Why Morocco is emerging as Europe’s renewable-energy partner of choice

Special Why Morocco is emerging as Europe’s renewable-energy partner of choice
Experts view solar as a viable solution for underdeveloped areas in Morocco. (AFP)
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Updated 09 August 2023

Why Morocco is emerging as Europe’s renewable-energy partner of choice

Why Morocco is emerging as Europe’s renewable-energy partner of choice
  • North African country has plans to generate 52 percent of its domestic electricity from renewables by 2030
  • The EU has committed to programs worth $688.6 million to support Morocco’s transition to “green energy”

JUBA, South Sudan: Blistering heatwaves across the Northern Hemisphere throughout this summer are a stark reminder of the need for sustainable energy solutions. The good news is that one Arab country has positioned itself as a potential supplier of solar power to energy-hungry Europe.

Morocco has developed a vibrant solar energy sector, making use of year-round sunshine, wide open spaces for infrastructure projects, and access to millions of euros in EU development funding.

Europe’s energy crisis, coupled with the urgency of tackling the challenge of global warming and climate change, has catalyzed efforts to seek new sources of clean and renewable energy.

Located on Europe’s doorstep and armed with ambitious plans to generate 52 percent of its domestic electricity from renewables by 2030, Morocco has emerged as a promising energy partner.

The vision is to export a significant amount of its solar energy capacity via undersea cables to Europe — an initiative that holds the promise of bolstering the continent’s clean energy transition while helping Morocco achieve its development goals.

Earlier this year, the EU committed itself to programs worth €624 million ($688.6 million) to support Morocco’s transition to “green energy,” as well as tackling irregular migration, and facilitating key reforms in crucial areas like social protection, climate policy and public administration.

Despite its enormous untapped potential, Morocco faces challenges in expanding its renewable energy capacity. Currently, the nation relies on imports for 90 percent of its energy, mostly from fossil fuels.

Increasing solar and wind power generation could spur economic growth, create much-needed jobs, and decouple the country from fossil fuel price volatility. (AFP/File)

The transition to renewables alone requires substantial investment, estimated at $52 billion, to achieve Morocco’s 2030 targets.

Global institutions have been supportive, providing financial assistance for the renewable energy sector’s growth, but removal of bureaucratic bottlenecks from the path of private investment is of the essence.

Furthermore, the region’s embrace of renewable energy is not without its critics, who have concerns about the environmental impact of massive infrastructure projects and increased water usage in arid regions.

What is indisputable is that Morocco, by envisioning itself as a clean energy hub with the potential to export electricity to Europe, has set a precedent for other nations to emulate.

“Morocco’s renewable energy ambitions present a win-win proposition for both Europe and the country itself,” Grammenos Mastrojeni, senior deputy secretary-general of the Union for the Mediterranean, told Arab News.

“Historically energy has always been considered a national and a sovereignty issue. Now, climate change is calling to something which is quite new. To make the system functional we need to start reasoning in terms of regional cooperation.”

Morocco is not the only Arab country prioritizing solar-energy development. The Gulf states too are accelerating their transition to renewable energy by launching ambitious infrastructure projects designed to help reduce their reliance on oil and gas to meet domestic energy needs.

Saudi Arabia aims to expand its total solar-energy capacity substantially by 2030. Specific development plans in the Kingdom include the NEOM smart city, which will include a $5 billion hydrogen plant, and the Red Sea Project, which will have the capacity to generate 400 MW of solar power and will host the world’s largest off-grid energy-storage project to date.

As Europe and North Africa are marked by fragmented markets, significant economic inequalities and uneven demographic patterns, the potentially adverse consequences of climate change cannot be overstated.

Mastrojeni believes a solution to overcoming these challenges lies in the integration of energy markets, as doing so holds the potential for shared energy security and macroeconomic advantages within the region.


• 52% Morocco’s renewable power target for 2030.

• 18.3% Morocco’s target for emissions reduction by 2030.

• 58.7 GW Saudi Arabia’s renewable power target for 2030.

• 14 GW UAE’s clean energy target for 2030.

• 33 GW Expected addition to MENA-installed renewables capacity by 2026.

“One significant benefit of regionally integrated energy production is its capacity to stimulate strong economic growth,” he said.

