Will Sudan’s feuding generals heed Ramadan ceasefire pleas as mass starvation looms?

Special Will Sudan’s feuding generals heed Ramadan ceasefire pleas as mass starvation looms?
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Sudanese people who fled the conflict in Geneina in Sudan's Darfur region, receive food from Red Cross volunteers in Ourang on the outskirts of Adre, Chad. (Reuters/File)
Special Will Sudan’s feuding generals heed Ramadan ceasefire pleas as mass starvation looms?
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Sudanese children displaced by the conflict receive rice portions at a refugee center in Chad. (AFP/file)
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Updated 10 March 2024
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Will Sudan’s feuding generals heed Ramadan ceasefire pleas as mass starvation looms?

Will Sudan’s feuding generals heed Ramadan ceasefire pleas as mass starvation looms?
  • Specter of famine looms over communities cut off by the fighting
  • Economic collapse compels Sudanese to prioritize survival over shared joys of communal meals

ABIDJAN, Cote d’Ivoire: As the Islamic world prepares to observe the holy month of Ramadan, with its requisite fasting during daylight hours, the people of Sudan are going hungry — but not as a matter of choice. Eleven months of violence has brought the East African nation to the brink of famine.

Amid the country’s grinding conflict, now almost a year old, once abundant sesame and gum arabic harvests have faltered. Meanwhile, the specter of famine looms over communities cut off by the fighting where humanitarian aid assistance cannot reach.

“Ramadan this year is going to be challenging, due to the looming threat of famine,” Mendy Ahbizzy, a Sudanese living in South Kordofan, told Arab News.

“States such as South Kordofan and Gadarif that traditionally provided food during the rainy season last year didn’t yield much.”




Mass displacement of Sudanese, leaving in whatever vehicles they can from Khartoum or any other city. (AFP)

Osama Eklas, a pro-democracy activist in the northern town of Atbara on the River Nile, said she sees “only desperation, no big hope for the coming weeks or months.”

She told Arab News: “Not much humanitarian help has trickled through and people grow helpless with each passing day.”

Hunger has reached catastrophic proportions, underlining the urgent need for a Ramadan ceasefire. The UN reports that about 25 million people — half of Sudan’s pre-war population — now require humanitarian assistance, with 18 million facing acute food insecurity.




Sudanese refugees in camps in neighboring countries face the threat of decreasing food aid as the UN suffers from a cut in funding support. (AFP)

The roots of the crisis lie in the bitter power struggle between General Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, de facto president and head of the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), and Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, commander of the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF).

Once allies in Sudan’s transitional government following a 2021 coup, the two men have since become archfoes. The resulting conflict has caused thousands of deaths, massive displacement and horrifying atrocities, particularly against non-Arab communities in Darfur.




Sudanese Armed Forces chief Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan (left) and his former deputy, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, commander of the Rapid Support Forces. (AFP)

On Thursday, Antonio Guterres, the UN secretary-general, issued an impassioned appeal for a ceasefire, urging the feuding generals to lay down their weapons and honor the values of Ramadan.

He painted a grim picture of children dying from malnutrition. However, the message is likely to fall on deaf ears: the warring factions have ignored multiple calls for a ceasefire since the violence began on April 15 last year.

Moussa Faki Mahamat, chair of the African Union Commission, likewise called for a nationwide ceasefire for the holy month of Ramadan to help facilitate the dispatch of humanitarian aid to civilians in dire need and to prevent famine.

IN NUMBERS

25 million People ‘trapped in a spiral’ of food insecurity.

18 million ‘Acutely food insecure’ inside Sudan.

90% Facing ‘emergency levels of hunger’ inside Sudan.

4.2 million Women and girls at increased risk of sexual violence.

(Source: UN)

On Friday, the UN Security Council voted overwhelmingly in favor of a British-drafted resolution calling on Al-Burhan and Dagalo to immediately halt hostilities during Ramadan, with 14 countries in support and only Russia abstaining.

The Sudanese foreign ministry issued a statement listing a number of conditions for a ceasefire to be effective while the RSF did not respond. Yet both sides are surely aware that the appeals for a truce are a desperate plea to halt Sudan’s downward spiral into famine and chaos.




