From Trotsky to Morales, Mexico’s asylum tradition

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Leon Trotsky and his wife Natalia Sedova, in Mexico, where Trotsky was assassinated by one of Stalin’s agents, Ramon Mercader, in 1940. (AFP)
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Bolivian ex-President Evo Morales waves upon landing in Mexico City, where he was granted asylum after his resignation. (AFP Photo)
Updated 13 November 2019

From Trotsky to Morales, Mexico’s asylum tradition

  • Exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929 by Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky drifted from Turkey to Norway to France before finally landing in Mexico in 1937
  • Taking in Bolivian ex-president Evo Morales could be a politically risky bet for Mexico’s President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, a fellow leftist elected last year

MEXICO CITY: From Leon Trotsky to Luis Bunuel to Salvador Allende’s widow, Mexico has a long tradition of offering asylum to political exiles — right down to newly arrived Bolivian ex-president Evo Morales.
Whether Republicans fleeing Francisco Franco after Spain’s Civil War or Argentines, Chileans and Brazilians fleeing military dictatorships in the 1970s, Mexico has welcomed many thousands of political asylum-seekers over the years.
“I’m very proud to head a government that guarantees the right to asylum,” President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said Tuesday, as Morales arrived after resigning amid growing unrest triggered by his controversial re-election to a fourth term.
Morales, for his part, said Mexico “saved my life,” after exiting the Mexican air force plane sent to fetch him from a Bolivia in flames.
According to retired Mexican diplomat Agustin Gutierrez Canet, one of the first political figures granted exile in Mexico was Nicaraguan revolutionary Cesar Augusto Sandino, who led an uprising against the US military occupation of Nicaragua in the 1920s.
However, Sandino left Mexico in 1930, frustrated at what he called the Mexican government’s broken promise to aid his cause.
An even more famous figure arrived seven years later: Trotsky.
Exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929 by Joseph Stalin, the Marxist revolutionary drifted from Turkey to Norway to France before finally landing in Mexico in 1937.
“It was the muralist Diego Rivera who asked President Lazaro Cardenas to grant (Trotsky) asylum. But we all know the consequences. Mexican protection failed and Ramon Mercader came along,” said Gutierrez.
Mercader, a Spanish communist and secret agent for the Soviet intelligence services, infiltrated Trotsky’s inner circle, then assassinated him with an ice axe at his home in 1940.
Under Cardenas, who was president from 1934 to 1940, Mexico also welcomed more than 20,000 Spanish exiles fleeing Franco’s regime after the Republicans’ defeat in the Civil War.
The Republican government-in-exile was based in Mexico from 1939 to 1946.
The exiles included the poet Leon Felipe, a friend of Che Guevara and Fidel Castro — who himself fled to Mexico after waging an aborted rebellion in Cuba, then went on to launch the Cuban Revolution from there — and Bunuel, the legendary filmmaker.
Bunuel, a one-time spy and propagandist for the Republicans, moved to Mexico in 1946, becoming a Mexican citizen and filming his classic movie “The Young and the Damned” there.
More exiles arrived during the brutal Latin American dictatorships of the 1970s. They included Hortensia Bussi, widow of Chile’s late socialist president Allende, who fled to the Mexican embassy in Santiago and ultimately Mexico itself after her husband died during the coup that ousted him in 1973.
Mexico also took in Central Americans during the wars that rocked that region in the 1980s, including Guatemalan indigenous activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner Rigoberta Menchu. Taking in Morales could be a politically risky bet for Lopez Obrador, a fellow leftist elected last year.
It could strain the “peace and love” relationship he has sought to maintain with US President Donald Trump, who openly detests Morales.
At home, Lopez Obrador’s opponents were quick to pounce.
Morales “is a dictator clinging to power! He’s a persona non grata in Mexico,” tweeted former president Vicente Fox, of the conservative National Action Party (PAN).
Even celebrated Mexican writer Elena Poniatowska, a Lopez Obrador ally, joined in.
“Why do presidents want to stay in power forever? Why does Evo Morales insist on believing there is no one but him?” she tweeted Saturday.
However, Gutierrez, the diplomat, said granting Morales asylum was in line with Mexico’s commitments under international treaties.
“It’s important that political asylum not be subject to ideological considerations,” he said.
“It’s for people who are being politically persecuted, endangering their lives, liberty or safety.”
That was the case for Morales, he said.
Marta de Cea is glad for Mexico’s asylum tradition.
The 74-year-old Argentine woman fled to Mexico in 1976 after being kidnapped by the military regime.
“They helped us very much. I’m still here after more than 40 years. I’m a Mexican citizen. My home is here, my daughters are Mexican,” she said, her voice breaking.
“I’m very grateful to this country.”


