Saudi Arabia’s fintech sector driving digital transformation

Saudi Arabia’s fintech sector driving digital transformation
To date, more than SR4 billion ($1 billion) has been invested in local fintech companies, with over 100,000 individuals taking part in related events and programs. (SPA)
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Updated 12 May 2024
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Saudi Arabia’s fintech sector driving digital transformation

Saudi Arabia’s fintech sector driving digital transformation
  • More than $1 billion has been invested in local fintech firms, says report

CAIRO: Saudi Arabia’s fintech sector has made significant strides as it nears its goal to become a regional financial hub, according to a report by Arthur D. Little.  

In its latest study titled “Realizing Potential of Fintech in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” the international management consulting firm highlighted the rapid growth and innovation within the sector, spearheaded by initiatives such as Fintech Saudi. 

Launched in April 2018 by the Saudi Central Bank, also known as SAMA, and the Saudi Capital Markets Authority, Fintech Saudi has been a pivotal force in promoting the Kingdom as the leading fintech hub in the Middle East and North Africa.  

The initiative includes programs such as an accelerator, career fair, fintech tour, and summer sessions, contributing to a 20-fold increase in the number of fintech companies in the Kingdom since the program’s establishment.  

To date, more than SR4 billion ($1 billion) has been invested in local fintech companies, with over 100,000 individuals participating in related events and training programs, the report said. 

The adoption of a national strategy in May 2022 marked a significant advancement in the country’s fintech sector.  

The strategy is built on six pillars, which include establishing the Kingdom as a regional fintech hub, fostering a regulatory environment conducive to growth, providing funding for startups, enhancing skills training, accelerating support infrastructure, and promoting local and international collaboration.

Ambitious goals 

The Vision 2030 goals include the establishment of at least 525 fintech companies by 2030, up from 200 in 2023, the creation of 18,000 fintech job opportunities, up from approximately 5,400 in 2023, contribute SR13.3 billion to the gross domestic product, a substantial increase from around SR3.75 billion in 2023, and achieve SR12.2 billion in direct venture capital contributions, compared to SR5.2 billion in 2023. 

Fintech Saudi has catalyzed this growth through various initiatives, including the Fintech Accelerator Program, the Fintech Saudi Innovation Hub, and an online Fintech directory.  

Additionally, the establishment of a fintech regulatory sandbox by SAMA has allowed for controlled live testing of fintech innovations, easing their transition to the open market. Further boosting the sector, the Saudi Venture Capital Co., backed by CMA and the Financial Sector Development Program, has launched a SR300 million fund focused on fintech startups, with plans to invest an additional SR6 billion in startups and small and medium enterprises across various sectors. 

So far, SVC investment in 35 VC funds has facilitated over 900 deals and SR1.9 billion in investments. Additionally, the Saudi National Technology Development Program has introduced the Technology Development Financing Initiative, providing debt funding to support startups.

A cashless society 

“Saudi Arabia has embarked on a journey to transform society to be less dependent on cash transactions,” the report noted, highlighting the FSDP as instrumental in this shift by fostering a regulatory environment conducive to the growth of payment companies. 

The ambition of Vision 2030 is notably high, aiming to increase the proportion of non-cash transactions to 80 percent by 2030, up from just 18 percent in 2016.  

Remarkably, by 2021, cashless payments constituted 62 percent of all transactions, significantly surpassing the interim targets, the report stated. 

Saudi Arabia has embarked on a journey to transform society to be less dependent on cash transactions.

Mohammad Nikkar, principal at Arthur D. Little

This rapid adoption has been supported by the integration of innovative payment solutions, including digital wallets, local transfers, QR code payments, and the SADAD system for bill payments. 

“According to data released by SAMA, digital wallet usage has seen an exponential rise from 315,000 in 2018 to 17 million by 2022, representing over half of Saudi Arabia’s population,” the report stated.  

Initially, bank transfers dominated as the primary method for topping up these wallets, but by 2022, around 80 percent of top-ups were being made via debit or credit cards, indicating a shift in consumer behavior. 

The report also sheds light on the increasing reliance on digital wallets among expatriates for international transfers, with non-Saudi users of digital wallets increasing from 17 percent in 2018 to 45 percent in 2022.  