The UN's World Food Programme said it had to cut assistance to Sudanese refugees in Chad for lack of funds. (AFP photo/File)

Guterres has cautioned that regional instability “of dramatic proportions,” spanning the Sahel from Mali in the west to the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea in the east, was a possibility if the conflict is allowed to persist.

Sudan is now host to the world’s largest internally displaced population, with 6.3 million people forced from their homes, while an additional 1.7 million have sought refuge in neighboring countries.

The war’s impact on Sudanese people’s food habits has been profound.

Sudanese cuisine, once a symbol of communal harmony and variety with its stews, gravies, fresh salads and breads, has become a distant memory for a population now grappling with poverty and food insecurity.

The economic situation, characterized by heavy taxation of imported goods and consequent high inflation, has forced most Sudanese to prioritize survival over the shared joys of communal meals.

Even before the eruption of the latest conflict, the Sudanese political economy was blighted by a wide gulf between the haves and have-nots.




People rally in support of Sudan's army in Wad Madani on December 17, 2023, amid the ongoing war against the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces. (AFP/File)

Now, after 11 months of nonstop fighting, large swathes of the population, lacking the resources to unlock the land’s potential, must deal with prohibitively expensive cereals to feed themselves.

Huge tracts of arable land, abandoned by fleeing Sudanese, are now vulnerable to the relentless march of desertification brought on by drought and climate change.

In crisis-stricken South Sudan, where about 600,000 people from Sudan have sought refuge, crowded transit camps testify to a grim reality. Here, families already reeling from the privations of displacement face further deprivation.




The UN's World Food Programme said it had to cut assistance to Sudanese refugees in Chad for lack of funds. (Photo courtesy: WFP/Eloge Mbaihondoum)

According to the UN World Food Programme, one in five children crossing the border is malnourished. Just 5 percent of Sudan’s population can afford one square meal per day, painting a dire picture of widespread food insecurity.

For Samah Salman, a Sudanese-American expert in food security, the root cause of this hunger crisis is a blend of conflict, erratic rainfall and crop failure.

“Economic devastation and internal displacement have led to a 50 percent gap in Sudan’s food security needs,” Salman told Arab News. “People who once had three meals a day are now struggling with even one meal per day.”




People who once had three meals a day are now struggling with even one meal per day. (AFP/File)

The same trends affecting general agriculture apply to gum arabic, a strategic but non-edible commodity within the agriculture and forestry sector that used to be Sudan’s most important cash crop.

“In Darfur, Kordofan and Khartoum, conflict and insecurity prevent farmers and gum arabic harvesters from accessing fields, reducing cultivated areas by 40-50 percent,” Salman said.




The war in Sudan has seriously affected the production of gum arabic resin, one of the country's top exports. (AFP/File)

Economic instability further exacerbates the crisis in all the fields of agriculture. In the last quarter, Sudan saw inflation soar to 200-250 percent — the third highest globally.

“The exchange rate in the parallel market has doubled from 600 Sudanese pounds to the US dollar at the start of the conflict to about 1,100 at present, adding to the economic turmoil,” Salman said.

The situation is compounded by the deliberate destruction of Sudan’s food systems by the warring parties, obstructing people’s coping mechanisms, according to a recent policy brief from Clingendael, the Netherlands Institute of International Relations.

Clingendael said that the world had to wake up to the threat of famine in Sudan and proposed concrete measures to address the challenge.




Traders and donkey farmers gather in an open market in Gedaref state in eastern Sudan on February 16, 2024, amid increasing uses for donkeys in transportation due to fuel and petrol shortages in the war-torn country,. (AFP)

Their recommendations include injecting mobile cash directly to local producers and aiding consumers through “emergency response rooms,” along with an immediate and substantial scaling up of food aid and water, sanitation and hygiene support.

With a stark warning about the possibility of the biggest global hunger crisis in decades, Clingendael stressed the need for world powers to mobilize resources urgently and respond decisively to avert mass starvation.

A recent development offered a glimmer of hope with Sudan’s SAF-led government agreeing, for the first time, to accept humanitarian aid via Chad and South Sudan, even though supplies will have to pass through territories controlled by their RSF adversary.

 

 

The traditional Sudanese expression, “we ate together,” which once symbolized harmony and peace, now serves as a poignant reminder of the challenges faced by a nation torn apart by conflict and hunger.

