Strict asylum rules and poor treatment of migrants are pushing people north to the UK

Strict asylum rules and poor treatment of migrants are pushing people north to the UK
Europe’s increasingly strict asylum rules, growing xenophobia and hostile treatment of migrants were pushing them north.(FILE/AFP)
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Updated 19 June 2024
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Strict asylum rules and poor treatment of migrants are pushing people north to the UK

Strict asylum rules and poor treatment of migrants are pushing people north to the UK
  • Europe’s increasingly strict asylum rules, growing xenophobia and hostile treatment of migrants pushing them north
  • Some migrants don’t even try for new lives in the EU anymore

AMBLETEUSE, France: The rising tide crept above their waists, soaking the babies they hugged tight. Around a dozen Kurds refused to leave the cold waters of the English Channel in a futile attempt to delay the inevitable: French police had just foiled their latest attempt to reach the United Kingdom by boat.
The men, women and children were trapped again on the last frontier of their journey from Iraq and Iran. They hoped that a rubber dinghy would get them to better lives with housing, schooling and work. Now it disappeared on the horizon, only a few of its passengers aboard.
On the beach of the quiet northern French town of Ambleteuse, police pleaded for the migrants to leave the 10-degree-Celsius (50-degree-Fahrenheit) water, so cold it can kill within minutes. Do it for the children’s sake, they argued.
“The boat is go!” an increasingly irritated officer shouted in French-accented English. “It’s over! It’s over!”
The asylum-seekers finally emerged from the sea defeated, but there was no doubt that they would try to reach the UK again. They would not find the haven they needed in France, or elsewhere in the European Union.
Europe’s increasingly strict asylum rules, growing xenophobia and hostile treatment of migrants were pushing them north. While the UK government has been hostile, too, many migrants have family or friends in the UK and a perception they will have more opportunities there.
EU rules stipulate that a person must apply for asylum in the first member state they land in. This has overwhelmed countries on the edge of the 27-nation bloc such as Italy, Greece and Spain.
Some migrants don’t even try for new lives in the EU anymore. They are flying to France from as far away as Vietnam to attempt the Channel crossing after failing to get permission to enter the UK, which has stricter visa requirements.
“No happy here,” said Adam, an Iraqi father of six who was among those caught on the beach in a recent May morning. He refused to provide his last name due to his uncertain legal status in France. He had failed to find schooling and housing for his children in France and had grown frustrated with the asylum office’s lack of answers about his case. He thought things would be better in the UK, he said.
While the number of people entering the EU without permission is nowhere near as high as during a 2015-2016 refugee crisis, far-right parties across Europe, including in France, have exploited migration to the continent and made big electoral wins in the most recent European Parliamentary elections. Their rhetoric, and the treatment already faced by many people on the French coast and elsewhere in the bloc, clash with the stated principles of solidarity, openness and respect for human dignity that underpin the democratic EU, human rights advocates note.
In recent months, the normally quiet beaches around Dunkirk, Calais and Boulogne-Sur-Mer have become the stage of cat-and-mouse games — even violent clashes — between police and smugglers. Police have fired tear gas, pepper spray and rubber bullets. Smugglers have hurled stones.
While boat crossings across the Channel represent only a tiny fraction of migration to the UK, France agreed last year to hold migrants back in exchange for hundreds of millions of euros. It’s an agreement akin to deals made between the European Union and North African nations in recent years. And while many people have been stopped by police, they are not offered alternative solutions and are bound to try crossing again.
More than 12,000 people have reached England in small boats in the first five months of the year, 18 percent more than during the same period last year, according to data published by the UK’s Home Office. The Home Office said 882 people arrived in the UK in 15 boats on Tuesday, the highest daily total of the year.
The heightened border surveillance is increasing risks and ultimately leading to more deaths, closer to shore, said Salomé Bahri, a coordinator with the nongovernmental organization Utopia 56, which helps migrants stranded in France. At least 20 people have died so far this year trying to reach the UK, according to Utopia 56. That’s nearly as many as died in all of last year, according to statistics published by the International Organization of Migration.
People are rushing to avoid being caught by authorities and there are more fatalities, Bahri said. In late April, five people died, including a 7-year-old girl who was crushed inside a rubber boat after more than 110 people boarded it frantically trying to escape police.
Authorities in the north of France denied AP’s request for an interview but have previously defended the “life-saving” work of police and blamed violence on smugglers who have also attacked officers.
A spot on a flimsy rubber dinghy can cost between 1,000 to 2,000 euros (around $1,100-$2,200) making it a lucrative business for the smuggling networks led primarily by Iraqi Kurdish groups. They can earn up to $1 million a month (approximately 920,000 euros) according to a report published earlier this year by The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.
Sitting around a fire in an abandoned warehouse-turned-migrant camp in Calais, Mohammed Osman contemplated his limited options. The 25-year-old Sudanese man was studying medicine in Moscow when the civil war broke out in his home country a year ago. He suspended his dream of becoming a doctor. Forced to flee the fighting, his family could no longer afford to pay for his university fees and Osman was forced to leave Russia, where his visa only allowed him to study, not work. He crossed to Belarus and then to Poland where he says he was pushed back and beaten by Polish guards several times.
Eventually, he made it across the border and reached Germany where he tried to apply for asylum but was ordered to return to Poland, as per EU rules. All he wants now is to finish his medical studies in the UK, a country whose language he, like many other Sudanese people, already speaks. The issue, as always, is how to get there. Talks of potential deportation to Rwanda have only added more stress and frustration.
“So where is the legal way for me?” he asked. “I am a good person. I know that I can be a good doctor. … So what is the problem?”
In another makeshift camp near Dunkirk that police routinely attempt to clear, more dreams were held in suspense. Farzanee, 28, left Iran to follow her passion: becoming a professional bodybuilder. Back home she was banned from taking part in competitions and persecuted for her sport.
“I was even threatened with my family, that’s why I left my country,” she said, refusing to provide her last name out of fear for her and her loved ones’ safety.
Together with her husband, they managed to get a visa for France with a fake invitation letter. But even on EU soil they fear they could be deported back to Iran and believe only the UK to be safe. They have tried — and failed — to board boats to the UK “seven or eight times” but have vowed to keep trying until they make it.
“Us and other Iranians like me, we have one thing in common,” explained Farzanee’s husband Mohammad. “When you ask them they will tell you: ‘free life or death.’”
A few days after this interview, Mohammad and his wife Farzanee made it safely to the UK


