PKK ends truce: How will it impact Turkiye’s regional moves?  

Analysis PKK ends truce: How will it impact Turkiye’s regional moves?  
Meanwhile, Turkiye’s Defense Ministry announced on Wednesday that 41 terrorists were “neutralized” after armed drones were employed in northern Syria. (AFP/File)
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Updated 15 June 2023
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PKK ends truce: How will it impact Turkiye’s regional moves?  

PKK ends truce: How will it impact Turkiye’s regional moves?  

ANKARA: All eyes are now on the security apparatus in Ankara and Turkiye’s next policy moves after the Kurdistan Workers’ Party declared an end to its four-month unilateral ceasefire.

It has sparked a debate on how it will impact Turkiye-US relations given the US presence in northeastern Syria and within the context of its local partnership with the Syrian Democratic Forces, a militia alliance led by the Syrian Kurdish YPG, considered the Syrian affiliate of the PKK. 

Charles Lister, senior fellow and director at the Middle East Institute, tweeted: “Depending on how the PKK resumes attacks, this could place the US under considerable pressure in northeastern Syria, alongside the SDF.”

The ceasefire was implemented following the devastating earthquakes in February that hit both Turkiye and Syria and killed tens of thousands of people. It held during the election period in Turkiye. 

KCK, the umbrella body representing the PKK’s regional structures, justified the end of the ceasefire by claiming that “Turkish forces continued assaults on PKK hideouts in the Qandil Mountains and the Iraqi Kurdistan region,” while “attacking civilians in Sinjar and Makhmour.”

The PKK is listed as an outlawed terrorist organization in Turkiye, Europe and the US.

Huseyin Arasan, a member of the PKK, was recently injured in an airstrike in Sulaymaniyah and died the following day. The pro-government Yeni Safak daily reported that he was killed following a special operation by the Turkish intelligence agency.

Meanwhile, Turkiye’s Defense Ministry announced on Wednesday that 41 terrorists were “neutralized” after armed drones were employed in northern Syria.

Colin P. Clarke, a director of research at the Soufan Group, a US-based intelligence and security-consulting firm, says the end of the PKK’s ceasefire will encourage Turkiye to become more aggressive in its offensive operations.

He told Arab News: “Especially now that Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has been re-elected, he’s going to be less concerned about actions that irritate the United States.

“The issue of the SDF is just one of many important issues between Ankara and Washington, and I fully expect Erdogan to use Sweden’s accession to NATO and similar issues to gain more flexibility when it comes to fighting the PKK.”

Turkiye is to conduct meetings with Sweden and Finland ahead of next month’s NATO summit in Vilnius on July 11-12.

To unlock Sweden’s stalled NATO application, Ankara wants Stockholm to prevent PKK members from operating in the country and has asked Sweden to address Turkiye’s security concerns on terrorism as Erdogan has accused Stockholm of being a haven for PKK terrorists.

Sweden’s Supreme Court recently gave the green light to the government for the extradition of a PKK supporter to Turkiye.

Lister believes that the conclusion of Turkiye’s elections has provided the space for an escalation of action against PKK elements in northern Syria.

He told Arab News: “Turkish strikes have surged in recent days, covering more than a dozen localities, and Syrian regime forces have been hit too.

“That, along with recent regional moves to normalize (Bashar) Assad’s regime, has created conditions that trigger instability, not stability.”

According to Lister, Turkiye is taking advantage of that window of opportunity, but in response so too is the PKK.

He added: “As regional normalization of Assad continues, the PKK’s long-term skepticism of the US alliance is coming to the forefront as well, which weakens the SDF’s hand in containing the PKK’s more hardline tendencies.

“We’re entering a deeply unstable time in the Syrian crisis and within that, the US-led coalition’s ability to maintain control in the northeast will come under significant pressure.”

Berkay Mandiraci, senior Turkiye analyst at International Crisis Group, told Arab News: “Ankara remains intent on further pushing back against the PKK and its affiliates in the region.

“A change of course toward de-escalation remains a distant prospect. Continued US support to the SDF in northeast Syria remains a leading concern for Ankara, and no easy way out appears in sight.”