Increasing solar and wind power generation could spur economic growth, create much-needed jobs, and decouple the country from fossil fuel price volatility.

For Europe, sourcing clean energy from Morocco offers a viable solution to diversify energy sources and reduce dependence on fossil fuels, particularly in the wake of the Ukraine conflict-related energy crisis.

Historically, North Africa has been a significant supplier of fossil fuels to Europe, powering cars and heating homes across the continent.

But owing to the urgent need to transition to sustainability, at least six new projects are being considered to carry electricity from solar and wind installations in North Africa to Europe through undersea cables.

One notable project, spearheaded by Xlinks Ltd., plans to connect a 2,000-mile undersea cable from Morocco’s Atlantic coast to southern England. The ambitious venture has generated considerable investor interest, with £30 million ($38.5 million) committed by investors from the UK and the UAE.

Although the project comes with substantial costs, it has the potential to power approximately 7 million homes in the UK and help the country meet its net-zero carbon emissions target by 2035. However, some experts have cautioned against relying solely on any single supplier for energy.

Laura El-Katiri, an energy economist, has suggested that connecting solar and wind installations in Africa fully with the European grid would ensure a more robust and secure energy supply.

Several countries are now exploring two-way connections, which would also allow electricity to flow southward during periods of excess power on European grids.

The proposals highlight the advantages of connecting countries with diverse weather patterns, enabling them to support each other during periods of low local wind or limited sunlight.

Despite previous failed attempts to harness renewable energy in the region, the potential benefits of utilizing North Africa’s abundant sun- and wind-power resources outweigh the risks.

Morocco’s strides in renewable energy are evident through projects like the Noor Ouarzazate Solar Complex, which stands as the world’s largest concentrated solar power plant.

Spanning thousands of hectares with its mirror arrays, this facility exemplifies the transformative potential of harnessing solar energy.

In a coastal town in southeastern Morocco is located another giant renewable-energy project, the Tarfaya wind farm, one of the largest such facilities in entire Africa.

While the prospect of cheaper and cleaner electricity has raised expectations in a region plagued by high unemployment and limited purchasing power, there are still communities waiting for promises to be fulfilled.

Hajar Knamlichi, a board member of the Moroccan Alliance for Climate and Sustainable Development, a network of 800 environmental civil society organizations, says all regional parties concerned should strive for equitable benefits when it comes to energy cooperation.

“It is not correct to solely focus on producing clean energy for exports, leaving behind the benefits that more people can have access to locally, such as electricity access, fighting electricity poverty, and economic benefits from producing renewable energy for local use,” she told Arab News.

Solar is seen as a viable solution in the wider North Africa region as well as a new industrial paradigm for electricity production. (AFP/File)

That being said, in the face of extreme weather events and rising temperatures, adaptation is equally critical. Experts in natural resources stress the importance of carbon capture and storage technology to mitigate emissions from existing oil and gas production facilities.

In addition, as Morocco seeks to shift from traditional energy sources to eco-friendly alternatives, its pursuit of cutting-edge solutions has sparked a surge in exploration for wave energy, which marks a pioneering effort in Africa.

As the first of its kind on the continent, this ambitious venture is turning heads and attracting global interest.

Mohamed Taha El-Ouaryachi, a co-founder of WAVE BEAT, an innovative energy company, has developed technologies capable of harnessing the power of ocean tides to generate electricity.

“The company is driven by a strong sense of responsibility toward society and the environment,” El-Ouaryachi told Arab News. “We strive to contribute significantly to Morocco’s ongoing energy transition.”

With more than 3,100 km of coastline along the Atlantic and Africa, Morocco possesses a vast expanse of untapped wave energy potential, attracting investments from various sources, including the World Bank and private investors from the Middle East, the US, and Europe.

For Mastrojeni, of the Union for the Mediterranean, the Northern Hemisphere’s scorching heatwaves and volatile weather patterns are proof, if any further is required, that the transition to sustainable energy sources cannot wait.

That is why “our shared commitment to adapt, innovate, and build resilience against climate challenges has the power to reshape the realities of climate change,” he said.