As Ramadan begins, the international community watches with growing concern, hoping that calls for a ceasefire are heeded, and that the values of the holy month will bring about a lasting peace for the Sudanese people.

 


First ships dock in Yemen harbor after Israel strike: Houthi media

First ships dock in Yemen harbor after Israel strike: Houthi media
Updated 54 min 8 sec ago
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First ships dock in Yemen harbor after Israel strike: Houthi media

First ships dock in Yemen harbor after Israel strike: Houthi media
  • “The port of Hodeida is working normally around the clock” to receive commercial ships, Ahmed Al-Murtada, the deputy director of the container terminal, said
  • Ship tracking website marinetraffic.com confirmed the arrival on Tuesday of Marsa Zenith

HODEIDA, Yemen: Two container ships have docked in Yemen’s Hodeida harbor, the first since a deadly Israeli strike hit fuel storage tanks at the militant-held port, according to Houthi media and ship trackers.
The strikes on Saturday, the first claimed by Israel on Yemen, triggered a massive blaze that burned for days at the dock amid slow firefighting efforts.
It destroyed some cranes and dozens of oil tanks, according to experts. Another tank exploded overnight between Tuesday and Wednesday, reigniting some flames at the harbor, a critical gateway for fuel imports and humanitarian aid into Houthi-held areas.
Despite the ongoing threat, “the port of Hodeida is working normally around the clock” to receive commercial ships, Ahmed Al-Murtada, the deputy director of the container terminal, told the Houthi-run Saba news agency on Tuesday.
The port’s director of maritime operations, Mohamed Al-Sais, told Saba that two ships had docked at the harbor on Tuesday.
He identified them as “Marsa Zenith,” a vessel that carried 514 containers of “various goods,” and “Brother 1,” which was loaded with 22,803 tons of iron, Saba said.
Ship tracking website marinetraffic.com confirmed the arrival on Tuesday of Marsa Zenith, identifying it as a Panama-flagged vessel that departed from the port of Djibouti.
It additionally reported the arrival of the Tanzania-flagged Brother 1, which also sailed from Djibouti, according to the website.
The quays of Hodeida were spared major damage in the Israeli strike that militants say killed nine people and targeted a fuel storage depot owned by the Yemen Petroleum Company as well as a power plant north of the port.
Maritime security firm Ambrey said there were no reports of major damage to vessels in or near the harbor following the strike.
The port, however, is still at risk of another “catastrophe,” said Mwatana for Human Rights, a Yemeni right group which dispatched an assessment team to the dock.
“Based on (the findings of) our field team, the risk of more fuel tanks exploding still remains,” it told AFP in an emailed statement.
“Whenever the firefighting teams tried to extinguish the fires, the explosions and flames reignited,” Mwatana said.
“There are major concerns that the teams may not be able to... prevent another explosion.”


Hezbollah broadcasts drone video it says shows air base deep in Israel

Hezbollah broadcasts drone video it says shows air base deep in Israel
Updated 24 July 2024
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Hezbollah broadcasts drone video it says shows air base deep in Israel

Hezbollah broadcasts drone video it says shows air base deep in Israel
  • It was the third in a series of videos released by Hezbollah
  • The latest video was more than eight minutes long and, Hezbollah said, mostly shot on Tuesday

BEIRUT: Lebanese armed group Hezbollah broadcast drone video on Wednesday that it said showed air defense facilities, planes and fuel storage units at Israel’s Ramat David air base, nearly 50km (30 miles) into Israeli territory.
It was the third in a series of videos released by Hezbollah which the group has said are meant to demonstrate how far its surveillance of Israel has reached. The first video showed the Israeli port city of Haifa and the second the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.
A spokesman for the Israeli military said in a statement on X that the video was filmed by a surveillance drone and the base’s operations were not affected.
The latest video was more than eight minutes long and, Hezbollah said, mostly shot on Tuesday.
It included labels pointing out apparent military infrastructure, including the short-range Iron Dome air defense system which is designed to destroy rockets and drones.
The video also included nighttime shots that Hezbollah said were captured “earlier” and other images the group said were taken earlier in July. The caption said it was only “some” of what the drone had captured.
The videos were released as tensions mount over Israel’s war against Hamas in Gaza and over frequent exchanges of fire across Lebanon’s border with Israel.
Hezbollah has sought to evade high-tech Israeli surveillance with low-tech means, while sending its own drones across the border to monitor and attack Israeli military positions.