International Crisis Group regularly updates a visual explainer about Turkey’s PKK conflict. For further info, https://www.crisisgroup.org/content/turkeys-pkk-conflict-visual-explainer
 


Will EU aid in exchange for curbing refugee flows make it harder for Syrians in Lebanon to overcome hostility?

Will EU aid in exchange for curbing refugee flows make it harder for Syrians in Lebanon to overcome hostility?
Updated 5 sec ago
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Will EU aid in exchange for curbing refugee flows make it harder for Syrians in Lebanon to overcome hostility?

Will EU aid in exchange for curbing refugee flows make it harder for Syrians in Lebanon to overcome hostility?
  • EU leaders say a new 1 billion euro aid package for Lebanon will ease the economic pressure of hosting displaced Syrian
  • Rights groups say the pledged funding has only emboldened Lebanese authorities to mount a crackdown on Syrians

LONDON: Since the EU announced a €1 billion ($1.087 billion) aid package to assist Syrians in Lebanon, in exchange for Lebanese authorities agreeing to curb the flow of migrants to Europe, hostility toward the Syrian community in Lebanon has, by most accounts, continued to rise.

Earlier this month, Ursula von der Leyen, president of the European Commission, announced that the EU would allocate a substantial package of aid to crisis-racked Lebanon for the 2024-27 period to help it cope with its substantial refugee population.

Of this amount, €736 million would be allocated to supporting refugees, while €264 million would go toward training the Lebanese armed forces to tackle illegal migration to Europe.

Von der Leyen said the aid would bolster border management, assist reform to the banking sector, and support basic services to the most vulnerable communities, including refugees, amid a crippling economic crisis in Lebanon and a surge in the number of irregular boat arrivals in Cyprus from Lebanon.

The EU recently announced a €1 billion aid package to assist Syrians in Lebanon, in exchange for Lebanese authorities agreeing to curb the flow of migrants to Europe. (AFP)

The announcement came after Cyprus, an EU member state, voiced concern about the number of migrant boats arriving on its shores last month. The majority were Syrians arriving from Lebanon.

This sharp increase in arrivals prompted the Cypriot government in mid-April to suspend the processing of asylum applications from Syrians. Nicosia also called on its EU partners to step up efforts to aid Lebanon.

However, von der Leyen’s announcement appears to have emboldened Lebanese authorities to step up their crackdown on Syrians, human rights monitor Amnesty International said on Monday.

Within a week of the announcement, on May 8, Lebanon’s General Security announced a new clampdown on Syrians, further tightening work and residency restrictions and ramping up raids, evictions, arrests and deportations.

More than 400 refugees were repatriated to Syria on May 14, according to Amnesty International, which, alongside other rights bodies, concluded that “Syria remains unsafe for return, and refugees are at risk of human rights violations.”

Syrian refugees returning from Lebanon to their country through the Al-Zamrani crossing on May 14, 2024. (AFP)

“Once again, President von der Leyen has put her desire to curb the flow of refugees at any cost into Europe before the EU’s obligations to protect refugees fleeing conflict or persecution,” Aya Majzoub, Amnesty International’s deputy director for the Middle East and North Africa, said in a statement.

“This appears to have emboldened Lebanese authorities to intensify their ruthless campaign targeting refugees with hateful discourse, forced deportations, and stifling measures on residency and labor.”

Lebanon is home to about 1.5 million Syrian refugees. Anti-Syrian sentiment in the country has intensified since the onset of the financial crisis in 2019, pushing 80 percent of the Lebanese population below the poverty line.

The hostility and suspicion, stoked by the rhetoric of senior politicians, boiled over in mid-April when a senior Lebanese Forces official was reportedly abducted and killed in a Syrian area near the Lebanese border.

Lebanese mobs indiscriminately attacked Syrians and vandalized their properties, while local authorities and self-appointed community groups evicted many from their homes and businesses.

IN NUMBERS

  • 1/3 of Lebanese citizens in five governorates were living in poverty in 2022.
  • 90% of Syrians in Lebanon were living below the poverty line in 2022.
  • 2,000 Syrians arrived in Cyprus by sea in the first quarter of 2024.

The EU-Lebanon deal augurs poorly for acceptance of displaced Syrian refugees, rights groups say.

Wadih Al-Asmar, president of the Lebanese Center for Human Rights, told Arab News he has never witnessed “this amount of pressure on Syrian refugees in Lebanon, where all the security services are participating.”