‘Political reconciliation’ with Pakistan top priority: Afghan envoy Daudzai

Updated 12 min 13 sec ago

‘Political reconciliation’ with Pakistan top priority: Afghan envoy Daudzai

  • Pakistan played positive role in US-Taliban peace talks, says diplomat

PESHAWAR: Afghanistan’s newly appointed special envoy for Pakistan has had put “mending political relations” between the two estranged nations as one of his top priorities.

Mohammed Umer Daudzai, on Tuesday said that his primary focus would be to ensure lasting peace in Afghanistan and maintain strong ties with Pakistan, especially after Islamabad’s key role in the Afghan peace process earlier this year.

In an exclusive interview, the diplomat told Arab News: “Two areas have been identified to focus on with renewed vigor, such as lasting peace in Afghanistan and cementing Pak-Afghan bilateral ties in economic, social, political and other areas.”

In order to achieve these aims, he said, efforts would be intensified “to mend political relations” between the neighboring countries.

Pakistan and Afghanistan share a 2,600-kilometer porous border and have been at odds for years. Bonds between them have been particularly strained due to a deep mistrust and allegations of cross-border infiltration by militants.

Kabul has blamed Islamabad for harboring Taliban leaders after they were ousted from power in 2001. But Pakistan has denied the allegations and, instead, accused Kabul of providing refuge to anti-Pakistan militants – a claim rejected by Afghanistan.

Daudzai said his immediate priority would be to focus on “political reconciliation” between the two countries, especially in the backdrop of a historic peace agreement signed in February this year when Pakistan played a crucial role in facilitating a troop withdrawal deal between the US and the Taliban to end the decades-old Afghan conflict. “Afghanistan needs political reconciliation which the Afghan government has already been working on to achieve bottom-up harmony,” he added.

Daudzai’s appointment Monday by Afghan President Ashraf Ghani took place days after Islamabad chose Mohammed Sadiq as Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan’s special representative for Afghanistan.

Reiterating the need to maintain strong bilateral ties with all of its neighbors, Daudzai said Pakistan’s role was of paramount importance to Afghanistan.

“Pakistan has a positive role in the US-Taliban peace talks, and now Islamabad could play a highly significant role in the imminent intra-Afghan talks. I will explore all options for a level-playing field for the success of all these initiatives,” he said, referring in part to crucial peace talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban which were delayed due to a stalemate in a prisoner exchange program – a key condition of the Feb. 29 peace deal.

Under the agreement, up to 5,000 Taliban prisoners and around 1,000 government prisoners were to be freed by March 10. So far, Afghanistan has released 3,000 prisoners, while the Taliban have freed 500. Daudzai said that while dates had yet to be finalized, the intra-Afghan dialogue could begin “within weeks.”

He added: “A date for intra-Afghan talks hasn’t been identified yet because there is a stalemate on prisoners’ release. But I am sure they (the talks) will be kicked off within weeks.”

Experts say Daudzai’s appointment could give “fresh momentum” to the stalled process and revitalize ties between the two estranged neighbors.

“Mohammed Sadiq’s appointment...could lead Kabul-Islamabad to a close liaison and better coordination,” Irfanullah Khan, an MPhil scholar and expert on Afghan affairs, told Arab News.

Daudzai said that he would be visiting Islamabad to kickstart the process as soon as the coronavirus disease-related travel restrictions were eased.

Prior to being appointed as the special envoy, he had served as Afghanistan’s ambassador to Pakistan from April 2011 to August 2013.

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