Global pollution kills 9 million people a year, study finds

Smoke rises from the Duvha coal-based power station owned by state power utility Eskom, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa, 18 February, 2020. (REUTERS)
Smoke rises from the Duvha coal-based power station owned by state power utility Eskom, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa, 18 February, 2020. (REUTERS)
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Updated 18 May 2022

Global pollution kills 9 million people a year, study finds

Smoke rises from the Duvha coal-based power station owned by state power utility Eskom, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.
  • Pollution kills about the same number of people a year around the world as cigarette smoking and second-hand smoke combined, the study said

NEW DELHI: A new study blames pollution of all types for 9 million deaths a year globally, with the death toll attributed to dirty air from cars, trucks and industry rising 55 percent since 2000.
That increase is offset by fewer pollution deaths from primitive indoor stoves and water contaminated with human and animal waste, so overall pollution deaths in 2019 are about the same as 2015.
The United States is the only fully industrialized country in the top 10 nations for total pollution deaths, ranking 7th with 142,883 deaths blamed on pollution in 2019, sandwiched between Bangladesh and Ethiopia, according to a new study in the journal The Lancet Planetary Health. Tuesday’s pre-pandemic study is based on calculations derived from the Global Burden of Disease database and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in Seattle. India and China lead the world in pollution deaths with nearly 2.4 million and almost 2.2 million deaths a year, but the two nations also have the world’s largest populations.
When deaths are put on a per population rate, the United States ranks 31st from the bottom at 43.6 pollution deaths per 100,000. Chad and the Central African Republic rank the highest with rates about 300 pollution deaths per 100,000, more than half of them due to tainted water, while Brunei, Qatar and Iceland have the lowest pollution death rates ranging from 15 to 23. The global average is 117 pollution deaths per 100,000 people.
Pollution kills about the same number of people a year around the world as cigarette smoking and second-hand smoke combined, the study said.
“9 million deaths is a lot of deaths,” said Philip Landrigan, director of the Global Public Health Program and Global Pollution Observatory at Boston College.
“The bad news is that it’s not decreasing,” Landrigan said. “We’re making gains in the easy stuff and we’re seeing the more difficult stuff, which is the ambient (outdoor industrial) air pollution and the chemical pollution, still going up.”
It doesn’t have to be this way, researchers said.
“They are preventable deaths. Each and every one of them is a death that is unnecessary,” said Dr. Lynn Goldman, dean of the George Washington University School of Public Health, who wasn’t part of the study. She said the calculations made sense and if anything. was so conservative about what it attributed to pollution, that the real death toll is likely higher.
The certificates for these deaths don’t say pollution. They list heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, other lung issues and diabetes that are “tightly correlated” with pollution by numerous epidemiological studies, Landrigan said. To then put these together with actual deaths, researchers look at the number of deaths by cause, exposure to pollution weighted for various factors, and then complicated exposure response calculations derived by large epidemiological studies based on thousands of people over decades of study, he said. It’s the same way scientists can say cigarettes cause cancer and heart disease deaths.
“That cannon of information constitutes causality,” Landrigan said. “That’s how we do it.”