Bangladesh protesters storm prison as police fail to quell unrest

Bangladesh protesters storm prison as police fail to quell unrest
Updated 10 sec ago
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Bangladesh protesters storm prison as police fail to quell unrest

Bangladesh protesters storm prison as police fail to quell unrest
  • Protesters call for PM Sheikh Hasina’s resignation, saying she is responsible for the killings during the clashes
  • Students say they are determined to press on with protests despite government’s requests to calm the situation

DHAKA: Bangladeshi student protesters stormed a prison and freed hundreds of inmates Friday as police struggled to quell unrest, with huge rallies in the capital Dhaka despite a police ban on public gatherings.
This week’s clashes have killed at least 105 people, according to an AFP count of victims reported by hospitals, and emerged as a momentous challenge to Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s autocratic government after 15 years in office.
Student protesters stormed a jail in the central Bangladeshi district of Narsingdi and freed the inmates before setting the facility on fire, a police officer told AFP on condition of anonymity.
“I don’t know the number of inmates, but it would be in the hundreds,” he added.
Dhaka’s police force took the drastic step of banning all public gatherings for the day — a first since protests began — in an effort to forestall another day of violence.
“We’ve banned all rallies, processions and public gatherings in Dhaka today,” police chief Habibur Rahman told AFP, adding the move was necessary to ensure “public safety.”
That did not stop another round of confrontations between police and protesters around the sprawling megacity of 20 million people, despite an Internet shutdown aimed at frustrating the organization of rallies.
“Our protest will continue,” Sarwar Tushar, who joined a march in the capital and sustained minor injuries when it was violently dispersed by police, told AFP.
“We want the immediate resignation of Sheikh Hasina. The government is responsible for the killings.”
At least 52 people were killed in the capital on Friday, according to a list drawn up by the Dhaka Medical College Hospital and seen by AFP.
Police fire was the cause of more than half of the deaths reported so far this week, based on descriptions given to AFP by hospital staff.
UN human rights chief Volker Turk said the attacks on student protesters were “shocking and unacceptable.”
“There must be impartial, prompt and exhaustive investigations into these attacks, and those responsible held to account,” he said in a statement.
The capital’s police force earlier said protesters had on Thursday torched, vandalized and carried out “destructive activities” on numerous police and government offices.
Among them was the Dhaka headquarters of state broadcaster Bangladesh Television, which remains offline after hundreds of incensed students stormed the premises and set fire to a building.
Dhaka Metropolitan Police spokesman Faruk Hossain told AFP that officers had arrested Ruhul Kabir Rizvi Ahmed, one of the top leaders of the main opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP).
“He faces hundreds of cases,” Hossain said, without giving further details on the reasons for Ahmed’s detention.
Near-daily marches this month have called for an end to a quota system that reserves more than half of civil service posts for specific groups, including children of veterans from the country’s 1971 liberation war against Pakistan.
Critics say the scheme benefits children of pro-government groups that back Hasina, 76, who has ruled the country since 2009 and won her fourth consecutive election in January after a vote without genuine opposition.
Hasina’s government is accused by rights groups of misusing state institutions to entrench its hold on power and stamp out dissent, including by the extrajudicial killing of opposition activists.
Her administration this week ordered schools and universities to close indefinitely as police stepped up efforts to bring the deteriorating law and order situation under control.
