UNESCO puts Sundarbans on danger list

The signboard of the under-construction coal-based Rampal power plant, established on the bank of the Poshur River, close to Sundarbans, which led the UNESCO to put the mangrove forest on the danger list of world heritage sites. (AN photo by Shehab Sumon)
Updated 18 June 2019

UNESCO puts Sundarbans on danger list

  • Bangladesh increases protected area of mangrove forests as experts seek urgent report

DHAKA: One of the world’s largest mangrove forests has been placed on UNESCO’s danger list despite increased conservation efforts by the Bangladeshi government.

The Sundarbans, a UNESCO world heritage site covering 10,000 square kilometers in the Bay of Bengal, has come under threat from the encroachment of industrial developments.

In a bid to help preserve the region’s unique biodiversity, Bangladesh has increased the forest area designated as a conservation sanctuary from 23 percent to 52 percent, banned the extraction of natural resources there, and stepped up poacher patrols.

However, environmentalists say more urgently needs to be done, and UNESCO has called for a detailed update from the Bangladeshi government on the conservation status of the mangroves.

The reserve, which is the main habitat of the endangered Bengal tiger, is located in southwestern Bangladesh between the rivers Baleswar in the east and Harinbanga in the west.

Sixty percent of the forest lies in Bangladesh with the rest in India, and it is internationally recognized for the high biodiversity of mangrove flora and fauna both on land and in the water. UNESCO declared the forest a World Heritage Site in 1997.

UNESCO’s decision to place the Sundarbans on its danger list follows concerns from the agency and local environmentalists over the ongoing construction of the coal-powered Rampal plant on the edge of the forest.

In a recent report on the situation, UNESCO said: “Little progress has been achieved to address the significant threats to the property. Despite the committee’s requests, no serious consideration was given to possible alternatives to the construction of the Rampal power plant, and its construction is progressing.”

It added that the work was taking place in the absence of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA).

UNESCO also expressed its concerns over the building of two other power plants in Payra, the dredging of the Payra River, and several other developments and industrial works in the region.

It has urged the Bangladeshi government to allow one of its expert teams to assess the state of the mangrove area and look into further preservation measures, while also calling for an updated report on the conservation status of the forest by Feb. 1, 2020.

Based on the findings of the report, a decision on the future of the Sundarbans would then be taken at the 44th session of UNESCO to be held in Azerbaijan.

Dhaka has already initiated various projects to conserve the biodiversity of the mangrove forest.

Amir Hossain, forest conservator of Khulna circle, said the government last year increased the area of the sanctuary to cover 52 percent, banning “the collection of all types of forest resources from the sanctuary areas. It will help increase the biodiversity of the forest including wildlife and trees,” he told Arab News.

“In addition, with the help of USAID (US Agency for International Development) and GIZ (German agency for international cooperation) we have introduced smart patrolling in the mangrove forest to check the poachers’ movements and monitor the illegal encroachment of the local people inside the deep forest.

“We have developed a strong database and can monitor everything around the forest area using GPS,” Hossain added.

He said the Bangladeshi government was also working to implement the SEA of the area. “An international tender has been called in this regard and we hope to start the process very soon. Once completed, we will get an integrated environmental assessment report which will portray a clear picture of the ecology, biodiversity and other important environmental aspects of that area,” Hossain said.

The delay in the introduction of the National Oil Spill and Chemical Contingency Plan (NOSCOP) was one of the major concerns of UNESCO leading to the Sundarbans being placed on its danger list.

Dr. Fahmida Khatun, director of the natural resource management wing of the Bangladeshi Department of Environment, told Arab News that the government had already finalized a draft of the NOSCOP which would be forwarded to the cabinet committee for final approval.

However, environmentalists remain worried about continued industrialization around the area of the mangrove forest.

“The eco-system of the Sundarbans is very sensitive which is completely different to any other forest of the world. Three different parts of the Sundarbans have different types of vegetation,” Prof. Abdullah Harun, of Khulna University, told Arab News.

Harun, a renowned Bangladeshi environmentalist, added: “From an environmental point of view, Rampal power plant is still a big concern for us. Based on this power plant, rapid industrialization is also going on in that area and we anticipate that this industrialization flow will increase, which will have dire consequences for the existence of the mangrove.”

Diplomats accuse Trump as impeachment hits Americans’ TVs

Updated 14 November 2019

Diplomats accuse Trump as impeachment hits Americans’ TVs

WASHINGTON: For the first time, the Democrats’ case for President Donald Trump’s impeachment streamed from Americans’ TVs Wednesday, including a new contention that he was overheard asking about political “investigations” that he demanded from Ukraine in trade for military aid.
On Day One of extraordinary public US House hearings — only the fourth formal impeachment effort in US history — career diplomats testified in the open after weeks of closed-door interviews aimed at removing the nation’s 45th president.
The account they delivered was a striking though complicated one that Democrats say reveals a president abusing his office, and the power of American foreign policy, for personal political gain.
“The matter is as simple and as terrible as that,” said Rep. Adam Schiff, the Democratic chairman of the Intelligence Committee, as he opened the daylong hearing. “Our answer to these questions will affect not only the future of this presidency but the future of the presidency itself.”
Career diplomat William Taylor, the charge d’affaires in Kyiv, offered new testimony that Trump was overheard asking on the phone about “the investigations” of Democrats that he wanted Ukraine to pursue that are central to the impeachment inquiry.
Trump said he was too busy to watch on Wednesday and denied having the phone call. “First I’ve heard of it,” he said when asked.
All day, the diplomats testified about how an ambassador was fired, the new Ukraine government was confused and they discovered an “irregular channel” — a shadow US foreign policy orchestrated by the president’s personal lawyer, Rudy Giuliani, that raised alarms in diplomatic and national security circles.
The hearing, playing out on live television and in the partisan silos of social media, provided the nation and the world a close-up look at the investigation.
At its core, the inquiry stems from Trump’s July 25 phone call when he asked Ukraine’s newly elected president, Volodymyr Zelenskiy, for “a favor.”
Trump wanted the Ukraine government to investigate Democrats’ activities in the 2016 election and his potential 2020 rival, Joe Biden — all while the administration was withholding military aid for the Eastern European ally that is confronting an aggressive neighbor, Russia.

