Strike on journalists in Lebanon: Why AFP probe points to an Israeli tank shell

Strike on journalists in Lebanon: Why AFP probe points to an Israeli tank shell
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A car belonging to an Al Jazeera team burns at the site where Reuters visuals journalist Issam Abdallah was killed and six others were wounded by two tank rounds fired from Israel in Alma Al-Chaab, southern Lebanon on Oct. 13, 2023. (Reuters)
Strike on journalists in Lebanon: Why AFP probe points to an Israeli tank shell
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Debris near the low wall on which Reuters visual journalist Issam Abdallah was leaning when he was hit and killed on Oct. 13, 2023 by a tank round while filming cross-border shelling near the village of Alma Al-Chaab, Lebanon are seen on October 15, 2023. (Reuters)
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Updated 07 December 2023
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Strike on journalists in Lebanon: Why AFP probe points to an Israeli tank shell

Strike on journalists in Lebanon: Why AFP probe points to an Israeli tank shell
  • Two strikes hit the group of journalists in quick succession as they were working near the border village of Alma Al-Shaab

PARIS: An investigation by Agence France-Presse into the strike in southern Lebanon on October 13 that killed a Reuters journalist and injured six others, including two from AFP, points to a tank shell only used by the Israeli army in this high-tension border region.
Two strikes hit the group of journalists in quick succession as they were working near the border village of Alma Al-Shaab in an area that sees the Israeli army and armed Lebanese and Palestinian groups engaged in near-daily clashes.
Issam Abdallah, 37, was killed instantly. The other journalists present — two other Reuters journalists, two from Al Jazeera, and two from AFP — were all injured. AFP photographer Christina Assi, 28, was seriously wounded, later had a leg amputated and is still in hospital.
AFP jointly conducted a seven-week investigation with Airwars, an NGO that investigates attacks on civilians in conflict situations, based on evidence gathered from expert munitions analysis, satellite images, witness testimonies and video recordings filmed before and during the attack.
Its evidence points to an 120-mm fin-stabilized Israeli-made tank round, which is only used by the Israeli army in the high-tension border region.
The probe indicates that the strikes came from the southeast near the Israeli village of Jordeikh where Israeli tanks were operating. The nature of the strikes and lack of military activity in the vicinity of the journalists, combined with Israeli aerial surveillance resources, indicate it was a deliberate and targeted attack.
These findings are supported by separate investigations conducted by rights groups Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Amnesty International.
HRW concluded that the strikes were “apparently deliberate attacks on civilians, which is a war crime” and which “should be prosecuted or may be prosecuted for war crimes.” Amnesty said the incident was “likely a direct attack on civilians that must be investigated as a war crime.”
An Israeli military spokesman said after the strike: “We are very sorry for the journalist’s death,” adding that Israel was “looking into” the incident, without taking responsibility.
“AFP has been very clear that we will take all judicial avenues that we deem relevant and possible to ensure that we can get justice for Christina and Issam,” said AFP Global News Director Phil Chetwynd.

BLUE LINE
Two successive strikes hit the group of journalists at 18:02 as they were positioned above Alma Al-Shaab, a village located around a kilometer from the “Blue Line,” the UN-monitored demarcation line between Lebanon and Israel.
Lebanon’s Hezbollah and local branches of Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad had been exchanging fire with Israel on a near-daily basis across the border since Gaza-based Hamas fighters carried out their attacks on October 7.
More than 110 people have been killed on the Lebanese side, mostly Hezbollah fighters, as well as more than a dozen civilians, according to an AFP tally.
Israel says six of its soldiers have been killed.
The seven journalists were at the scene for around an hour before they were hit, positioned on the top of a small hill which offered a wide vantage point to film the Israeli bombardments that had intensified that afternoon.
The Israeli army has confirmed that it was carrying out artillery attacks in response to an infiltration attempt.
Al Jazeera journalists Carmen Joukhadar and Elie Brakhya were first on the scene, followed by AFP’s Dylan Collins and Christina Assi, and Reuters correspondents Issam Abdallah, Thaer Al-Sudani and Maher Nazeh.
All were equipped with helmets and bulletproof vests marked “Press” and were standing behind cameras placed prominently on tripods, as shown in a video shot by AFP’s Assi on her phone and posted to her Instagram shortly after 17:00.
“I was live to report the Israeli bombardment, and I had just said that there was no rocket fire from the Lebanese side. We were all on a hill in an open-air area, without any rockets or military sites near us. There was nothing near us,” Al Jazeera’s Joukhadar said.

