Kurds demonstrate on Lausanne treaty centenary

Members of the Kurdish community walk past security fences during a march to mark the 100th anniversary of the Treaty of Lausanne, in Lausanne on July 22, 2023. (AFP)
Members of the Kurdish community walk past security fences during a march to mark the 100th anniversary of the Treaty of Lausanne, in Lausanne on July 22, 2023. (AFP)
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Updated 23 July 2023
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Kurds demonstrate on Lausanne treaty centenary

Kurds demonstrate on Lausanne treaty centenary
  • Protest organizers urge the international community to reconsider the agreement and its consequences for the Kurdish people

LAUSANNE: Around 6,000 Kurds rallied on Saturday to demonstrate against the 100th anniversary of the Treaty of Lausanne which defined the borders of modern Turkiye but shattered aspirations for a Kurdish state.
The demonstrators marched through the Swiss city in opposition to the 1923 treaty, while organizers urged the international community to reconsider the agreement and its consequences for the Kurdish people.
The demonstrators, who came from across Europe, gathered by Lake Geneva before marching uphill to the Palais de Rumine where the treaty was signed.
Several carried flags representing the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), which is outlawed in Turkiye and blacklisted as a terror organization in the European Union.
The Kurdistan Cultural Center in Lausanne said the treaty “enacted the separation of the Kurdish people between four states — Turkiye, Iraq, Iran and Syria — whose democratic record over the past century is largely negative.”
Berivan Firat, a spokeswoman for the Kurdish Democratic Council of France, told AFP: “The Kurdish people, like all the peoples of the world, claim a right to be able to live with their identity on their own lands.
“This treaty opened the door to all sorts of bullying, all sorts of massacres toward the Kurdish people,” she said.
“Our detractors are the worst dictators in the Middle East and it is time to decriminalize the Kurdish movement and especially to review the Treaty of Lausanne, which has no value for us. It is null and void.”

The Conference of Lausanne opened in November 1922 to negotiate a new agreement to replace the 1920 Treaty of Sevres between the Allies and the Ottoman empire, which Turkiye no longer recognized under its new leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
Lausanne was chosen primarily due to Swiss neutrality, but also because it was easily accessible by the Orient Express train which linked Paris with Istanbul.
The conference, with Britain, France, Italy and Turkiye as the main players, ran from November to February, and again from April to July. The new Italian leader Benito Mussolini addressed the talks.
The treaty resulted in forced population exchanges between Turkiye and Greece. It allowed for unrestricted civilian passage through the Turkish Straits.
Eastern Anatolia became part of modern-day Turkiye; in return, Turkiye gave up its Ottoman-era claims to Syria and Iraq to the south.
Armenians and Kurds played no part as their territorial ambitions were dashed.
“Lausanne is synonymous with betrayal, with deep trauma for these peoples. And it still lasts today,” historian Antoine Fleury, professor emeritus of the University of Geneva, told Switzerland’s ATS news agency.

“We demand an apology from Lausanne, which divided Kurdistan into four parts,” said protester Munevver Gok, 56, a housewife living in the Netherlands.
Fellow demonstrator Kardo Lucas Larsen, 41, who lives in Denmark, told AFP: “a protest like this joins the Kurdish people together and this gives us the feeling like a nation.
“We can stay strong... and then we can decide about our future.”
Switzerland’s Turkish community is planning its treaty commemorations in October around the 100th anniversary of the Turkish republic, with concerts and conferences.

 


Palestinian unity talks in China postponed, Palestinian officials say

Palestinian unity talks in China postponed, Palestinian officials say
Updated 14 sec ago
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Palestinian unity talks in China postponed, Palestinian officials say

Palestinian unity talks in China postponed, Palestinian officials say
  • Fatah and Hamas officials had previously said the meeting would take place in mid-June.
CAIRO: Reconciliation talks between the rival Palestinian factions Hamas and Fatah due to be held in China this month have been delayed and no new date has been set, Hamas and Fatah officials told Reuters on Monday.
After hosting a meeting of Palestinian factions in April, China said Fatah — which is led by President Mahmoud Abbas — and Hamas had expressed the will to seek reconciliation through unity talks in Beijing. Fatah and Hamas officials had previously said the meeting would take place in mid-June.