Five outside experts in public health and air pollution, including Goldman, told The Associated Press the study follows mainstream scientific thought. Dr. Renee Salas, an emergency room doctor and Harvard professor who wasn’t part of the study, said “the American Heart Association determined over a decade ago that exposure to (tiny pollution particles) like that generated from the burning of fossil fuels is causal for heart disease and death.”
“While people focus on decreasing their blood pressure and cholesterol, few recognize that the removal of air pollution is an important prescription to improve their heart health,” Salas said.
Three-quarters of the overall pollution deaths came from air pollution and the overwhelming part of that is “a combination of pollution from stationary sources like coal-fired power plants and steel mills on one hand and mobile sources like cars, trucks and buses. And it’s just a big global problem,” said Landrigan, a public health physician. “And it’s getting worse around the world as countries develop and cities grow.”
In New Delhi, India, air pollution peaks in the winter months and last year the city saw just two days when the air wasn’t considered polluted. It was the first time in four years that the city experienced a clean air day during the winter months.
That air pollution remains the leading cause of death in South Asia reconfirms what is already known, but the increase in these deaths means that toxic emissions from vehicles and energy generation is increasing, said Anumita Roychowdhury, a director at the advocacy group Center for Science and Environment in New Delhi.
“This data is a reminder of what is going wrong but also that it is an opportunity to fix it,” Roychowdhury said.
Pollution deaths are soaring in the poorest areas, experts said.
“This problem is worst in areas of the world where population is most dense (e.g. Asia) and where financial and government resources to address the pollution problem are limited and stretched thin to address a host of challenges including health care availability and diet as well as pollution,” said Dan Greenbaum, president of the Health Effects Institute, who wasn’t part of the study.
In 2000, industrial air pollution killed about 2.9 million people a year globally. By 2015 it was up to 4.2 million and in 2019 it was 4.5 million, the study said. Toss in household air pollution, mostly from inefficient primitive stoves, and air pollution killed 6.7 million people in 2019, the study found.
Lead pollution — some from lead additive which has been banned from gasoline in every country in the world and also from old paint, recycling batteries and other manufacturing — kills 900,000 people a year, while water pollution is responsible for 1.4 million deaths a year. Occupational health pollution adds another 870,000 deaths, the study said.
In the United States, about 20,000 people a year die from lead pollution-induced hypertension, heart disease and kidney disease, mostly as occupational hazards, Landrigan said. Lead and asbestos are America’s big chemical occupational hazards, and they kill about 65,000 people a year from pollution, he said. The study said the number of air pollution deaths in the United States in 2019 was 60,229, far more than deaths on American roads, which hit a 16-year peak of nearly 43,000 last year.
Modern types of pollution are rising in most countries, especially developing ones, but fell from 2000 to 2019 in the United States, the European Union and Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s numbers can’t quite be explained and may be a reporting issue, said study co-author Richard Fuller, founder of the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution and president of Pure Earth, a non-profit that works on pollution clean-up programs in about a dozen countries.
The study authors came up with eight recommendations to reduce pollution deaths, highlighting the need for better monitoring, better reporting and stronger government systems regulating industry and cars.
“We absolutely know how to solve each one of those problems,” Fuller said. “What’s missing is political will.”