‘Miracle’ baby born in Gaza after airstrike kills heavily pregnant mother

‘Miracle’ baby born in Gaza after airstrike kills heavily pregnant mother
Updated 24 July 2024
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‘Miracle’ baby born in Gaza after airstrike kills heavily pregnant mother

‘Miracle’ baby born in Gaza after airstrike kills heavily pregnant mother
  • Mother fell through several floors of bombed family home
  • Families face daily tragedy as Israel battles Hamas in Gaza

GAZA: Nine months pregnant, Ola Al-Kurd could not wait to hold her baby and bring new life to Gaza during a war which has killed over 39,000 fellow Palestinians and razed much of the enclave.
That special moment never came.
An Israeli airstrike smashed into the family home in Al-Nuseirat in central Gaza on July 19, according to her father Adnan Al-Kurd. The blast threw Ola down several floors to her death in the house, whose inhabitants included women, children and the elderly, he said.
Somehow, her baby survived, as did her husband, who was hospitalized.
“It’s a miracle that the fetus stayed alive inside of her when she was martyred (died),” Adnan Al-Kurd said, contemplating a photo of his daughter’s graduation.
The explosion, like many others, killed several members of a single family, a daily tragedy across Gaza since Israel began its offensive in Gaza in response to a devastating cross-border attack by Palestinian Hamas militants on Oct. 7 last year.
Mediators from the United States, Qatar and Egypt have failed in multiple attempts to secure a ceasefire. So it is highly unlikely that Israeli airstrikes and shelling will end anytime soon.
“She wanted to hold her child and fill our home with his presence,” Al-Kurd said. “She would say, ‘Mom, hopefully, this will make up for the loss of my martyred brothers and bring life back to our home’.”
Entirely against the odds, surgeons at Al Awda hospital in Nuseirat — where Ola was first taken after the strike — managed to deliver the newborn, Malek Yassin. He was then transferred to Al Aqsa Hospital in Deir Al-Balah, where an aunt touched the baby’s face as he lay in an incubator.
“Thank God, this baby’s life was saved and he is now alive and well,” doctor Khalil Al-Dakran said at the hospital, where many medical facilities have been destroyed in over nine months of war.
Al-Kurd gazes at photos of his three late children killed in the Gaza war. He said baby Yassin is blond like his deceased uncle Omar. “I go visit him everyday. He is a part of me,” he said.
Babies who survive frequent Israeli bombardment get no relief as the conflict inflicts more destruction in the heavily built-up, densely populated Gaza Strip.
“We are in fact facing very great difficulties in the nursery department,” said Al-Dakran, due to a lack of sufficient medication and supplies and fears that the hospital generator could stop at any moment due to fuel shortages.
Hospitals across impoverished Gaza have been demolished or seriously damaged during the war, which began when Hamas-led fighters attacked Israel, killing 1,200 people and taking over 250 hostages according to Israeli tallies.
Israel responded with an air and ground offensive that has killed more than 39,000 Palestinians, according to Gaza’s Hamas-run health ministry, and levelled much of the coastal territory.
“What is the fault of this child to start his life under difficult and very bad circumstances, deprived of the most basic necessities of life?” said Dakran.


Climate change imperils drought-stricken Morocco’s cereal farmers and its food supply

Climate change imperils drought-stricken Morocco’s cereal farmers and its food supply
Updated 24 July 2024
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Climate change imperils drought-stricken Morocco’s cereal farmers and its food supply

Climate change imperils drought-stricken Morocco’s cereal farmers and its food supply
  • Delays to annual rains and inconsistent weather patterns have pushed the growing season later in the year and made planning difficult for farmers.
  • Agriculture Ministry estimates that this year’s wheat harvest will yield roughly 3.4 million tons, far less than last year’s 6.1 million tons