Palestine refugee funding woes ‘absolutely unbearable’: UNRWA chief

Palestine refugee funding woes ‘absolutely unbearable’: UNRWA chief
Updated 5 sec ago

Palestine refugee funding woes ‘absolutely unbearable’: UNRWA chief

Palestine refugee funding woes ‘absolutely unbearable’: UNRWA chief
  • Agency’s financial crisis risks creating ‘inflection point,’ warns Philippe Lazzarini
  • Jordan’s deputy PM says his country is confronting ‘huge challenges’

New York City: The funding crisis for Palestinian refugees in Jordan and other host countries has created an “absolutely unbearable” situation that could soon reach an inflection point, the chief of the UNRWA has warned. 

The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East supports more than 5 million Palestinian refugees across the Middle East, but has been met with a series of financial crises due to donor countries slashing funding. 

The agency is set to mark 75 years since its establishment next year, but its commissioner-general, Philippe Lazzarini, has warned that immediate funding is required to safeguard millions of Palestinian refugees. 

Lazzarini appeared at a press briefing Thursday on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly alongside Ayman Safadi, Jordan’s deputy prime minister and minister for foreign affairs and expatriates. 

The two had earlier taken part in a high-level meeting organized by Jordan and Sweden to encourage increased funding for the UNRWA. 

Lazzarini said that the agency required between $170 and $190 million just to keep its activities in Jordan, Lebanon, Gaza and elsewhere running until the end of the year. 

He added: “We had some pledges today which will definitely help us to provide more clarity and run the operation in the foreseeable future, but we haven’t yet met our objective. 

Jordan’s foreign minister spoke at length about his country’s issues hosting large numbers of Palestinian refugees amid the UNRWA funding crisis, saying that the agency is “the only beacon of hope in a very bleak situation full of deprivation.” 

He added: “The challenges are huge. The difficulties facing UNRWA are complicated and increasing in scope. Therefore, we call on the international community to act to provide the support UNRWA needs. 

“If we are still unable to establish justice for the Palestine refugees, let us at least give them a chance to live decently.” 

Despite several UN member states pledging Thursday to boost their contributions to the UNRWA, the agency still only has the means to provide services through to October. 

Lazzarini told the media: “I told the member state mission: ‘I know that it sounds like a broken record when we talk about the financial crisis of the agency.’ But I also told them: ‘Please don’t take our ability to muddle through this crisis as a given.’ 

“There will be a point where we reach an inflection point. It has become absolutely unbearable to deal with a situation where the needs of the Palestinian refugees increase, the expectations increase. 

“This tension cannot continue. It’s highly unsettling. It’s unsettling for the communities … for the host countries. 

“And this is also fueling in the region a feeling of abandonment by the international community.” 

The UNRWA chief warned that his agency’s funding crisis would hit children the hardest. Lazzarini recently oversaw the opening of a school for Palestinian refugee students, but said that he did not know if the site would exist by the end of the year. 

The COVID-19 pandemic and austerity measures have also compounded the woes of refugee children, Lazzarini said. 

“One indicator which I was sharing with a member state here today was that in the fourth grade this year, only 20 percent of the (Palestinian refugee) students reached the average for Arabic and mathematics, whereas in 2015, it was 60 percent. 

“And this is quite significant, and collectively, we have to look at how can we bring back a quality education.” 

Safadi was asked about the possibility of engagement between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Israel, the EU and the US over the Palestine issue, and the potential for a solution to the plight of Palestinian refugees. 

Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said recently that the Kingdom was taking steps to reach a political agreement with Israel. 

Safadi said: “I will not comment on what the crown prince of Saudi Arabia has said in terms of efforts made towards reaching a political agreement between Saudi Arabia and Israel but we trust the position of our brothers in Saudi Arabia. 

“They have a very firm position in terms of supporting the Palestinian question, the Palestinian right, and supporting the two-state solution as the only path towards achieving peace and stability in the region.” 

The foreign minister reiterated Jordan’s position: “We insist on the two-state solution, that if undermined, and if hope is lost completely in reaching this solution, then there will be a one-state solution, and this is not a solution. 

“It will be a heinous situation of racial discrimination that would lead to further conflict and further deterioration.” 

Lazzarini said that his chief focus during the UN General Assembly has been to place the issue of Palestinian refugees “back on the political agenda.” 