Republicans criticize Biden for waiting to shoot down Chinese balloon

Republicans criticize Biden for waiting to shoot down Chinese balloon
Updated 10 sec ago

Republicans criticize Biden for waiting to shoot down Chinese balloon

Republicans criticize Biden for waiting to shoot down Chinese balloon
  • “China had too much respect for ‘TRUMP’ for this to have happened, and it NEVER did,” Trump wrote on social media

WASHINGTON: Republican US lawmakers on Sunday criticized President Joe Biden for waiting days to shoot down a suspected Chinese spy balloon as it floated over the United States, accusing him of showing weakness toward China and initially trying to keep the breach of US airspace undisclosed.
A US Air Force fighter jet on Saturday shot down the balloon off the coast of South Carolina, a week after it first entered US airspace near Alaska, triggering a dramatic spying saga that has further strained American-Chinese relations.
Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin said on Saturday the US military was able to collect “valuable” intelligence by studying the balloon, and that three other Chinese surveillance balloons had transited the United States during Donald Trump’s administration — a disclosure the Republican former president denied.
“We should have shot this balloon down over the Aleutian Islands. We should never have allowed it to transit the entire continental United States,” said Republican Senator Tom Cotton, a member of the Senate Armed Services Committee, referring to the chain of small islands that arc off the coast of mainland Alaska.
Cotton told the “Fox News Sunday” program that he believed Biden had waited to disclose the penetration of US airspace because he wanted to salvage Secretary of State Antony Blinken’s planned diplomatic trip to Beijing, which ultimately was postponed.
“I think part of it is the president’s reluctance to take any action that would be viewed as provocative or confrontational toward the Chinese communists,” Cotton added.
Biden said on Saturday he issued an order on Wednesday to down the balloon after it crossed into Montana, but the Pentagon had recommended waiting until it could be done over open water to protect civilians from debris crashing to Earth from nearly twice the altitude of commercial air traffic.
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, a Democrat, said of the Republican criticisms: “they are premature and they are political.”
The Defense Department in the coming week will brief the Senate on the suspected Chinese spy balloon and Chinese surveillance, Schumer told a news conference on Sunday.
NUCLEAR MISSILE SITES
Republican Representative Mike Turner, chairman of the House of Representatives Intelligence Committee, said the panel also was set to receive a briefing on the spy balloon this week, though the exact timing has not been determined.
Turner said the balloon traveled unhindered over sensitive US nuclear missile sites, and that he believed China was using it “to gain information on how to defeat the command and control of our nuclear weapons systems and our missile defense systems.”
“The president has allowed this to go across our most sensitive sites and wasn’t even going to tell the American public if you hadn’t broken the story,” Turner told NBC’s “Meet the Press” program. “There was no attempt to notify Congress, no attempt to put together the Gang of Eight (a bipartisan group of congressional leaders). I think this administration lacks urgency.”
Republican US Senator Marco Rubio, vice chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee, told the ABC News program “This Week” that he would ask administration officials what future preparations have been made to prevent such an incident.
Rubio also said China was trying to send a message that it could enter US airspace, adding that he doubted that the balloon’s debris would be of much intelligence value.
Trump on Sunday disputed Austin’s statement that Chinese government surveillance balloons transited the continental United States briefly three times during his presidency.
“China had too much respect for ‘TRUMP’ for this to have happened, and it NEVER did,” Trump wrote on social media.
Speaking on Fox News Channel’s “Sunday Morning Futures” show, Trump’s former director of National Intelligence, John Ratcliffe, also denied such balloon incidents.
China on Sunday condemned the US action against what Beijing called an airship used for meteorological and other scientific purposes that had strayed into US airspace “completely accidentally” — claims rejected by US officials.
“China had clearly asked the US to handle this properly in a calm, professional and restrained manner,” China’s foreign ministry said in a statement. “The US had insisted on using force, obviously overreacting.”


UK prime minister prepared to withdraw from ECHR amid strictest immigration law yet

UK prime minister prepared to withdraw from ECHR amid strictest immigration law yet
Updated 05 February 2023

UK prime minister prepared to withdraw from ECHR amid strictest immigration law yet

UK prime minister prepared to withdraw from ECHR amid strictest immigration law yet
  • Government is pushing the ‘boundaries’ of what is possible within international law
  • Sunak is prepared to withdraw from the convention if European courts strike down his new bill

LONDON: UK Prime Minister Rishi Sunak is ready to withdraw his country from the European Convention on Human Rights as he finalizes plans for the UK’s strictest immigration legislation yet, The Times reported on Sunday.

Official estimates warned that 65,000 illegal migrants are expected to arrive in the UK this year, representing a nearly 50 percent increase over last year. 

Sunak’s legislation, which will be unveiled in the coming weeks, will prohibit claiming asylum in the UK for those who enter illegally, The Times reported. It will outline plans for deportation within “days or weeks” rather than “months or years” to their country of origin or to Rwanda, with which the UK has an agreement.

Furthermore, the new laws will also revise some of the UK’s modern slavery rules, which are used by eight out of 10 asylum-seekers entering the country. They also include provisions to establish new detention centers.

Government officials say they are seeking to push the “boundaries” of what is possible within international law. 

“The PM is as frustrated as the public that the number of people arriving here illegally in small boats has risen fourfold in the last two years,” a senior figure told The Times.

The senior figure continued: “He wants to go as far as legally possible to fix the issue — and he is not afraid to push the limits of the refugee convention or ECHR to prevent our country from being exploited by organized crime gangs and those that would skip the queue.