Iran sanctions take center stage in presidential campaign

Iran sanctions take center stage in presidential campaign
Updated 28 min 42 sec ago
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Iran sanctions take center stage in presidential campaign

Iran sanctions take center stage in presidential campaign
  • Sanctions have sharply reduced Iran’s oil revenues, heavily restricted trade and contributed to soaring inflation, high unemployment

Tehran: Iranians broadly deplore Western sanctions that have battered the economy, but the country’s six presidential candidates offer differing solutions — assuming the winner gets a say on foreign policy.
Punishing US sanctions, reimposed following Washington’s withdrawal from a landmark 2015 nuclear deal, have brought years of economic hardships, fueling political malaise and wide popular discontent.
With the June 28 snap election fast approaching, debates between the candidates vying for Iran’s second-highest office have featured a key question: should Tehran mend ties with the West?
Under the late president Ebrahim Raisi, who died last month in a helicopter crash, Western governments have expanded sanctions against Iran over its nuclear program as well as its support for militant groups across the Middle East and for Russia in its war in Ukraine.
The sanctions have sharply reduced Iran’s oil revenues, heavily restricted trade and contributed to soaring inflation, high unemployment and a record low for the Iranian rial against the US dollar.
At Tehran’s bustling Grand Bazaar, shopkeeper Hamid Habibi, 54, said years of sanctions “have hit people very hard.”
“Sanctions should be removed and ties mended with the US and European countries,” he said.
In two televised debates focused on the economy ahead of the presidential polls, “almost all the candidates explained that the sanctions have had devastating effects,” said Fayyaz Zahed, a professor of international relations at the University of Tehran.
“It is crucial to resolve this issue to alleviate the people’s suffering,” he said.
While the six contenders — five conservatives and a sole reformist — have all vowed to tackle the economic hardships, they offered varying views on Iran’s relations with the West.
“If we could lift the sanctions, Iranians could live comfortably,” said reformist candidate Massoud Pezeshkian, considered one of three frontrunners.
Pezeshkian, who is backed by key reformist groups in Iran, called for “constructive relations” with Washington and European capitals in order to “get Iran out of its isolation.”
On the campaign trail, he had the support of Mohammad Javad Zarif, a former foreign minister who helped secure the 2015 nuclear deal with world powers and insists it had positive impact on the Iranian economy.
Since the United States unilaterally withdrew from the accord in 2018, Iran has gradually reduced its commitment to its terms, meant to curb nuclear activity which Tehran has maintained was for peaceful purposes.
Diplomatic efforts to revive the deal have long stalled as tensions between Tehran and the International Atomic Energy Agency repeatedly flared.
Former president Hassan Rouhani, whose government negotiated the deal, said the sanctions cost Iranians “$100 billion a year, directly or indirectly, from the sale of oil and petrochemicals and the discounts they give” — in reference to preferential trade with China, a signatory to the 2015 agreement.
Ultraconservative presidential candidate Saeed Jalili, a former nuclear negotiator, has called for Tehran to press ahead with its long-running anti-Western policy.
“The international community is not made up of just two or three Western countries,” Jalili has repeatedly said in debates and campaign rallies.
He said Iran should bolster its ties with China and Russia, and forge stronger relations with Arab countries, particularly regional powerhouse Saudi Arabia.
Conservative candidate Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, the incumbent parliament speaker, has offered a more pragmatic approach, saying Iran should negotiate with Western countries only if it stands to gain an “economic advantage.”
Ghalibaf called for increasing Tehran’s nuclear capabilities, a strategy he said was already “forcing the West to negotiate with Iran.”
Zahed, the international relations professor, said Jalili has positioned himself as “the most inflexible candidate on the diplomatic level.”
In any case, the expert added, the next president will have limited say over strategic issues in the Islamic republic where supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, 85, wields ultimate authority.
On Saturday, Khamenei urged the candidates to avoid making any remarks that would “please the enemy” — in reference to the West, mainly the United States.
The president “could only influence foreign policy” if he “earned the trust” of Khamenei and Iran’s most influential government institutions, Zahed said.


EU adopts sanctions against six over Sudan civil war

EU adopts sanctions against six over Sudan civil war
Updated 24 June 2024
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EU adopts sanctions against six over Sudan civil war

EU adopts sanctions against six over Sudan civil war

EU countries adopted sanctions against six people in Sudan on Monday over the war between the Sudanese military and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) that has engulfed the country.
The listings include a general commanding the RSF in West Darfur, who the EU Council said is responsible for committing atrocities, instigating ethnically motivated killings, sexual violence and the looting and burning of communities.
They also include the RSF’s financial adviser, as well as a prominent tribal leader of the Mahamid clan affiliated with the RSF in West Darfur.
On the side of the Sudanese army, sanctions target the director of Defense Industry Systems and the commander of the Sudanese Air Force for their responsibility in the “indiscriminate aerial bombing of densely populated residential areas,” the EU Council said.
Former Sudanese Minister of Foreign Affairs Ali Ahmed Karti Mohamed is also listed.
The six are now subject to an asset freeze and travel ban in the 27-nation European Union.