KENITRA: Golden fields of wheat no longer produce the bounty they once did in Morocco. A six-year drought has imperiled the country’s entire agriculture sector, including farmers who grow cereals and grains used to feed humans and livestock.
The North African nation projects this year’s harvest will be smaller than last year in both volume and acreage, putting farmers out of work and requiring more imports and government subsidies to prevent the price of staples like flour from rising for everyday consumers.
“In the past, we used to have a bounty — a lot of wheat. But during the last seven or eight years, the harvest has been very low because of the drought,” said Al Housni Belhoussni, a small-scale farmer who has long tilled fields outside of the city of Kenitra.
Belhoussni’s plight is familiar to grain farmers throughout the world confronting a hotter and drier future. Climate change is imperiling the food supply and, in regions like North Africa, shrinking the annual yields of cereals that dominate diets around the world — wheat, rice, maize and barley.
The region is one of the most vulnerable in the world to climate change. Delays to annual rains and inconsistent weather patterns have pushed the growing season later in the year and made planning difficult for farmers.
In Morocco, where cereals account for most of the farmed land and agriculture employs the majority of workers in rural regions, the drought is wreaking havoc and touching off major changes that will transform the makeup of the economy. It has forced some to leave their fields fallow. It has also made the areas they do elect to cultivate less productive, producing far fewer sacks of wheat to sell than they once did.
In response, the government has announced restrictions on water use in urban areas — including on public baths and car washes — and in rural ones, where water going to farms has been rationed.
“The late rains during the autumn season affected the agriculture campaign. This year, only the spring rains, especially during the month of March, managed to rescue the crops,” said Abdelkrim Naaman, the chairman of Nalsya. The organization has advised farmers on seeding, irrigation and drought mitigation as less rain falls and less water flows through Morocco’s rivers.
The Agriculture Ministry estimates that this year’s wheat harvest will yield roughly 3.4 million tons, far less than last year’s 6.1 million tons — a yield that was still considered low. The amount of land seeded has dramatically shrunk as well, from 36,700 square kilometers to 24,700 square kilometers.
Such a drop constitutes a crisis, said Driss Aissaoui, an analyst and former member of the Moroccan Ministry for Agriculture.
“When we say crisis, this means that you have to import more,” he said. “We are in a country where drought has become a structural issue.”
Leaning more on imports means the government will have to continue subsidizing prices to ensure households and livestock farmers can afford dietary staples for their families and flocks, said Rachid Benali, the chairman of the farming lobby COMADER.
The country imported nearly 2.5 million tons of common wheat between January and June. However, such a solution may have an expiration date, particularly because Morocco’s primary source of wheat, France, is facing shrinking harvests as well.
The United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization ranked Morocco as the world’s sixth-largest wheat importer this year, between Turkiye and Bangladesh, which both have much bigger populations.
“Morocco has known droughts like this and in some cases known droughts that las longer than 10 years. But the problem, this time especially, is climate change,” Benali said.


Israel far-right minister says prayed at flashpoint mosque compound

Israel far-right minister says prayed at flashpoint mosque compound
Updated 24 July 2024
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Israel far-right minister says prayed at flashpoint mosque compound

Israel far-right minister says prayed at flashpoint mosque compound

JERUSALEM: A far-right Israeli minister said Wednesday he had prayed at Jerusalem’s flashpoint Al-Aqsa mosque compound, yet again defying longstanding rules that allow Jews to visit but not to pray.
The mosque compound is Islam’s third holiest site and a symbol of Palestinian national identity but it is also revered by Jews as the site of their ancient temple, destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD.
“I’m the political leadership and the political leadership authorizes prayers on the Temple Mount,” National Security Minister Itamar Ben Gvir told a symposium in the Israeli parliament.
“I prayed on the Temple Mount last week and Jews pray on the Temple Mount... There is no reason why parts of the Temple Mount should be off-limits for Jews,” said Ben Gvir, who is known for provocative gestures.
While Jews and other non-Muslims are allowed to visit the mosque compound in Israeli-annexed east Jerusalem during specific hours, they are not permitted to pray or display religious symbols.
In recent years, the restrictions have been increasingly flouted by hard-line religious nationalists like Ben Gvir, prompting a sometimes violent reaction from Palestinians.
Ben Gvir’s remarks came as Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was due to address the US Congress in a bid to rally support amid tensions with President Joe Biden’s administration over his government’s handling of the war in Gaza.