He added: “My main ask is that the issue of the safeguarding of the right of the Palestinian refugees be brought to the agenda, and by having this conversation we talk also after that, about the sustainability of an agency like UNRWA.” 

Lazzarini also discussed the recent eruption of violence in Ain Al-Hilweh refugee camp in Lebanon, which he described as “very worrying.” 

He added: “As we know, it has prevented our kids to go back to school. Our schools have been used by the militants. We have called more than once to the militants to vacate our schools. 

“They need to be protected. They need to be respected. And sadly, this has not been the case. 

“So, I think the fighting in Ain Al-Hilweh right now is adding a layer to the extraordinary human misery prevailing already in the camp.” 

Safadi spoke on his country’s engagement with the political process, saying that Jordan is “talking with everybody” in a bid to reach a resolution. 

He added: “We are engaged with all parties, including with the Israelis. We’re talking to everybody. 

“We’re working with the Americans, with the Europeans, we’re in full coordination with the Palestinians, with other Arab countries, Egypt and others to try and find a political horizon.” 

Kuwaiti PM says Iraqi ruling on maritime navigation contains ‘historical fallacies’

Kuwaiti PM says Iraqi ruling on maritime navigation contains ‘historical fallacies’
Updated 22 September 2023

Kuwaiti PM says Iraqi ruling on maritime navigation contains ‘historical fallacies’

Kuwaiti PM says Iraqi ruling on maritime navigation contains ‘historical fallacies’
  • A deal regulating navigation in the Khor Abdullah waterway was reached by Iraq and Kuwait in 2012
  • But Iraq's Supreme Court earlier this month ruled the agreement was unconstitutional

Kuwait’s Prime Minister Sheikh Ahmad Nawaf Al-Sabah described an Iraqi ruling on regulating navigation in the Khor Abdullah waterway between the two states as containing “historical fallacies.”

In remarks carried by state news agency KUNA early on Thursday, Sheikh Ahmad also called on Iraq to take “concrete, decisive and urgent measures” to address the ruling.
The prime minister’s comments came during a meeting with his Iraqi counterpart, Mohammed Shia Al-Sudani, on the sidelines of the 78th session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York.
Tensions have been rising between Kuwait and Iraq after the Iraqi Federal Supreme Court earlier this month ruled an agreement regulating navigation in the Khor Abdullah waterway was unconstitutional. The court said the law that ratified the accord should have been approved by two-thirds of parliament.

The land border between the two was demarcated by the United Nations in 1993 after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, but it did not cover the length of their maritime boundaries, and this was left for the two oil producers to resolve.
An agreement between the two nations was reached in 2012 and ratified by each of their legislative bodies in 2013.
Sheikh Ahmad also called for the complete demarcation of Kuwaiti-Iraqi maritime borders “in accordance with international law,” KUNA added, echoing a Wednesday call by the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and the United States.
Iraqi parliament speaker Mohammed Al-Halbousi on Thursday met with a delegation from the Kuwaiti national assembly and emphasized “the importance of respecting and implementing bilateral agreements that are in the interest of the two brotherly peoples,” a statement from his office said.
The statement did not refer specifically to the Khor Abdullah waterway.


Sudan army chief warns UN that war could spill over in region, seeks action against RSF backers

Sudan army chief warns UN that war could spill over in region, seeks action against RSF backers
Updated 22 September 2023

Sudan army chief warns UN that war could spill over in region, seeks action against RSF backers

Sudan army chief warns UN that war could spill over in region, seeks action against RSF backers
  • Army chief Burhan asks UN to take action against RSF’s backers
  • RSF leader says ready for cease-fire and comprehensive talks
  • War has killed over 7,500 people, displaced more than 5 million

UNITED NATIONS: The heads of Sudan’s rival military factions gave competing addresses to the United Nations on Thursday, one from the podium at UN headquarters in New York and the other in a rare video recording from an undisclosed location.

Army leader Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, speaking at the United Nations, called on the international community to designate the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) as a terrorist organization and to counter its sponsors outside Sudan’s borders, warning that months of war could spill over in the region.

RSF leader Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, known as Hemedti, said in a video message that his forces were fully prepared for a cease-fire and comprehensive political talks to end the conflict.