FIRST STRIKE
The first strike hit at 18:02. It killed Abdallah instantly and seriously wounded Assi. On the video footage, she is heard screaming: “What happened? What happened? I can’t feel my legs.”
“We had spent about an hour filming a distant pillar of smoke to our south, and some limited Israeli shelling along hilltops to our southeast. Just before 6 p.m. we turned our cameras toward the west and suddenly we were hit. It came out of nowhere,” said Collins.
“We were in an exposed area, all of us wearing our helmets, our vests, just doing our job... and we were maintaining a safe distance from the front line,” said Assi. “Suddenly, everything became white... and I lost sensation in my legs, and I started crying for help.”
Collins attempted to provide her with first aid, but 37 seconds later, a second explosion occurred, hitting the Al Jazeera car located a few meters away. Collins, who had been attempting to place tourniquets on Assi’s legs, was wounded.
All the witnesses at the scene insist there was no military activity or artillery fire in their immediate proximity.
The Al Jazeera vehicle hit by the second strike was destroyed by fire. The body of Abdallah, who was directly hit by the first strike, was thrown into a field on the other side of a stone wall near which he had been standing.
A large munition fragment was filmed close to Abdallah’s body immediately after the strike. The day after, a local resident, who did not wish to be named, recovered the fragment and took photos of the scene.
AFP and Airwars had them analyzed by six weapons experts, including former British army officers and experienced conflict zone investigators.
All agree that it was part of a 120-mm fin-stabilized tank shell, typically used by the Israeli army on its Merkava tanks. No other military group or organization in the region uses this type of munition, the analysts said.
“This is the remnants of a tank round, clearly from a Merkava tank,” said one of the experts, Chris Cobb-Smith, a security consultant and former British army artillery officer.
“It’s quite obvious to me because you can see the grooves on the round itself, which indicates it comes from the fin-stabilized family of munitions. When fired, some fins spring out of the back of the round [to] stabilize it in flight, which makes it much more accurate and increases its range,” added Cobb-Smith, who has experience with this type of munition, including with fragments found during the 2008 and 2012 wars in Gaza.

ISRAELI SHELL
Independent investigations by HRW and Amnesty International also pointed to the use of a 120-mm tank shell of Israeli origin.
The Lebanese judiciary is in possession of other fragments from the scene and has opened an investigation to determine the exact circumstances of the strike.
It has yet to release its conclusions. However, a judicial source and two Lebanese military sources told AFP they had established that Israeli tank fire was responsible for the first strike, without giving further details.
The investigation identified at least two Israeli positions from which shells were being fired that afternoon. According to experts who spoke to AFP and Airwars, the most likely source of the strike that hit the journalists was a position to the southeast, near the Israeli village of Jordeikh.
At the time of the strikes, the journalists had their cameras pointed southwest, toward a base near the Israeli town of Hanita and their footage does not capture the projectile that struck them.
They were hit from the side — not from the front — as indicated by the orientation of the debris from the wall near Abdallah, which spread from east to west over around 10 meters.
Earlier footage indicates an Israeli position near Jordeikh. Around 45 minutes earlier, the AFP camera was pointing in this direction and caught the sound of at least one shot, followed by a plume of smoke rising from this location.
Satellite images from that morning and the following day, seen by AFP, show the presence of vehicles with the same dimensions as a Merkava tank very close to Jordeikh.

‘THOSE INDIVIDUALS WERE TARGETED’
The experts agree that the two strikes occurred 37 seconds apart, landing only four or five meters from each other, excluding the possibility of an accidental attack. The experts believe the strikes were deliberately aimed at the same target.
“Anyone who suggests this was an accident or mistake would have a lot of convincing to do,” said a former European military officer who has worked for decades on munitions analysis.
“One round clearly hit the cameraman directly, and the second round hit their vehicle... So I think we can discard the [idea] that this is in any way a random shot, or an unlucky shot,” added Cobb-Smith. “In my assessment those individuals were targeted.”
The investigation sought to establish whether the journalists could have been mistaken for fighters belonging to one of the armed groups active in the region.
Expert Cobb-Smith said this was unlikely given “the sophistication and the capabilities of the surveillance assets of the Israeli army.”
The journalists “were not operating in a military style,” he added. “They were standing out in the open, they had cameras on tripods, they were operating overtly, so one has to question why they were engaged by an armament of this capability.”
Amnesty’s investigation found the journalists had taken all necessary precautions to identify themselves.
“The Israeli military either knew or should have known that the seven individuals were journalists, and yet they still targeted them not once but twice, and therefore Amnesty is saying this is likely a direct attack on civilians and must be investigated as a war crime,” Aya Majzoub, Amnesty’s deputy regional director for the Middle East, told AFP.

