MAKKAH: More than 500 million birds representing 500 species migrate across Saudi Arabia every year through the Red Sea, according to an expert in the Kingdom.
Dr. Mohammed Shubrak, a Saudi Wildlife Authority adviser, said that birds migrating from their habitats to other habitats reflected biodiversity, since most species were well-known and classified.
He explained that the route of migratory birds covered the yearly migration from nesting to resting and feeding grounds.
During migration, birds made many physiological adaptations such as increasing their fat percentage, reducing the size of their organs and increasing the size of their feathers. To migrate from one place to another, birds also adopted different behavior according to their size and species.
“Birds have four movements: Flailing, flying, walking and swimming,” Shubrak told Arab News.
“Flailing and flying are two types of movements of the migratory birds to the Kingdom that cannot escape potential hazards. Some birds come to the same place each year for the same foods, like the imperial eagle that has been seen in Saudi Arabia visiting the same places repeatedly.
Eagles provide a free service to humans as they feed on dead animals. According to a study conducted in a reserve in Taif, eagles get rid of 32 percent of dead animals and 3 percent of mammals (foxes and stray dogs) knowing that livestock numbers represent nine times the load capacity of
grassland in the region.”
Migratory birds are an indicator of environmental changes, he said, adding that environmental interdependence was the movement of species without obstacles ensuring the flow and continuity of natural life.
“Environmental interdependence also supports the movement of land, sea and air species and benefits in pollinating flowers of birds, insects, and the environmental hydrological cycle.”
Birds are one of the most common animal species as they exist in all regions of the world, from polar to desert.
According to Saudi observers, international efforts have been intensified to support biodiversity, especially in light of the coronavirus pandemic, in line with the methodology of the Convention on Migratory Birds and the UN Convention on Combating Desertification.
Shubrak said that migratory birds played a vital role as they had a major relationship with the world that people lived in, whether in terms of culture, the environment, the economy or tourism.
Some birds resorted to hopping and moving for short distances between tens to thousands of kilometers. There were also species that flew thousands of kilometers without stopping, relying on large quantities of food sources to get them through their journey.
Other birds migrated through narrow routes or straight lines, Shubrak said. “The coastal line toward the Red Sea between the mountains and coast lines — this trajectory threatens species like the Siberian crane that by disappearing, caused the disappearance of species migrating through Pakistan to spend winter in India.”
He added that the most dangerous risks facing birds were noncontrolled hunting, poisoning, plastic pollution, dredging and land filling, power lines, illegal trade and climate change.
“There are plans of action to protect migratory birds in Saudi Arabia, including hawks, in partnership with hunters. Saudi Arabia has contributed financially and scientifically to developing plans to protect hawks in partnership with hunters from Saudi Arabia.”
He added that a national plan needed to be carried out to preserve hawks in the Kingdom since the numbers of most hawks used for hunting were dwindling, such as the mountainous falcon, whose numbers have decreased by 93 percent.