“If people crossing the Channel know that when they arrive in the UK they will be put in detention, their claims will be processed in a matter of days or at most weeks, and then they will be flown to a safe country like Rwanda, they will stop coming.”

Another senior official familiar with Sunak’s thinking told The Times that the government is confident that the new legislation will be upheld in court. 

However, they noted that if the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg finds that the new plans are unlawful, Sunak will consider withdrawing from the convention.

“If this legislation gets onto the statute book and is found to be lawful by our domestic courts, but it is still being held up in Strasbourg, then we know the problem is not our legislation or our courts,” they said.

“If that’s the case, then of course he will be willing to reconsider whether being part of the ECHR is in the UK’s long-term interests,” they added.

Senior figures said if the European court rules against his plans, Sunak is prepared to withdraw from the convention before the general election, The Times reported. However, this would have to pass both Houses of Parliament before the election in 2024.

Polling and conservative focus groups reveal that immigration is one of the top three issues for voters, with strong concerns even in areas of the country where it has little impact, The Times reported.

 


India hails ‘significant’ initiative with UAE, France on energy, climate change 

The Al-Dhafra Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Independent Power Producer project can be seen in Abu Dhabi on January 31, 2023. (AFP)
The Al-Dhafra Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Independent Power Producer project can be seen in Abu Dhabi on January 31, 2023. (AFP)
Updated 05 February 2023

India hails ‘significant’ initiative with UAE, France on energy, climate change 

The Al-Dhafra Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Independent Power Producer project can be seen in Abu Dhabi on January 31, 2023. (AFP)
  • Three countries also agreed to boost defense cooperation 
  • France’s participation appears substantial, experts say

NEW DELHI: India said on Sunday that its new trilateral framework with the UAE and France was significant, adding that the initiative can improve synergy among the countries, as they agreed to work together and undertake energy projects, fight climate change and protect biodiversity.

India, the UAE and France agreed through a phone call on Saturday to establish a trilateral initiative to boost cooperation, including on nuclear and solar power, as well as sustainable projects, and to align their policies with the objectives of the Paris Agreement, the countries said in a joint statement.

They will organize trilateral events in the framework of the Indian presidency of the Group of 20 and the UAE’s hosting of COP28 climate negotiations this year.  

The trilateral initiative was “very significant,” said Indian Ambassador to the UAE Sunjay Sudhir.

“India has very strong relations with the UAE as well as France,” he told Arab News.

“There are numerous synergies that can be brought out even better in a trilateral framework. That is the whole idea behind it.”

The initiative will also make use of existing programs, such as the Mangrove Alliance for Climate led by the UAE and the Indo-Pacific Parks Partnership led by India and France.

The move follows a rising trend of countries forming multilateral groupings, and France’s participation appears substantial, former Indian Ambassador to the UAE Navdeep Suri told Arab News.

“When I look at the emerging diplomatic architecture, what you are seeing is the rise of multilateral groupings, such as the Indo-Pacific partnership for example...then this trilateral framework with France and UAE,” said Suri, who is also a distinguished fellow at the Delhi-based think tank Observer Research Foundation.

“I think this trilateral initiative is very important. France will bring a lot of weight to it, and new areas of collaboration will emerge, including defense.”

India, the UAE and France also agreed to boost defense cooperation, with plans to undertake efforts “to further promote compatibility, and joint development and co-production,” their joint statement read.

“These are three countries that have special relationships with each other,” Suri added.

“What the trilateral initiative does is that it allows like-minded countries to get together and promote shared interests in areas that they agree upon.”

This multilateral framework benefits each country, said Prof. Sujata Ashwarya of the Jamia Millia Islamia University in New Delhi, as it comes at a time in which India holds the G20 presidency and the UAE hosts the COP28, while France seeks to boost its role in the region.

“France is testing the waters for greater influence and intervention in this region as the center of political gravity shifts to Asia with the rise of a powerful China,” Ashwarya told Arab News.