He believes the hostility toward Syrians is “purely for electoral reasons” and that von der Leyen has “opened a Pandora’s box in the region, especially in Lebanon.”

Syrian refugees are among the most vulnerable communities in Lebanon, with the majority unable to afford basic essentials and more than half of households living in shelters that are either overcrowded or below minimum standards for habitability, according to UN agencies.

A Syrian child stands barefoot amidst snow in the Syrian refugees camp of Al-Hilal near Baalbek in Lebanon’s Bekaa valley on January 20, 2022. (AFP)

Karam Shaar, a senior fellow at the New Lines Institute, said displaced Syrians in Lebanon “are always in a position where they have to pick between two ugly options: Staying in Lebanon or going back to Syria.

“It’s the balance between the ugliness of these two factors that determines whether they decide to stay in Lebanon or go back to Syria,” he told Arab News.

Until now, the next best option for Syrians was onward travel to a third country — ideally an EU member state. However, since Cyprus stopped processing Syrian refugee applications, options have narrowed further.

“The option to leave Lebanon and go to Europe has also been made much, much harder because it’s much more difficult to go to Greece from Lebanon instead of going to Cyprus, which is much, much closer,” Shaar said.

Cyprus is a mere 185 km from Lebanon — taking about 10 hours to reach by boat. More than 2,000 Syrians arrived by sea in the first quarter of 2024. Whether the new EU funding for Lebanon will reduce those numbers remains to be seen.

Syrian refugees are among the most vulnerable communities in Lebanon, with the majority unable to afford basic essentials. (AFP)

Shaar said the money allocated to support Syrians in Lebanon is “relatively small.” Furthermore, owing to the routine misappropriation of funding by Lebanese authorities, little is likely to reach those most in need.

“If you think of the 3RP (Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan), which is the main UN-sponsored plan for helping Lebanon cope with the Syrian refugee crisis, the sums that Lebanon has been receiving per year are actually higher than the amount that the EU has announced — if you look at the elements relating specifically to Syrians,” he said.

“Unfortunately, in light of aid diversion, which is the case in Lebanon, in Syria — in most corrupt countries to varying extents — little of that amount will actually find its way to Syrians.

“However, I think part of those amounts is urgently needed, especially in the field of education and the support toward the UNHCR.”

Karam Shaar, a senior fellow at the New Lines Institute, said part of the money allocated to support Syrians in Lebanon is “urgently needed, especially in the field of education and the support toward the UNHCR.” (AFP)

Co-led by the UN Refugee Agency and the UN Development Programme, the 3RP provides a platform for humanitarian and development partners to respond to the Syrian crisis at the regional and host country level.

The 3RP estimated in this year’s Regional Strategic Overview report that Lebanon, the country with the highest proportion of refugees in the world relative to its population, will need $2.7 billion in financial aid to meet humanitarian needs in 2024.

Last year, Lebanon received $1.8 billion, representing a mere 31 percent of the required $5.9 billion, according to the same report.

Al-Asmar of the Lebanese Center for Human Rights believes the latest EU aid package will have “more negative than positive effect on Lebanon.”

The UN said Lebanon will need $2.7 billion in financial aid to meet humanitarian needs in 2024. (EU)

On the one hand, he said, the €1 billion “is not new money — this was the support that was planned for the next four years.” It was primarily a “marketing or packaging announcement,” he said.

On the other hand, “this support, instead of being welcomed by Lebanese politicians, was somehow a trigger to initiate one of the biggest hate campaigns against Syrian refugees.”

Rather than shouldering the responsibility for the country’s predicament, including the ongoing financial crisis, Lebanese politicians are instead making scapegoats of the Syrians, he said.

€1 billion for Lebanon over four years means €250 million per year,” which “is nothing,” especially when considering the “number of refugees we have in Lebanon.”

Syrian refugees stand in the balcony of a building under construction which they have been using as shelter in the city of Sidon in southern Lebanon, on March 17, 2020. (AFP)

Pointing out that EU officials have not yet approved the agreement, he said: “We have the feeling that the EU is trying to outsource border management … and pushing the Lebanese government to commit human rights violations that EU countries cannot afford to commit.