Israel kills senior Gaza health official, tanks push deeper into Rafah

Israel kills senior Gaza health official, tanks push deeper into Rafah
Updated 24 June 2024
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Israel kills senior Gaza health official, tanks push deeper into Rafah

Israel kills senior Gaza health official, tanks push deeper into Rafah
  • Israeli military said that the strike targeted Mohammad Salah, who it said was responsible for developing Hamas weaponry
  • killing of Hani Al-Jaafarawi brought the number of medical staff killed by Israeli fire since Oct 7 to 500

CAIRO: An Israeli air strike at a medical clinic in Gaza City killed the director of Gaza’s Ambulance and Emergency Department, the enclave’s health ministry said, while Israel’s military said the strike had killed a senior Hamas armed commander.
The health ministry said the killing of Hani Al-Jaafarawi brought the number of medical staff killed by Israeli fire since Oct 7 to 500. At least 300 others have so far been detained.
In a statement, the Israeli military said the strike targeted Mohammad Salah, who it said was responsible for developing Hamas weaponry.
“Salah was part of a project to develop strategic weaponry for the Hamas terrorist organization, and he commanded a number of Hamas terrorist squads that worked on developing weapons,” it said.
More than eight months into the fighting, international mediation backed by the United States has so far failed to bring a ceasefire agreement. Hamas says any agreement must bring an end the war, while Israel says it will agree only temporary pauses in fighting until Hamas is eradicated.
In Rafah, near the border with Egypt, Israeli forces which took control of the eastern, southern, and central parts of the city pursued their raid into the western and northern areas, said residents, describing heavy fighting.
On Sunday, residents had said Israeli tanks had advanced to the edge of the Mawasi displaced persons’ camp in the northwest of Rafah, forcing many families to leave northward to Khan Younis and to Deir Al-Balah in central Gaza, the only city in the enclave where tanks have not yet invaded.
“The situation in Tel Al-Sultan, in western Rafah, remains very dangerous. Drones and Israeli snipers are hunting people who try to check on their houses, and tanks continue to take over areas overseeing Al-Mawasi further west,” said Bassam, a resident of Rafah.
“We know about people killed in the streets and we know and we see that dozens of houses had been destroyed by the occupation,” he told Reuters via a chat app.
Israel denies targeting civilians and blames Hamas for provoking civilian casualties by fighting among them, which Hamas denies.
The Israeli military said forces continued “intelligence-based targeted operations” in Rafah, locating weapons and rocket launchers and killing militants “who posed threats to them.”
In the north of the enclave, where Israel had said its forces completed operations months ago, residents said tanks had pushed back into Gaza City’s Zeitoun suburb and were pounding several areas there.
Israel’s ground and air campaign in Gaza was triggered when Hamas-led militants stormed into southern Israel on Oct. 7, killing around 1,200 people and seizing more than 250 hostages, according to Israeli tallies.
The Israeli offensive in retaliation has killed almost 37,600 people, according to Palestinian health authorities, and has left Gaza in ruins.
Since early May, fighting has focused on Rafah, on Gaza’s southern edge where around half of the enclave’s 2.3 million people had been sheltering after fleeing other areas.
Netanyahu said the phase of intense fighting against Hamas would end “very soon,” but that the war would not end until the Islamist group no longer controls the Palestinian enclave.
In an interview with Israel’s channel 14, he said forces based in Gaza would be freed to move to the north, where Israel has warned of a potential full-blown war against Lebanon’s Hezbollah movement, which has struck the border region in what it says is solidarity with the Palestinians.
“After the intense phase is finished, we will have the possibility to move part of the forces north. And we will do this,” Netanyahu said in an interview with Israel’s Channel 14.