Most of Hemedti’s recent communications have been audio messages, and his whereabouts have been a source of speculation.

In the video released on Thursday shortly before Burhan spoke, Hemedti appeared in military uniform, seated behind a desk with a Sudanese national flag behind him as he read out his speech. His location was not clear.

“Today we renew our commitment to the peaceful process to put a halt to this war,” Hemedti said. “The RSF are fully prepared for a cease-fire throughout Sudan to allow the passage of humanitarian aid ... and to start serious and comprehensive political talks.”



Both sides blamed the other for starting the war that erupted in mid-April in Khartoum and has spread to other parts of the country including the western region of Darfur, displacing more than 5 million people and threatening to destabilize the region.

Saudi Arabia and the United States have tried to secure a lasting cease-fire in Sudan but the process stalled amid parallel international initiatives in Africa and the Middle East.

Tentacles of Wagner group

Burhan, the de facto ruler of Sudan since a 2021 coup, alluded to the rival RSF'S ties with Wagner, the Russian mercenary group hit by Western sanctions over alleged abuses in Africa.
“The danger of this war is now a threat to regional and international peace and security as those rebels have sought the support of outlaws and terrorist groups from different countries in the region and the world,” Burhan said.
“This is like the spark of war, a war that will spill over to other countries in the region,” he said.
“Regional and international interference to support these groups is crystal clear by now. This means that this is the first spark that will burn the region, and will have a direct impact on regional and international peace and security.”
War broke out on April 15 after the collapse of a plan to integrate the army and the RSF.
The fighting in Sudan has killed at least 7,500 people, according to the NGO Acled, and displaced some five million people, dealing a new, devastating blow to efforts to bring democracy to Sudan.
Burhan has increasingly been traveling around the world in what are seen as efforts to burnish his legitimacy.
At the United Nations, he urged world powers to designate the Rapid Support Forces, or RSF, as a terrorist group.
“They have committed all sorts of crimes that give grounds for such a designation,” he said.
“Those who have supported killing, burning, raping, forced displacement, looting, stealing, torture, trafficking of arms and drugs, bringing mercenaries or recruiting children — all such crimes necessitate accountability and punishment,” he said.
The United States earlier this month imposed sanctions on RSF leaders including senior commander Abdelrahim Hamdan Daglo, the brother of the group’s leader, over alleged abuses including the killing of the governor of West Darfur.
But the United States and other Western powers have also been strongly critical of Burhan.
Alongside RSF leader Daglo, Burhan in 2021 sidelined the civilian leadership that had been part of a transitional power-sharing deal following mass protests that brought down longtime dictator Omar Al-Bashir.
“We are still committed to our previous pledges to transfer power to the people of Sudan with great national consensus and consent,” he said.
“The armed forces would leave politics for once and for all.”


Syria’s Assad steps out of diplomatic freeze with high-level China trip

Syria’s Assad steps out of diplomatic freeze with high-level China trip
Updated 22 September 2023

Syria’s Assad steps out of diplomatic freeze with high-level China trip

Syria’s Assad steps out of diplomatic freeze with high-level China trip
  • Talks with Xi Jinping to focus on Syrian reconstruction
  • He will also attend opening ceremony of Asian Games

JEDDAH: Syrian President Bashar Assad on Thursday began his first visit to China since 2004 and his latest attempt to end more than a decade of diplomatic isolation under Western sanctions.

Assad arrived in the eastern Chinese city of Hangzhou aboard an Air China plane in heavy fog, which Chinese state media said “added to the atmosphere of mystery.” Assad last visited China in 2004 to meet then-President Hu Jintao. It was the first visit by a Syrian head of state to China since the countries established diplomatic ties in 1956.

China — like Syria’s main allies Russia and Iran — maintained those ties even as other countries isolated Assad over his brutal crackdown of anti-government demonstrations that erupted in 2011, leading to a civil war that has killed more than half a million people, displaced millions more, and battered Syria’s infrastructure and industry.

Assad will attend Saturday’s Asian Games opening ceremony before leading a delegation in meetings in several Chinese cities. 

He meets President Xi Jinping on Friday.