SIMILAR INCIDENTS
The AFP investigation was unable to determine which military unit was involved or what level of command gave the order to shoot. The investigation did not speculate on any possible motivations which could have led the Israeli army to deliberately target a group of journalists.
Several similar incidents have taken place in the region in recent weeks as journalists broadcast live footage of clashes with Israel.
On October 9, a strike fell a few meters from an Al Jazeera team in Marwahin, another border town in southern Lebanon.
A journalist from the Qatari channel was injured on November 13 by Israeli fire while he and other correspondents were covering the bombardments in southern Lebanon, near cars marked “Press,” according to Lebanese state media, a local mayor and the journalists themselves.
And on November 21, two journalists from the pro-Iranian channel Al Mayadeen were killed along with a civilian in Israeli strikes on southern Lebanon, according to official Lebanese media.
Prime Minister Najib Mikati expressed his “strong condemnation” of the incident, saying Israel’s “aim is to silence the media who expose its crimes and its attacks.”
Al Jazeera said it “strongly condemns” what it called the “deliberate targeting of journalists in southern Lebanon by Israeli forces.”
The channel urged the International Criminal Court to “hold Israel and its military accountable for these heinous crimes.”
A spokesperson for Reuters said it was “shocking that a group of clearly identified journalists could be hit by fire in this way.”
The news agency reiterated its appeal to the Israelis to conduct their own probe. “It has been nearly two months since we called for them to investigate, and we have heard nothing since.”
“About as many journalists have died in the past two months as were killed in the entire 20 years of conflict in Afghanistan,” said AFP’s Chetwynd.
“We cannot allow such a culture of impunity to develop and it is absolutely essential that we rally as an industry to ensure that something is done about this.”
As of December 6, the Committee to Protect Journalists said at least 63 journalists and media workers had been killed since the start of the war on October 7.


UN urges release of detained Libyan journalist

Ahmed Sanussi. (Photo/Facebook)
Ahmed Sanussi. (Photo/Facebook)
Updated 14 July 2024
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UN urges release of detained Libyan journalist

Ahmed Sanussi. (Photo/Facebook)
  • Libya has been wracked by division and unrest since the 2011 NATO-backed overthrow of former dictator Muammar Qaddafi, and remains divided between two rival administrations

TRIPOLI: The United Nations mission in Libya on Saturday called for the “immediate” release of a prominent journalist arrested this week, warning against a “crackdown” on media freedoms in the war-torn country.
Ahmed Sanussi, chief editor of Libyan financial news website Sada who has long covered corruption in the hydrocarbon-rich country, was arrested in his Tripoli home after returning from Tunisia, his family said.
The UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) said it was “deeply concerned about the arbitrary arrest and detention of journalist Ahmed Sanussi on July 11 in Tripoli.”
In a message on social media platform X, UNSMIL called for his “immediate release.”
“The crackdown on journalism fosters a climate of fear and undermines the necessary environment for democratic transition in Libya,” it said.
Libya has been wracked by division and unrest since the 2011 NATO-backed overthrow of former dictator Muammar Qaddafi, and remains divided between two rival administrations.
The UN mission highlighted the need for a “thriving civic space where Libyans can engage in open and safe debate and dialogue by exercising their right to freedom of expression.”
“All Libyan authorities must protect journalists and media professionals.”
Sanussi’s latest reporting on corruption implicated Economy Ministry Mohamad Ali Houej.
Authorities in Libya did not comment on the arrest, which was also condemned by Western governments.
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) deemed it “unacceptable that authorities have not disclosed where he is being held or the reason for his arrest.”
The Netherlands’ ambassador in Libya, Joost Klarenbeek, said on X he was “deeply concerned,” adding that “any acts of arbitrary detention, enforced disappearance or ill-treatment must be thoroughly investigated.”
CPJ’s MENA program coordinator, Yeganeh Rezaian, said Libyan “authorities must release Sanussi immediately and unconditionally and ensure his safe return home.”
 