Among the leaders in this burgeoning market are stc pay and urpay. stc pay, in particular, has distinguished itself as the first fintech unicorn in the Kingdom, with a notable 25 percent year-on-year increase in profits in 2022, as stated in the report.

Alternative financing 

The report, co-authored by Mohammad Nikkar, principal at Arthur D. Little, and Arjun Vir Singh, partner at the firm, delved into Saudi Arabia’s alternative financing sector, notably buy now, pay later and debt crowdfunding, which has become the second-largest fintech subsector after Saudi Payments. 

BNPL usage has surged from 76,000 customers in 2020 to over 10 million in 2022, with market leaders like Saudi-based Tabby
and Tamara expanding across the Gulf Cooperation Council, the report explained. 

Debt crowdfunding is also growing as a vital funding source for SMEs. Since 2019, investors have issued over 1,800 loans worth more than SR1.1 billion, with SR770 million disbursed in 2022 alone.  

However, challenges persist with rising interest rates and fluctuating approval rates.

Challenges 

“While the future for fintech in Saudi Arabia looks bright, there are still some important challenges to overcome,” the report stated. 

Increasing Saudi Arabia’s visibility on the international stage is crucial. The report emphasizes the need to enhance the Kingdom’s global profile by articulating its unique fintech ecosystem offerings to attract more global entrepreneurs and investors. 

“Streamlining regulatory frameworks. Efforts to simplify the setup and licensing processes are underway to create a more navigable regulatory environment for fintech entities. Continued enhancements in this area will support both local and international ventures,” the report added.  

Furthermore, expanding funding avenues is also essential. The development of more accessible financial mechanisms such as accelerators and grants is expected to invigorate the investment climate, allowing a diverse range of fintech initiatives to flourish, the report explained. 

Addressing the talent gap is also a priority as strategies should be implemented to cultivate local expertise and address challenges like high turnover and competitive salary demands.  

Moreover, optimizing investment in infrastructure to reduce the cost of essential technology, while ensuring compliance with local data regulations, is also a vital aspect. 

Lastly, fostering international partnerships is key to the long-term success of Saudi fintechs, helping them adapt and thrive in the global market, the report explained. 

“By addressing these areas thoughtfully, Saudi Arabia can enhance its fintech ecosystem, ensuring robust growth and sustainable development in the years to come,” it added. 

Transformational drivers 

The consultancy identified six transformational drivers essential to overcoming existing challenges and ensuring robust growth within the Kingdom’s fintech landscape. 

The report emphasized the need for elevating Saudi Arabia’s global positioning in the fintech domain. The Kingdom aspires to enhance its international presence by illustrating its unique value propositions and inviting participation from global fintech innovators.  

This could be achieved through forging international alliances and showcasing Saudi advancements at global fintech symposiums, potentially increasing its influence not just in the MENA region but globally. 

On the regulatory front, the report suggests that Saudi Arabia refine its regulatory processes and align them more closely with international best practices, particularly in burgeoning sectors like open banking. 

Strengthening the angel investor network and fortifying public-private partnerships are also seen as vital steps to provide foundational support for early-stage initiatives and reinforce growth for mature firms. 

Additionally, the report advocates for significant investment in educational programs tailored to fintech and associated industries.  

Lastly, the report highlights the importance of managing infrastructure costs by encouraging a competitive tech provider market and local data-hosting solutions, supported by government incentives for technological advancements.


Oman’s capital market draws 135 nationalities; foreign investments up 19%: MSX data

Oman’s capital market draws 135 nationalities; foreign investments up 19%: MSX data
Updated 23 June 2024
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Oman’s capital market draws 135 nationalities; foreign investments up 19%: MSX data

Oman’s capital market draws 135 nationalities; foreign investments up 19%: MSX data

RIYADH: Oman’s capital market has attracted investors from 135 nationalities, up from 67 in 2023, supported by favorable policies including low tax rates and flexible capital transfer options. 

Newly released statistics from the Muscat Stock Exchange reveal a 19 percent increase in foreign investments as of May, including participants from the Gulf Cooperation Council, Arab countries, and beyond. 

Oman’s capital market has implemented policies favoring foreign investments, including unrestricted profit repatriation and exchange operations. This trend aligns with the nation’s economic resurgence and growing institutional confidence in government strategies aimed at reducing public debt, increasing investment in essential services, and launching infrastructure projects to bolster private sector participation. 