Syrian President Bashar al-Assad meeting with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao in Beijing on June 23, 2004. He was the first Syrian head of state to visit China since the two countries established diplomatic relations in 1956. (AFP Photo/File)

Being seen with China’s president at a regional gathering adds further legitimacy to Assad’s campaign to return to the world stage. 

Syria joined China’s Belt and Road Initiative in 2022 and was welcomed back into the Arab League in May.

Faced with a crippled economy and little to show so far from his efforts to rebuild ties with Arab states, Assad is keen for financial support. 

But any Chinese or other investment in Syria risks entangling an investor in US sanctions under the 2020 Caesar Act that can freeze assets of anyone dealing with Syria.

“In his third term, Xi Jinping is seeking to openly challenge the US, so I don’t think it’s a surprise that he is willing to … host a leader like Assad,” said Alfred Wu, an associate professor at Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy in Singapore. 

“It will further marginalize China in the world, but he doesn’t care about that.”

The visit comes as China expands its engagement in the Middle East. 

This year Beijing brokered a deal restoring ties between Saudi Arabia and Iran. 

That detente was followed by Syria’s return to the Arab fold at a summit in Saudi Arabia in May, ending more than a decade of regional isolation.

Analysts expect Assad’s visit to China will focus, in part, on funds for reconstruction. 

“Assad intends for his trip to China to convey a sense of international legitimacy for his regime and paint a picture of looming Chinese support for reconstruction in Syria,” said Lina Khatib, director of the Middle East Institute at SOAS university in London.

Syria signed up to China’s vast Belt and Road trade and infrastructure initiative in January 2022.

Assad’s meeting with Xi “is expected to revolve around convincing China to aid Syria’s economic recovery,” said Haid Haid, of the Chatham House think tank in London. 

China pledged $2 billion in investments in Syria in 2017, but Haid said the funds had “yet to materialize.”

(With Agencies)

Mideast peace only possible when Palestinians get full rights: Abbas

Mideast peace only possible when Palestinians get full rights: Abbas
Updated 21 September 2023

Mideast peace only possible when Palestinians get full rights: Abbas

Mideast peace only possible when Palestinians get full rights: Abbas
  • President urges states that have not yet recognized state of Palestine to do so immediately
  • Calls for peace conference that ‘may be last opportunity to salvage two-state solution’

LONDON: Those who think peace can prevail in the Middle East without the Palestinian people enjoying their full rights are mistaken, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas said on Thursday.
Addressing the UN General Assembly, he said Israel’s occupation of Palestinian territory “violates the principles of international law and legitimacy while it races against time to change the historical, geographical and demographic reality on the ground, aimed at perpetuating the occupation and entrenching apartheid.”
Abbas said his country remains hopeful that the UN will be “able to implement its resolution demanding an end to the Israeli occupation of our territory and realizing the independence of the fully sovereign state of Palestine, with East Jerusalem as its capital, on the borders of June 4, 1967.”
He added that Israel continues to attack his people, and its “army and its racist, terrorist settlers continue to intimidate and kill our people, to destroy homes and property to just steal our money and resources.”
Abbas said Israel “continues to assault our Islamic and Christian sacred sites … especially the blessed Al-Aqsa Mosque, which international legitimacy has recognized as an exclusive place of worship for Muslims alone.”
He added that Israel is digging tunnels under and around the mosque, threatening its full or partial collapse, “which would lead to an explosion with untold consequences.”
He urged the international community to assume its responsibilities in preserving the historic and legal status of Jerusalem and its holy sites.
He also requested an international peace conference in which all countries concerned with achieving peace in the Middle East would participate.
“I ask your esteemed organization and Secretary-General Antonio Guterres to call for and undertake the necessary arrangements to convene this peace conference, which may be the last opportunity to salvage the two-state solution and to prevent the situation from deteriorating more seriously, and threatening the security and stability of our region and the entire world,” Abbas said.
He also urged states that have not yet recognized the state of Palestine to do so immediately. “I call for the state of Palestine to be admitted to full membership in the United Nations,” he said.
“There are two states that the entire world is talking about: Israel and Palestine. But only Israel is recognized. Why not Palestine?
“I can neither understand nor accept that some states …are reluctant to recognize the state of Palestine, which the UN has accepted as an observer state.
“These same states confirm every day that they support the two-state solution. But they recognize only one of these states, namely Israel. Why?”