“So, whenever there are Syrian people to be pushed back from Cyprus, for example, they will not be pushed back to Syria, which is a crime. They will be pushed back to Lebanon, and then the Lebanese army will commit this international crime, which is a violation of the Convention against Torture, by sending them back to Syria.”

Article 3 of the UN Convention against Torture stipulates that “no state party shall expel, return (“refouler”) or extradite a person to another state where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.”

As a party to the convention, Lebanon has breached its international obligations by summarily deporting thousands, including opposition activists and army defectors, to Syria, according to Human Rights Watch.

Ahead of the 8th Brussels Conference on supporting the future of Syria and the region, held on Monday, humanitarian organizations, including the Norwegian Refugee Council, warned that Syrians are at risk of being forgotten by the international community.

With 16.7 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance in 2024, according to UN figures, aid agencies urged donors to increase investment in early recovery to help Syrians rebuild their lives and access basic services.

Human Rights Watch said Lebanon has breached its international obligations by summarily deporting thousands, including opposition activists and army defectors, to Syria. (AFP)

The EU pledged €2.12 billion for 2024-25 to support Syrians at home and in neighboring countries, as well as their host communities in Lebanon, Turkiye, Jordan and Iraq.

In response to the pledge, the aid agency Oxfam said the discussion in Brussels “remains far removed from the harsh realities Syrians face.”

In a statement the agency said: “Funding still fails to match the scale of needs, and year after year, the number of people relying on aid grows, a stark reminder of the eminent collapse in Syria’s humanitarian situation.”

The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has warned that the Syrian Humanitarian Response Plan for 2024, covering neighboring countries, is only 8.7 percent funded, at $352 million out of the required $4.07 billion.

In neighboring countries, just $371 million, or 7.7 percent, of the $4.49 billion required is covered.

 


Blinken discusses need to end Sudan war with top general

Blinken discusses need to end Sudan war with top general
Updated 10 min 42 sec ago
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Blinken discusses need to end Sudan war with top general

Blinken discusses need to end Sudan war with top general
  • Blinken discussed a resumption of peace negotiations with Burhan
  • Recent attacks around Al-Fashir have shattered a local truce that protected it from the wider war

WASHINGTON: US Secretary of State Antony Blinken discussed the need to urgently end the war in Sudan with Sudanese army chief General Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan in a phone call on Tuesday, the State Department said.
The two also addressed ways to “enable unhindered humanitarian access, including cross border and cross line, to alleviate the suffering of the Sudanese people,” it said.
Sudan has been gripped since April 2023 by a civil war between the Sudanese army, led by Burhan, and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), led by Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo.
Thousands of civilians are estimated to have died.
Blinken discussed a resumption of peace negotiations with Burhan and the need to protect civilians and defuse hostilities in Al-Fashir, North Darfur, the State Department said.
Recent attacks around Al-Fashir have shattered a local truce that protected it from the wider war.
Egypt will host a conference next month bringing together Sudan’s civilian political groups with other regional and global parties, the Egyptian foreign ministry said on Tuesday.
The conference aims to produce an agreement between Sudan’s civilian groups on ways to build a comprehensive and permanent peace, it added.


Palestinian refugees’ health suffering crushing blow due to Israeli war in Gaza: UNRWA

Palestinian refugees’ health suffering crushing blow due to Israeli war in Gaza: UNRWA
Updated 28 May 2024
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Palestinian refugees’ health suffering crushing blow due to Israeli war in Gaza: UNRWA

Palestinian refugees’ health suffering crushing blow due to Israeli war in Gaza: UNRWA
  • Destruction of infrastructure, transportation has affected healthcare delivery

LONDON: Palestinian refugees in Gaza are experiencing an unprecedented health crisis as a result of Israel’s war on the region, according to the annual UN Relief and Work Agency’s health report released on Tuesday.

Palestinian refugees’ health and well-being have suffered a “crushing blow,” the report said, with higher rates of injury, trauma, and mental health disorders.

The destruction of infrastructure and transportation has affected healthcare delivery, while congested living conditions and limited access to clean water have increased the risk of infectious disease.

Hepatitis and types of diarrhea are becoming more common. Malnutrition has also hit the region, with one out of every three children under the age of 2 in the northern Gaza Strip experiencing acute malnutrition.