The MSX data also indicates that foreign investments are predominantly focused on the industrial and service sectors, accounting for 15.8 percent and 15.7 percent respectively. 

Gulf investors are particularly focused on the services sector, accounting for 15.4 percent, and the financial industry at 8.5 percent. 

Conversely, non-Gulf Arab investments are primarily directed toward the financial sector, comprising 3 percent. 

Local investments heavily favor the financial industry at 87.6 percent, followed by the industrial sector at 75.6 percent and the services sector at 67.7 percent. 

The first half of this year has seen significant growth in trading activity at MSX, underscoring heightened market dynamism.  

Trading volumes surged to 3.1 billion securities, surpassing 517 million Omani rials ($1.3 billion) in value by the end of May, marking a notable 38.4 percent increase from the previous year.

Executed transactions also rose, reflecting increased market participation and liquidity. 

The exchange is expanding its database on listed companies to enhance transparency and advocate for disclosure standards among publicly traded entities, the Oman News Agency reported.  

Additionally, efforts are underway to encourage government and family-owned businesses to transition into privately held entities, enriching market diversity and investment opportunities. 

Foreign investors can invest in shares of MSX-listed companies or investment funds without prior permission, under the oversight of an independent supervisory body ensuring market fairness, investor protection, and transparency.  

Foreign investment in MSX-listed public joint-stock companies is permitted up to 100 percent, with significant interest observed in the industrial and services sectors, highlighting diversified investor preferences. 

Reflecting positive sentiment, the market capitalization of MSX-listed public joint-stock companies reached 9.4 billion rials by May’s end, up 448.5 million rials since the start of the year.  

The broader market value of all MSX-listed securities rose to 24.48 billion riyals, a gain of 676 million riyals year-over-year, bolstered by contributions from closed companies and the bond and sukuk market. 

Market indices reflected this growth, with the main index climbing to 4845 points by May’s close, up 331 points from the previous period.  

Successful IPOs by entities like Abraaj Energy Services and OQ Gas Networks have attracted new investors and boosted market liquidity, with OQ considering IPOs for two more subsidiaries this year, according to Bloomberg. 

This upward trend underscores investor confidence in MSX’s growth potential, supported by Oman Investment Authority’s plans to offer additional companies for public subscription in the coming years.  

The OIA reported a 7.4 percent year-on-year increase in Oman’s sovereign wealth fund assets, reaching 19.24 billion rials in 2023, with a 9.95 percent return on investment, as disclosed in a statement on X. 

This performance underscores the authority’s pivotal role in fostering economic growth and stability in the Middle Eastern country.  

The robust results also reflect the OIA’s strategic investment approach and effective management of its diverse portfolio, in line with its mandate to manage national funds and assets, build financial reserves, and advance targeted economic sectors through government policies. 

At a media briefing in Muscat earlier this month, the authority affirmed its commitment to contributing over 6 billion rials annually to the state’s general budget from 2016 through 2023.  

The statement further outlined the OIA’s plans to geographically diversify its new foreign and local investments across various sectors, while facilitating technology transfer and modern techniques to bolster targeted local industries. 

Looking ahead, MSX aims to strengthen its regulatory framework, expand investor outreach initiatives, and cultivate an environment conducive to sustainable economic growth, the Oman News Agency reported.  

By enhancing its reputation as a gateway for international investment and adhering to global best practices in financial markets, MSX aims to maintain its position as a leading choice for investors interested in opportunities in Oman’s dynamic capital market, it added.


Closing Bell: Saudi main index rose to close at 11,729

Closing Bell: Saudi main index rose to close at 11,729
Updated 23 June 2024
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Closing Bell: Saudi main index rose to close at 11,729

Closing Bell: Saudi main index rose to close at 11,729

RIYADH: Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All Share Index rose on Sunday, gaining 231.04 points, or 2.01 percent, to close at 11,729.97.

The total trading turnover of the benchmark index was SR5.18 billion ($1.38 billion) as 79 of the stocks advanced, while 151 retreated.

Similarly, the Kingdom’s parallel market Nomu gained 71.63 points, or 0.27 percent, to close at 26,825.62. This comes as 32 of the listed stocks advanced while 36 retreated. 