“France’s collaboration with India and the UAE is an attempt to soft-land its presence,” she said.

But the initiative is also a vehicle to maintain momentum in the fight against climate change, which Ashwarya said is “the most pressing issue of our time.”

“Such frameworks allow Indian leaders to highlight India’s commitment to climate change mitigation during India’s presidency of the G20 and portray the country positively.” 


Investigation raises concern about treatment of migrants at UK site

Investigation raises concern about treatment of migrants at UK site
Updated 05 February 2023

Investigation raises concern about treatment of migrants at UK site

Investigation raises concern about treatment of migrants at UK site
  • Asylum-seekers at Manston in England suffered inadequate treatment, violent restraining
  • Fears raised that staff lacked training, legal powers to effectively oversee overcrowded site

London: A migrant processing center in England has seen people restrained to stop them from self-harming and fights break out over food, an investigation has found.

Liberty Investigates used freedom of information requests to look into conditions at the facility in Manston, a former military barracks, finding it housed almost 4,000 people in October 2022.

The Independent newspaper reported that Liberty found people had been locked in vans, pinned to the ground and beaten, and forcibly restrained after asking for more food, and that thousands had been forced to sleep in a makeshift marquee due to overcrowding.

In one incident, recorded by immigration officers and facility staff whenever force was used, a man was elbowed and had his legs restrained after he and several others began banging their heads on walls.

Lucy Moreton, a spokesperson for the ICU union representing Border Force staff, said poor conditions at the site had “contributed to the psychological state that leads to people self-harming,” and had also led to people “stealing food, rushing doors, (and engaging in) organized unrest.

“All of that comes from and is driven by being restrained in conditions which are not designed to meet basic human needs,” Moreton added.

The investigation also found evidence of fights breaking out between different groups of people divided by nationality and suggested that inadequate medical attention had been given to asylum-seekers in some instances because staff felt people were “faking” the severity of their conditions.

On Oct. 2, a staff member wrote in a report on one such case, which led to an asylum-seeker requiring hospitalization: “More care was given by (a detainee custody officer) than any medic on site…I got the feeling the medics thought he was faking the injury.”

Staff reported a “very tense” atmosphere at the site, and on Oct. 14 a man was physically restrained for his and others’ safety after becoming “irate” because he had not been given anything to eat, “shouting about the food and that he was not a dog.”

There were also numerous instances of people trying to break out of the Manston facility, with a report on Oct. 25 claiming “migrants were attempting to rush the doors” after a “sit-down protest outside the tent compound.”

Idel Hanley, policy manager at the charity Medical Justice, told The Independent: “Many people at Manston will have histories of torture and trauma. This information indicates a situation which was chaotic and frightening, with little accountability or liability.”

Concerns were also raised that many of the reports filed on force used had come from staff from one contracting firm, Mitie, and from Clandestine Threat Command officers, but that none had been submitted by employees of another private contractor, Interforce. This was despite evidence that their staff had restrained asylum-seekers and that the prisons inspectorate insisted all staff must “complete appropriate reports promptly and in detail” to “identify possible ill-treatment.”

The Prison Officers Association’s Andy Baxter told The Independent: “Interforce contract staff were brought on site very quickly in response to the rapid expansion of Manston, and the staff in parts of the facility did not have the correct level of training and interpersonal skills to recognise and defuse conflict situations.”

Moreton added that private contractors lack the legal powers of Home Office staff and could only act in self-defense or the defense of others. 

“The Home Office was aware of serious concerns raised by staff and others about the length of time migrants were held for, and queries about the possible legality of that detention,” Moreton said. “Staff were being asked to perform public control functions, which are outside of their legal remit and their training. It was a very frightening time for all concerned.”

The UK received more than 45,000 asylum-seekers via the English Channel last year, with 1,200 making the trip in January 2023. Over 140,000 are currently awaiting decisions on their asylum applications and remain in temporary accommodation in hotels and other places, including sites like Manston, initially meant only to process new arrivals.