A text exchange between US Ambassador Bill Taylor (Ukraine) and Gordon Sondland (EU) shows on a screen as Taylor (R) testifies on the Trump impeachment inquiry in Washington on Nov. 13, 2019. (REUTERS/Jonathan Ernst)

Both sides tried to distill it into soundbites.
Democrats said Trump was engaged in “bribery” and “extortion.” Republicans said nothing really happened — the military aid was ultimately released after Congress complained.
Trump restated his aggressive defense with rapid-fire tweets, a video from the Rose Garden and a dismissive retort from the Oval Office as he met with another foreign leader.
“It’s a witch hunt. It’s a hoax,” he said as he appeared with visiting Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan by his side.
Across the country, millions of Americans were tuning in — or, in some cases, deliberately tuning out.
Viewers on the right and left thought the day underscored their feelings. Anthony Harris, cutting hair in Savannah, Georgia, had the hearing on in his shop, but he said, “It’s gotten to the point now where people are even tired of listening.”
The hours of partisan back-and-forth did not appear to leave a singular moment etched in the public consciousness the way the Watergate proceedings or Bill Clinton’s impeachment did generations ago.
“No real surprises, no bombshells,” said committee member Rep. Chris Stewart, R-Utah.
Still, the session unspooled at least partly the way Democrats wanted with the somber tones of career foreign service officers telling what they knew. They sounded credible.
The witnesses, the graying Taylor and Deputy Assistant Secretary of State George Kent in his bow tie, defied White House instructions not to appear. Both received subpoenas.
They are among a dozen current and former officials who already testified behind closed doors. Wednesday was the start of days of public hearings that will stretch into next week.
Taylor, who was asked by Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to return to Ukraine as Trump was firing Ambassador Marie Yovanovitch, introduced new information Wednesday.
He testified that a staff member recently told him of overhearing Trump when they were meeting with another diplomat, Ambassador Gordon Sondland, at a restaurant the day after Trump’s July 25 phone call to the Ukraine president that sparked the impeachment investigation.
The staff member explained that Sondland had called the president and they could hear Trump on the phone asking about “the investigations.” The ambassador told the president the Ukrainians were ready to move forward, Taylor testified.
In the face of Trump’s denial, Schiff expects the person to appear before investigators for a closed-door deposition. He is David Holmes, the political counselor at the embassy in Kyiv, according to an official unauthorized to discuss the matter and granted anonymity.
Republicans argued that even with the diplomats at the witness table the Democrats have only second- or third-hand knowledge of Trump’s alleged transgressions.
A Trump ally on the panel, Rep. Jim Jordan of Ohio, mockingly called Taylor the Democrats’ “star witness” and said he’d “seen church prayer chains that are easier to understand than this.”
Taylor, a West Point graduate and former Army infantry officer in Vietnam, responded: “I don’t consider myself a star witness for anything.”
The top Republican on the panel, Rep. Devin Nunes of California, said Trump had a “perfectly good reason” for wanting to investigate the role of Democrats in 2016 election interference, giving airtime to a theory that runs counter to mainstream US intelligence which found that Russia intervened and favored Trump.
Nunes accused the Democratic majority of conducting a “scorched earth” effort to take down the president after the special counsel’s Russia investigation into the 2016 election failed to spark impeachment proceedings.
The veteran foreign service officers delivered heartfelt history lessons about Ukraine, a young and hopeful democracy, situated next to Russia but reaching out to the West.
Asked about Trump’s withholding military aid from such an ally, Taylor said, “It was illogical. It could not be explained. It was crazy.”
Both men defended Yovanovitch, a career officer who Kent has said was subject to Giuliani’s “campaign of lies.” She is to testify publicly Friday.
Kent, in his opening remarks, directly contradicted a core complaint against Joe Biden being raised by allies of the White House. While he said he himself raised concerns in 2015 about the vice president’s son, Hunter Biden, being on the board of Burisma, a Ukraine gas company, he “did not witness any efforts by any US official to shield Burisma from scrutiny.”
Republicans sought to hear from the anonymous whistleblower by subpoenaing him for a closed-session. The panel voted down the request and Schiff and repeatedly denied the GOP claim that he knows the person.
“We will do everything necessary to protect the whistleblower’s identity,” Schiff declared.
The Constitution sets a dramatic but vague bar for impeachment, There’s no consensus yet that Trump’s actions at the heart of the inquiry meet the threshold of “high crimes and misdemeanors.”
The anonymous whistleblower first alerted officials to concerns about the Trump phone call with Zelenskiy. The White House released a rough transcript of the telephone conversation, with portions deleted.
House Speaker Nancy Pelosi was initially reluctant to launch a formal impeachment inquiry. But she pressed ahead after the whistleblower’s complaint. She said Wednesday it was sad that the country has to undergo the inquiry with Trump, but “he will be held accountable.”