Meanwhile, the MSCI Tadawul Index also gained 38.14 points, or 2.65 percent, to close at 1,475.68.

The best-performing stock of the day was Rasan Information Technology Co. The company’s share price surged 10.60 percent to SR53.20. 

Other top performers include ACWA Power Co. as well as Fawaz Abdulaziz Alhokair Co.

The worst performer was Batic Investments and Logistics Co., whose share price dropped by 5.81 percent to SR3.08. 

Other worst performers were Etihad Atheeb Telecommunication Co. as well as Saudi Manpower Solutions Co.

On the announcements front, Yanbu Cement Co. has announced the signing of a non-binding memorandum of understanding with Southern Province Cement Co. to evaluate the feasibility of merging the two companies.

According to a Tadawul statement, both firms will commence the process of due diligence, examining operational, technical, and financial as well as legal and actuarial aspects. 

They will also engage in non-binding discussions regarding the details of the terms and conditions for the proposed merger.

The MoU shall terminate upon the signing of the merger agreement by both companies or upon the expiration of 12 months from the date of its signing. It may also be extended with the approval of both firms jointly.

Additionally, either company may terminate the MoU by providing written notice to the other party in this regard.

Moreover, Edarat Communication and Information Technology Co. has announced the receipt of a letter of award from Almoammar Information Systems Co. to provide facility management support services for Sahayeb Data Centers.

A bourse filing revealed that, under the terms of the agreement, Edarat will provide support services, including managing, operating, and maintaining Sahayeb Data Centers located in Riyadh and Dammam, starting in the second quarter of 2024 and continuing until the end of 2025.


Saudi Arabia’s FDI soars to $65bn post-pandemic, among top in West Asia: report

Saudi Arabia’s FDI soars to $65bn post-pandemic, among top in West Asia: report
Updated 23 June 2024
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Saudi Arabia’s FDI soars to $65bn post-pandemic, among top in West Asia: report

Saudi Arabia’s FDI soars to $65bn post-pandemic, among top in West Asia: report

RIYADH: Saudi Arabia attracted $65.1 billion in foreign direct investment in the three years post-pandemic until 2023, placing it among West Asia’s top recipients, according to new data.  

According to the latest World Investment Report by the UN Conference on Trade and Development, the Kingdom's FDI outflows totaled $73.1 billion over the same period, with $16 billion recorded last year alone. This places Saudi Arabia among the top 20 economies globally for FDI outflows, ranking 16th. 

In accordance with the goals set out in the National Investment Strategy and Vision 2030 targets, Saudi Arabia has enacted substantial legal, economic, and social reforms aimed at stimulating inflows of foreign direct investment.

Launched in 2021, NIS looks to develop comprehensive investment plans across various sectors such as manufacturing, renewable energy, transport and logistics, tourism, digital infrastructure, and healthcare.

Furthermore, it aims to increase annual FDI flows to over $103 billion and boost annual domestic investment to more than $453 billion by 2030.

The UN report also noted a 55 percent annual increase in the value of international project finance deals in Saudi Arabia in 2023, reaching $22 billion. 

Last year, the nation witnessed 19 deals, marking a 90 percent growth compared to the previous year. 

Additionally, Saudi Arabia saw 389 announced greenfield projects in 2023, totaling $29 billion, reflecting a 108 percent annual increase in value. 

On a global level, FDI experienced a marginal yearly decline of 2 percent in 2023, dropping to $1.3 trillion.  

The analysis highlighted that the overall figure was significantly influenced by substantial financial flows through a few European conduit economies. 

Excluding the impact of these conduits, global FDI flows were more than 10 percent lower than in 2022. 

Conduit economies refer to countries that act as intermediaries for financial flows, especially foreign direct investment. 

These economies attract multinational corporations with favorable tax laws and regulatory environments, allowing funds to pass through on their way to final investment destinations, often for tax optimization and regulatory benefits. Examples include the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Switzerland, as well as Cyprus and Ireland.  

The challenges  

UNCTAD stated that the global landscape for international investment remains challenging in 2024. Factors such as declining growth prospects, economic fragmentation, and trade and geopolitical tensions are influencing FDI patterns. Industrial policies and the diversification of supply chains also present limitations.  

These factors have prompted many multinational enterprises to adopt a cautious approach to overseas expansion.  