 


Meta bans ‘watermelon cupcake’ in internal Gaza row

Meta bans ‘watermelon cupcake’ in internal Gaza row
Updated 13 July 2024
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Meta bans ‘watermelon cupcake’ in internal Gaza row

Meta bans ‘watermelon cupcake’ in internal Gaza row
  • Meta’s Muslim club was told to avoid ‘disruptive’ themed cupcakes at internal company event
  • ‘Censorship hangs on absurdity,’ Meta data scientist denounced before being laid off

LONDON: Meta has banned the sale of watermelon-themed cupcakes due to the fruit’s association with Gaza, sparking an internal censorship controversy.

The incident began in late May when Saima Akhter, a Meta data scientist in the New York office, accused the company of blocking her plan to sell the themed cupcakes at a company event.

“I am deeply concerned and tired of the exorbitant internal censorship at Meta that is now hinging on absurdity,” Akhter wrote on Instagram after the company halted the idea.

Akhter explained that management called the offering “disruptive” and suggested the Muslim workers’ club offer “traditional Muslim sweets” instead.

According to Wired, which first reported the news, the dispute involved at least three Meta staff members, with Akhter being the only employee to publicly denounce the episode.

Akhter revealed she was fired by Meta two weeks later, allegedly for copying an internal document listing grievances of Muslim staff regarding the company’s handling of Palestinian content and the Gaza conflict.

Sources indicate she is one of at least four pro-Palestinian employees let go since Oct. 7 for various internal policy violations.

This episode highlights growing discontent among Muslim and Arab workers at tech companies over perceived bias and censorship.

Watermelon, due to its colors resembling the Palestinian flag, has become a symbol of Palestinian resistance and, recently, the Gaza protests.

In response to potential internal conflicts following the Oct 7 attack, Meta, like other tech companies, restricted discussions about the war, which has resulted in over 38,000 Palestinian and more than 1,500 Israeli deaths since October.

Maxine Williams, Meta’s diversity chief, stated in a memo that the company introduced new policies “to limit discussions around topics that have historically led to disruptions in the workplace, regardless of the importance of those topics.”


Tunisian judge imposes media ban on a candidate for presidential election

Tunisian judge imposes media ban on a candidate for presidential election
Updated 12 July 2024
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Tunisian judge imposes media ban on a candidate for presidential election

Tunisian judge imposes media ban on a candidate for presidential election
  • Opposition party said decision is ‘obstructions to challenging President Kais Saied’

LONDON: A Tunisian judge barred a potential presidential candidate from appearing in the media or traveling around the country on Friday, the latest politician to face what their parties have called obstructions to challenging President Kais Saied.
Abd Ellatif Mekki’s party called the measures an attempt to exclude a serious candidate from the campaign for elections on Oct. 6.
Opposition parties have accused Saied’s government of exerting pressure on the judiciary to track down the president’s rivals and pave the way for him to win a second term.
They say imprisoned politicians must be released and the media allowed to operate without pressure from the government.
Saied’s supporters deny allegations that opposition politicians have been targeted for political reasons. They say that running for elections is not a reason to stop prosecutions against people accused of crimes such as money laundering and corruption.
Two political leaders, Abir Moussi and Ghazi Chaouachi, have been imprisoned since last year.
Last week, police arrested another candidate, Lotfi Mraihi, on suspicion of money laundering. He said in a video that he has faced restrictions and harassment since announcing his candidacy.
Other potential candidates, including Safi Saeed, Mondher Znaidi and Nizar Chaari, are facing prosecution for alleged crimes such as fraud and money laundering.
OBSTRUCTION ALLEGATIONS
Mekki’s lawyer, Monia Bouali, told Reuters, “The judge decided to impose a travel ban on Mekki and prevent him from appearing in the media and social media and ordered him to stay (in) Wardia area,” referring to a neighborhood in the capital, where Mekki lives.


Court officials were not immediately available to comment on the decision.
“Mekki is clearly targeted to obstruct his campaign to collect signatures from citizens and to contact them,” said Ahmed Naffati, a prominent official in Mekki’s party, told Reuters.
Days after Mekki announced his candidacy this month, a court spokesman said Mekki was suspected of having participated in the murder of a businessman who died in prison years ago.