Netanyahu will only agree to ‘partial’ ceasefire, but not end to Gaza war

Netanyahu will only agree to ‘partial’ ceasefire, but not end to Gaza war
Updated 45 min 38 sec ago
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Netanyahu will only agree to ‘partial’ ceasefire, but not end to Gaza war

Netanyahu will only agree to ‘partial’ ceasefire, but not end to Gaza war
  • Viability of US-backed peace proposal cast into doubt with Israeli leader’s comments
  • Netanyahu’s remarks could further strain Israel’s ties to the US, its top ally

TEL AVIV: The viability of a US-backed proposal to wind down the eight-month-long war in Gaza was cast into doubt on Monday after Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said he would only be willing to agree to a “partial” ceasefire deal that would not end the war, comments that sparked an uproar from families of hostages held by Hamas.
In an interview broadcast late Sunday on Israeli Channel 14, a conservative, pro-Netanyahu station, the Israeli leader said he was “prepared to make a partial deal — this is no secret — that will return to us some of the people,” referring to the roughly 120 hostages still held in the Gaza Strip. “But we are committed to continuing the war after a pause, in order to complete the goal of eliminating Hamas. I’m not willing to give up on that.”
Netanyahu’s comments did not deviate dramatically from what he has said previously about his terms for a deal. But they come at a sensitive time as Israel and Hamas appear to be moving further apart over the latest ceasefire proposal, and they could represent another setback for mediators trying to end the war.
Netanyahu’s comments stood in sharp contrast to the outlines of the deal detailed late last month by US President Joe Biden, who framed the plan as an Israeli one and which some in Israel refer to as “Netanyahu’s deal.” His remarks could further strain Israel’s ties to the US, its top ally, which launched a major diplomatic push for the latest ceasefire proposal.
The three-phased plan would bring about the release of the remaining hostages in exchange for hundreds of Palestinians imprisoned by Israel. But disputes and mistrust persist between Israel and Hamas over how the deal plays out.
Hamas has insisted it will not release the remaining hostages unless there’s a permanent ceasefire and a full withdrawal of Israeli forces from Gaza. When Biden announced the latest proposal last month, he said it included both.
But Netanyahu says Israel is still committed to destroying Hamas’ military and governing capabilities, and ensuring it can never again carry out an Oct. 7-style assault. A full withdrawal of Israeli forces from Gaza, where Hamas’ top leadership and much of its forces are still intact, would almost certainly leave the group in control of the territory and able to rearm. In the interview, Netanyahu said that the current phase of fighting is ending, but that didn’t mean the war was over.
During the initial six-week phase, the sides are supposed to negotiate an agreement on the second phase, which Biden said would include the release of all remaining living hostages, including male soldiers, and Israel’s full withdrawal from Gaza. The temporary ceasefire would become permanent.
Hamas appears concerned that Israel will resume the war once its most vulnerable hostages are returned. And even if it doesn’t, Israel could make demands in that stage of negotiations that were not part of the initial deal and are unacceptable to Hamas — and then resume the war when Hamas refuses them.
Netanyahu’s remarks reinforced that concern. After they were aired, Hamas said they represented “unmistakable confirmation of his rejection” of the US-supported deal, which also received the backing of the United Nations’ Security Council.
In a statement late Sunday after Netanyahu’s lengthy TV interview, the Palestinian militant group said his position was “in contrast” to what the US administration said that Israel had approved. The group said that its insistence that any deal should include a permanent ceasefire and the withdrawal of all Israeli forces out of the entire Gaza Strip “was an inevitable necessity to block Netanyahu’s attempts of evasion, deception, and perpetuation of aggression and the war of extermination against our people.”
Netanyahu shot back and in a statement from his office said Hamas opposed a deal. He said Israel would not withdraw from Gaza until all 120 hostages are returned.
Hamas welcomed the broad outline of the US plan but proposed what it said were “amendments.” US Secretary of State Antony Blinken, during a visit to the region earlier this month, said some of Hamas’ demands were “workable” and some were not, without elaborating.
Netanyahu and Hamas both have incentives to keep the devastating war going despite the catastrophic toll it has had on civilians in Gaza and the mounting anger in Israel that after so many months Israel has not reached its aims of returning the hostages and defeating Hamas.
The families of hostages have grown increasingly impatient with Netanyahu, seeing his apparent reluctance to move ahead on a deal as tainted by political considerations. A group representing the families condemned Netanyahu’s remarks, which it viewed as an Israeli rejection of the latest ceasefire proposal.
“This is an abandonment of the 120 hostages and a violation of the state’s moral duty toward its citizens,” it said, noting that it held Netanyahu responsible for returning all the captives.
In its Oct. 7 cross-border assault, Hamas-led militants killed 1,200 people and took 250 people captive, including women, children and older people. Dozens were freed in a temporary ceasefire deal in late November and of the 120 remaining hostages, Israeli authorities say about a third are dead.
Israel’s retaliatory war has killed more than 37,000 Palestinians, according to the Health Ministry in the Hamas-ruled territory. It has sparked a humanitarian crisis and displaced most of the territory’s 2.3 million population.