“However, MNE profit levels remain high, financing conditions are easing and increased greenfield project announcements in 2023 will positively affect FDI. Modest growth for the full year appears possible,” the report stated.  

International project finance and cross-border mergers and acquisitions were particularly weak in 2023.  

M&As, which predominantly impact FDI in developed countries, fell in value by 46 percent, while project finance, a crucial factor for infrastructure investment, was down 26 percent.  

According to the report, the principal causes of this decline included tighter financing conditions, investor uncertainty, volatility in financial markets, and increased regulatory scrutiny for M&As.  

In developed countries, the 2023 trend was significantly influenced by MNE financial transactions, partly driven by efforts to implement a minimum tax on the largest MNEs.  

Regional deep dive  

Due to volatility in conduit economies, FDI flows in Europe shifted dramatically from negative $106 billion in 2022 to positive $16 billion in 2023.  

Inflows to the rest of Europe declined by 14 percent, while inflows in other developed countries stagnated, with a 5 percent decline in North America and significant decreases elsewhere.  

FDI flows to developing countries fell by 7 percent to $867 billion, primarily due to an 8 percent decrease in developing Asia.  

Flows fell by 3 percent in Africa and 1 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean. The number of international project finance deals dropped by a quarter.  

Although greenfield project announcements in developing countries increased by over 1,000, these initiatives were highly concentrated in specific regions.  

Greenfield project announcements refer to the initiation of new investment undertakings where companies build operations from scratch on undeveloped land, leading to the construction of new facilities and infrastructure.  

South-East Asia accounted for almost half of these projects, West Asia for a quarter, while Africa saw a small increase, and Latin America and the Caribbean attracted fewer initiatives.  

FDI inflows to Africa declined by 3 percent in 2023 to $53 billion. Despite several megaproject announcements, including Mauritania’s largest worldwide green hydrogen project, international project finance in Africa fell by a quarter in the number of deals and half in value, negatively affecting infrastructure investment prospects.  

In developing Asia, FDI fell by 8 percent to $621 billion. China, the world’s second-largest FDI recipient, experienced a rare decline in inflows, with significant decreases recorded in India and West and Central Asia.  

The report stated that only South-East Asia held steady, with industrial investment remaining buoyant despite the global downturn in project finance.  

FDI flows to Latin America and the Caribbean were down 1 percent to $193 billion.  

The number of international project finance and greenfield investment announcements fell, but the value of greenfield projects increased due to large investments in commodity sectors, critical minerals and renewable energy as well as green hydrogen, and green ammonia.  

Conversely, FDI flows to structurally weak and vulnerable economies increased. FDI inflows to least developed countries rose to $31 billion, accounting for 2.4 percent of global FDI flows, the report stated.  

“Landlocked developing countries and small island developing states also saw increased FDI. In all three groups, FDI remains concentrated among a few countries,” the report added.  

The global downturn in international project finance disproportionately affected the poorest countries, where such finance is relatively more important.  

Industry trends showed lower investment in infrastructure and the digital economy but strong growth in global value chain-intensive sectors such as manufacturing and critical minerals.  

Weak project finance markets negatively impacted infrastructure investment, and digital economy sectors continued to slow down after the boom ended in 2022.  

The report further stated that global value chain-intensive sectors, including automotive, electronics, and machinery industries, grew strongly, driven by supply chain restructuring pressures. Investment in critical minerals extraction and processing nearly doubled in project numbers and values. 


Saudi Arabia offers 5th round of ‘Sah’ savings product with 5.55% return 

Saudi Arabia offers 5th round of ‘Sah’ savings product with 5.55% return 
Updated 23 June 2024
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Saudi Arabia offers 5th round of ‘Sah’ savings product with 5.55% return 

Saudi Arabia offers 5th round of ‘Sah’ savings product with 5.55% return 

RIYADH: Saudi Arabia has opened its fifth round of the subscription-based savings product, Sah, for June, offering a 5.55 percent return, encouraging financial stability and growth among citizens.    

The Shariah-compliant, government-backed sukuk started on June 23 and will run until June 25, with redemption amounts scheduled within a year, as announced by the National Debt Management Center in a release on X. 

Organized by the NDMC and issued by the Ministry of Finance, these fee-free savings products provide low-risk returns and are distributed through digital channels of approved financial institutions. 