Mekki said he had nothing to do with this case, and that filing a case against him after he announced his intention to run showed he was targeted.
Saied, who was elected president in 2019, has not officially announced his candidacy but is expected to do so soon. Last year he said he would not hand over power to what he called non-patriots.
In 2021, Saied dissolved parliament and began ruling by decree in a move that the opposition described as a coup. Saied said his steps were legal and necessary to end years of rampant corruption.


‘If it’s happening in the Kingdom, chances are it’s on Snapchat’

‘If it’s happening in the Kingdom, chances are it’s on Snapchat’
Updated 12 July 2024
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‘If it’s happening in the Kingdom, chances are it’s on Snapchat’

‘If it’s happening in the Kingdom, chances are it’s on Snapchat’
  • Snapchat reaches over 90% of those aged 13-34 in Saudi
  • Kingdom’s users open app over 50 times daily on average

DUBAI: “Snapchat is particularly popular in Saudi Arabia,” Snap Inc.’s regional business lead in the Kingdom, Abdulla Alhammadi, told Arab News during a recent interview.

In Saudi Arabia, the app reaches over 90 percent of those aged between 13 and 34, with users opening it over 50 times a day on average.

And it boasts a monthly addressable reach — or the number of Snapchat users who can be reached through ads in a given month — exceeding 22 million.

Its popularity in the Kingdom “is deeply rooted in its ability to fuel and foster real connections within the community amid the evolving social and cultural landscape of the Kingdom,” Alhammadi explained.

Snapchat was always built to be different from other social media platforms, he added.

Unlike other apps, Snapchat does not have a news feed. However, every Snapchat user has a “Snapscore” that is displayed under their profile.

This is described by the company as a “super-secret, special equation” based on the number of Snaps sent and received, Stories posted, and other undisclosed factors.

Still, this score does not affect the popularity of the posts themselves. This is unlike other social media platforms whose algorithms take “likes” and “shares” into account to determine the popularity of posts and their appearance to a user’s friends or followers.

On the contrary, posts on Snapchat are temporary, disappearing after 24 hours — a feature copied by other apps in the form of Stories.

Alhammadi believes these features allow the app’s users “to be — and show — their true, authentic selves.”

This is why Saudi Arabia’s citizens “express their authentic selves on Snapchat twice as often as on other platforms.” This results in Snapchat surpassing “other social connectivity apps” to become “the platform of choice” for citizens, he added.

In order to celebrate the app’s popularity in the Kingdom, Snapchat launched its first Saudi Arabia-focused campaign this May called “Telgana Ala Snap,” which translates to “Find us on Snap.”

The campaign film showcases how audiences in the Kingdom use Snapchat: from a brother imitating his father through the old age lens, to a teenager tucked into bed watching Snap star Naif Hamdan.

For Snap, Alhammadi said, the campaign is a celebration “of the profound role of Snapchat in the daily lives of Saudis.

“We like to say, if it’s happening in the Kingdom, chances are it’s on Snapchat.”

Despite Snapchat’s reach in the Kingdom, “many brands are still not fully harnessing these capabilities to connect with audiences,” he said.

Augmented reality has been shown to enhance the shopping experience leading to a 94 percent higher conversion rate in Saudi Arabia, according to Alhammadi.

But lack of awareness about AR and platforms like Snapchat, as well as challenges in integrating AR into marketing strategies, pose a significant barrier for advertisers.

He advises brands to understand the unique needs of the Saudi Arabia audience and tailor their strategies accordingly, especially as the Kingdom is making big leaps toward integrated digital experiences.

According to a recent study by consulting firm Kearney, a majority of respondents (84 percent) expressed a preference for engaging in at least part of their shopping activities online, with only 16 percent preferring in-store shopping.

And yet, less than 30 percent of consumers see the retail sector as being technologically advanced, the study found.

“There is a lot of work to be done to ensure brands are equipped to thrive in the digital age,” Alhammadi said.

Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 and the government’s investments in the digital economy “create an environment conducive to innovation and entrepreneurship, laying a solid foundation for Snap’s growth and business development in the region,” he added.

And Snap is committed to working with local governing bodies to support their goals for the Kingdom, such as the digital transformation agenda, he continued.

The company has partnered with several government bodies on various occasions to create AR lenses, filters, and physical activations.