Healthcare access declined in the fourth quarter of 2023 as 14 out of 22 health centers were forced to close, and power outages crippled telehealth systems.

UNRWA established 155 emergency shelters in response, deployed 108 mobile medical units, coordinated the shipment of critical medicines, and implemented disease outbreak surveillance.

Dr. Akihiro Seita, UNRWA’s director of health, said: “The health crisis among Palestine refugees can only be mitigated with immediate and sustained healthcare interventions and support.

“UNRWA remains committed to addressing these urgent needs and improving the health and well-being of Palestine refugees.

“Our staff (have) remained at the frontline in Gaza. As of May 2024, UNRWA has lost over 191 staff members, including 11 healthcare professionals. Our hearts go out to the affected families.

“This report underscores our gratitude for the dedication of our healthcare staff, who continue to deliver quality services despite their loss and being displaced several times.”

Increased restrictions of movement and rising violence have also created new challenges in the West Bank. UNRWA has adapted by finding temporary solutions to ensure patient access and uninterrupted delivery of medical supplies.

More than 2 million patients rely on UNRWA’s health services in Jordan, Lebanon, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), Gaza, and Syria.

Despite operational challenges, including defunding, UNRWA managed to provide nearly 7 million primary healthcare consultations in 2023, maintaining high levels of immunization, particularly in Gaza, which has played a critical role in preventing outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.


US-built pier in Gaza will need to be removed and repaired after damage from rough seas

US-built pier in Gaza will need to be removed and repaired after damage from rough seas
Updated 28 May 2024
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US-built pier in Gaza will need to be removed and repaired after damage from rough seas

US-built pier in Gaza will need to be removed and repaired after damage from rough seas
  • The pier is one of the few ways that food, water and other supplies are getting to Palestinians

WASHINGTON: The Pentagon says the US-built temporary pier taking humanitarian aid to starving Palestinians has been damaged in rough seas and weather and will be removed from the coast of Gaza to be repaired.
Pentagon spokeswoman Sabrina Singh told reporters Tuesday that over the next two days the pier will be pulled out and sent to the southern Israeli city of Ashdod, where US Central Command will repair it.
She says the fixes will take “at least over a week” and then the pier will need to be anchored back into the beach in Gaza.
The pier is one of the few ways that food, water and other supplies are getting to Palestinians who the UN says are on the brink of famine amid the nearly eight-month-old Israel-Hamas war in Gaza.


Arab League chief urges wider recognition of Palestinian state

Arab League chief urges wider recognition of Palestinian state
Updated 28 May 2024
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Arab League chief urges wider recognition of Palestinian state

Arab League chief urges wider recognition of Palestinian state
  • Ahmed Aboul Gheit issued the warning while taking part in a series of Arab League meetings with European foreign ministers
  • The meetings in Brussels on Sunday and Monday discussed practical political solutions to end the fighting

CAIRO: The Arab League secretary-general said in Brussels that Israel’s aggression in the Gaza Strip could undermine any chance for peace and extinguish hopes of achieving a two-state solution, posing significant risks not only for the Middle East but also for international security.
Ahmed Aboul Gheit issued the warning while taking part in a series of Arab League meetings with European foreign ministers and other officials on the Palestinian-Israeli situation in light of the conflict in Gaza.
Hossam Zaki, Abdul Gheit’s assistant, said that the meetings in Brussels on Sunday and Monday discussed practical political solutions to end the fighting and subsequent steps to ensure peace.
During his discussions with European ministers, Aboul Gheit highlighted the need for more European countries to recognize an independent Palestinian state based on the June 4, 1967, borders, with East Jerusalem as its capital.
This would signal to Palestinian people that their right to independence is respected by Western countries, along with other nations in the world, he said.
Aboul-Gheit thanked the foreign ministers of Ireland, Norway, and Spain for their decision to recognize an independent Palestinian state.
Zaki said that the discussions revealed an increasing inclination toward addressing the situation collectively by convening an international conference to implement the two-state solution.
This approach is seen as the only way to save the region from prolonged and continuous violent conflict, he said.
Aboul Gheit, along with the foreign ministers of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Qatar, and Bahrain, urged European countries to move beyond merely discussing the feasibility of the two-state solution.
They advocated for clear and concrete steps to implement it on the ground, addressing the root causes of the conflict, Zaki said.