Sah is the first government sukuk issued aimed at enhancing saving habits by motivating Saudis to deduct a portion of their income periodically and allocate it to their savings.   

The sukuk aligns with the goals of the Financial Sector Development Program, a key initiative of Saudi Vision 2030, which aims to increase the national savings rate from the current 6 percent to the international standard of 10 percent by 2030. 

Moreover, the release added that the minimum subscription amount is SR1,000 ($266.43), equivalent to the value of one bond, while the maximum is SR200,000, allowing up to 200 bonds per user during the program period. 

The Sah product is available to Saudi nationals aged 18 and above who open an account with SNB Capital, Aljazira Capital, or Alinma Investment. SAB Invest and Al Rajhi Capital are also eligible options. 

Moreover, it offers attractive returns aligned with prevailing market rates, leveraging government backing to ensure it remains a low-risk financial instrument. 

Participants can redeem their investments according to the published annual calendar; however, early withdrawals forfeit accrued returns and profits. 

In February, Hani Al-Medaini, CEO of the National Debt Management Center, highlighted that the sukuk aims to foster private-sector collaboration. Future initiatives include developing and launching tailored savings products for various individual categories through banks, fund managers, financial technology companies, and others. 

“I believe that issuing Sah is a great financial initiative led by the Saudi government to encourage people to save and enhance financial inclusion in the Kingdom. This initiative entitles everyone to access financial products and services that meet their needs, such as having a bank account or savings product like Sah,” Al-Madini said at the time. 

The CEO further added: “It will not only benefit Saudi individuals by encouraging them to save, but it will also have a positive impact on the national economy. It is expected to stimulate economic growth and elevate national savings rates to international standards.” 


Saudia tops Kingdom’s airlines in May for passenger satisfaction and resolution: GACA 

Saudia tops Kingdom’s airlines in May for passenger satisfaction and resolution: GACA 
Updated 23 June 2024
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Saudia tops Kingdom’s airlines in May for passenger satisfaction and resolution: GACA 

Saudia tops Kingdom’s airlines in May for passenger satisfaction and resolution: GACA 

RIYADH: Saudi Arabia’s flagship carrier, Saudia, registered the fewest complaints among the Kingdom’s airlines and documented a 95 percent resolution rate, according to official data. 

In its May rankings of air transport service providers and airports, the General Authority of Civil Aviation noted that a total of 1,318 complaints were registered against Saudi airlines. 

As part of its efforts to uphold passenger rights and promote transparency in the aviation sector, the authority has been conducting a monitoring and inspection program to ensure that Saudi airports and carriers adhere to international standards and recommendations. 

This monthly classification, based on traveler complaints received by GACA, considers Saudia, flyadeal, and flynas, as well as multiple airports across the Kingdom. 

Saudia emerged with the lowest incidence of complaints among airlines, with only 10 per 100,000 travelers and an impressive 95 percent resolution rate. 

Following closely, flyadeal recorded 11 complaints per 100,000 passengers, with a resolution rate of 99 percent, while flynas had 13 complaints per 100,000 travelers and a resolution rate of 100 percent. 

The primary grievances centered around issues concerning luggage, flights, and ticketing. 

Among international airports serving over 6 million passengers annually in the Kingdom, King Fahd Airport in Dammam demonstrated good performance, registering a mere three complaints per 100,000 travelers and achieving a 100 percent resolution rate. 

Similarly, Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Airport in Tabuk reported only one complaint per 100,000 passengers, with a 100 percent resolution rate. 

Najran Airport stood out among domestic airports with two complaints per 100,000 passengers and a 100 percent resolution rate. 

Emphasizing its commitment to transparency and service excellence, GACA reiterated that the monthly classification report serves to foster fair competition, enhance service quality, and bolster trust among travelers, the Saudi Press Agency reported. 

Furthermore, GACA has equipped airport operators with comprehensive guidelines for handling complaints, underscoring adherence to service agreements and regulatory standards, SPA added. 

Regular workshops conducted by GACA further empower airline and ground service company staff to implement passenger protection measures effectively. 

According to the authority, it maintains multiple communication channels, including phone, email, and social media, open around the clock to enable interaction with travelers and airport visitors. 

The complaints received through these channels often concern issues such as boarding passes, employee behavior, and services for persons with disabilities and limited mobility.