For example, this February, Snap partnered with the Saudi Tourism Authority to create a campaign for the Kingdom’s Founding Day that included an AR experience, which enabled users to dress up in traditional attire.

The campaign, which was live for one day, reached 15 million Snapchat users. This created a new record of one-day engagements for a single activation on Snapchat and marking a first for the company in the Middle East and North Africa region, Alhammadi explained.

Last year, Snapchat collaborated with Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Culture and the Saudi Fashion Commission, to launch TASAWAR, an augmented reality exhibition that merged design and technology.

Snapchat created AR showrooms for five Saudi designers — Hekayat, Hindamme, ArAm, Abadia, and KAF by KAF — that allowed visitors to experience virtual runways, dress try-ons, and headpiece selfie lenses during Riyadh Fashion Week.

Going forward, Alhammadi said, Snap is focusing locally on two areas: improving results for advertisers to drive overall demand on Snapchat, and continue showcasing its AR technology.

This “has the power to change the face of every industry, meeting the ambitious digital transformation agendas taking shape in the region.”

He added: “With internet adoption at 100 percent and smartphone penetration at 95 percent (in Saudi Arabia), Saudi consumers are eager to explore new ideas and engage with the latest innovations, driving demand for Snap’s products and services.”


Musk’s X ‘deceives’ users with blue checks, EU charges

Musk’s X ‘deceives’ users with blue checks, EU charges
Updated 12 July 2024
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Musk’s X ‘deceives’ users with blue checks, EU charges

Musk’s X ‘deceives’ users with blue checks, EU charges
  • Breach of EU’s Digital Markets Act regulations could lead to hefty fines as high as 6 percent of total annual turnover
  • ‘Blue check negatively affects users' ability to make informed decisions about account authenticity and content,’ Commission said

BRUSSELS: Tech billionaire Elon Musk’s X platform is misleading users with its blue checkmarks for certified accounts, and is also violating EU content rules, Brussels said Friday, in a finding that could lead to hefty fines.
EU regulators are unhappy with the blue badge system under Musk’s ownership since anyone can now obtain it with a premium subscription, whereas before it was reserved for verified accounts including leaders, companies and journalists, after approval.
The formal warning against X is the first under the Digital Services Act (DSA), a sweeping law that forces digital companies do more to police content online. It follows a probe launched in December 2023.
X becomes the third company in as many weeks to face the European Union’s wrath for violating landmark new rules, after Brussels warned Apple and Meta to change their ways or risk massive fines — for breaches of a second law known as the Digital Markets Act (DMA).
Musk has overhauled the social media platform formerly known as Twitter, including changing its name, since purchasing it in October 2022.
But his plans for X have put him at odds with Brussels since the EU wants big tech to do more to protect users online and increase competition in the digital sphere.
Now the European Commission has told X of its preliminary view that it is “in breach of” the DSA, arguing that the social network “deceives” users with its new blue badge rules.
“Since anyone can subscribe to obtain such a ‘verified’ status, it negatively affects users’ ability to make free and informed decisions about the authenticity of the accounts and the content they interact with,” the commission said in a statement.
“There is evidence of motivated malicious actors abusing the ‘verified account’ to deceive users,” it added.
The commission also accused X of failing to comply with rules on advertising transparency — since it does “not provide a searchable and reliable” ad database — and failing to give researchers access to public data.
“X has now the right of defense — but if our view is confirmed we will impose fines and require significant changes,” the EU’s top digital official, Thierry Breton, said.
Fines under the DSA can go as high as six percent of a company’s total worldwide annual turnover and force it to make changes to address violations.
X will be able to examine the EU’s file and defend itself against Friday’s finding.
There is no time limit on how long an investigation may last.
EU regulators’ wide-ranging probe into X also continues to look into the spread of illegal content and the effectiveness of the platform’s efforts to combat disinformation, the commission said.


Under the DSA, X is one of 25 “very large” online platforms, including Facebook and TikTok, with more than 45 million monthly active users in the 27-country EU.
X is also in the EU’s crosshairs for a cut to content moderation resources. In May, the EU told X to hand over “detailed information and internal documents” and demanded more information about steps taken to mitigate risks from generative AI on elections.
There are currently other investigations under the DSA into Meta’s Facebook and Instagram as well as TikTok and AliExpress.
The DSA and the DMA are both part of the EU’s bolstered legal armory targeting big tech and EU regulators have stepped up enforcement of the laws since they came into force.