market, where unemployment is officially 10 percent.
In Egypt, population growth is around half the economic growth rate, but it should be no more than a third — otherwise it will be difficult to invest in social programs and improve living standards, said Magued Osman, chief executive of Baseera, the Egyptian Center for Public Opinion Research.
Analysts say Egypt should target people before they have children and sex education should be available in schools.
“Two Is Enough is good, but by itself it will not do the job,” said Abla Abdel Latif, executive director of the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies.
Wafaa Mohammad Amin, 36, a mother of four who works on “Two Is Enough,” got married at 17 and had her first child a year later. Two of her children were malnourished because she didn’t know how to breastfeed properly. She had to postpone her education and couldn’t work for years.
“There are many things I know now that I wish I had known back then,” she said. “I don’t want others to go through what I went through.”