A Home Office spokesperson said: “We take the safety and welfare of those in our care extremely seriously. Significant improvements have been made to facilities at Manston in recent months, following unprecedented numbers of people crossing the Channel last autumn, and the site remains well-resourced for future arrivals.

“All on-site staff receive the relevant training required for their roles, and all operational activities are risk-assessed and subject to review.

“The Home Office ensures all its contractors employ people in accordance with their wider legal obligations, and we expect high standards from all of our providers and their staff to keep those in our care safe.”


Pope Francis wraps up South Sudan trip, urges end to ‘blind fury’ of violence

Pope Francis wraps up South Sudan trip, urges end to ‘blind fury’ of violence
Updated 05 February 2023

Pope Francis wraps up South Sudan trip, urges end to ‘blind fury’ of violence

Pope Francis wraps up South Sudan trip, urges end to ‘blind fury’ of violence

JUBA: Pope Francis wound up a peace mission to South Sudan on Sunday urging the people to make themselves immune to the “venom of hatred” to achieve the peace and prosperity that have eluded them through years of bloody ethnic conflicts.
Francis presided at an open-air Mass on the grounds of a mausoleum for South Sudan’s liberation hero John Garang, who died in a helicopter crash in 2005 before the predominantly Christian country broke away from Muslim Sudan in 2011.
The 86-year-old pope wove his homily around the themes that have dominated his trip to the world’s newest nation — reconciliation and mutual forgiveness for past wrongs. The crowd sang, drummed and ululated as Francis entered the dusty area.
He begged the crowd of about 70,000 people to shun the “blind fury of violence.”
Two years after independence, South Sudan plunged into a civil war that killed 400,000 people. Despite a 2018 peace deal between the two main antagonists, bouts of fighting have continued to kill and displace large numbers of civilians.
At the end of the service, in a farewell address shortly before heading to the airport to fly home, the pope thanked the people of South Sudan for the affection they showed him.
“Dear brothers and sisters, I return to Rome with you even closer to my heart,” he told them. “Never lose hope. And lose no opportunity to build peace. May hope and peace dwell among you. May hope and peace dwell in South Sudan!“
The pope has had a longstanding interest in South Sudan. In one of the most remarkable gestures of his papacy, he knelt to kiss the feet of the country’s previously warring leaders during a meeting at the Vatican in 2019.
Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby, leader of the global Anglican Communion, and Iain Greenshields, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, accompanied the pope during his visit to South Sudan.
The “pilgrimage of peace” was the first time in Christian history that leaders of the Catholic, Anglican and Reformed traditions conducted a joint foreign visit.
HOPE OF A TURNING POINT
Earlier on his Africa trip, the pope visited Democratic Republic of Congo, home to the continent’s largest Roman Catholic community, where he celebrated Mass for a million people and heard harrowing stories from people harmed by war in the eastern part of the country.
Among the worshippers at Sunday’s Mass in the South Sudanese capital Juba was Ferida Modon, 72, who lost three of her children to conflict.
“I want peace to come to South Sudan. Yes, I believe that his visit will change the situation. We are now tired of conflict,” she said. “We want God to listen to our prayers.”
Jesilen Gaba, 42, a widow with four children, said: “The fact that the three Churches united for the sake of South Sudan, this is the turning point for peace. I want the visit to be a blessing to us. We have been at war, we have lost many people.”
Francis made another appeal for an end to the tribalism, financial wrongdoing and political cronyism at the root of many of the country’s problems.
He urged the people to build “good human relationships as a way of curbing the corruption of evil, the disease of division, the filth of fraudulent business dealings and the plague of injustice.”
South Sudan has some of the largest crude oil reserves in sub-Saharan Africa but a UN report in 2021 said the country’s leaders had diverted “staggering amounts of money and other wealth” from public coffers and resources.
The government dismissed the report and has denied accusations of widespread corruption.