“This is an eruption of the simmering discontent of a youth population built over years due to economic and political disenfranchisement,” Ali Riaz, a politics professor at Illinois State University, told AFP.
“The job quotas became the symbol of a system which is rigged and stacked against them by the regime.”
Students say they are determined to press on with protests despite Hasina giving a national address earlier this week on the now-offline state broadcaster seeking to calm the unrest.
Nearly half of Bangladesh’s 64 districts reported clashes on Thursday, broadcaster Independent Television reported.
The network said more than 700 people had been wounded throughout Thursday including 104 police officers and 30 journalists.
London-based watchdog NetBlocks said Friday that a “nation-scale” Internet shutdown remained in effect a day after it was imposed.
“Metrics show connectivity flatlining at 10 percent of ordinary levels, raising concerns over public safety as little news flows in or out of the country,” it wrote on social media platform X.


Bangladesh in communications blackout as job quota protests turn deadly

Bangladesh in communications blackout as job quota protests turn deadly
Updated 19 min 13 sec ago
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Bangladesh in communications blackout as job quota protests turn deadly

Bangladesh in communications blackout as job quota protests turn deadly
  • Mobile internet access blocked, online media, TV channels off air across the country
  • Print newspapers reported on Friday that deadly clashes broke out overnight

DHAKA: Bangladesh went into a nationwide communications blackout on Friday following clashes between police and students that have killed dozens of people in the past few days.

The government announced on Thursday night it was shutting down mobile internet for security reasons as student protestors demanding the removal of government employment quotas were on the streets after authorities sealed their campuses and dorms and suspended all educational institutions.

On Friday morning, television news channels were off air, and most online news websites could not be opened.

Morning headlines and top stories in local dailies estimated that between 24 and 37 people had been killed and hundreds of others injured since the clashes broke out on Sunday between the students, government supporters and security forces.

The actual death toll is feared to be higher, as already on Thursday, students reported 39 deaths. But on Friday, neither student representatives nor local hospital authorities could be reached for comment due to the blackout.

Riot police and at least 2,400 troops from the paramilitary Border Guard Bangladesh were deployed in the capital, where Dhaka Metropolitan Police banned all gatherings. The forces on the ground were assisted by monitoring helicopters of the Rapid Action Battalion — a counterterrorism unit of the Bangladesh Police.

University students have been demonstrating on campuses since the beginning of July against a rule that reserves a bulk of government jobs for the descendants of those who fought in the country’s 1971 liberation war.

The quota system was abolished by the government after student protests in 2018, but the High Court reinstated it in June, triggering protests.

Under the quota system, 56 percent of public service jobs are reserved for specific groups, including women, marginalized communities and children and grandchildren of freedom fighters — for whom the government earmarks 30 percent of the posts.

More than a fourth of Bangladesh’s 170 million population were people aged between 15 and 29. The unemployment rate is the highest in this group, contributing 83 percent of the total unemployed people in the country.

The quotas for well-paid government jobs hit them directly.

Dr. Rasheda Rawnak Khan, associate professor at Dhaka University, said the issue could have been solved long before the outbreak of the ongoing protests.

“It should have been solved in a prompt manner as the matter is related to the youths,” she told Arab News.

“Probably the state here failed to read the pulses of the youth.”


Why Saudi Arabia, UAE top young Indian globetrotters’ destination lists

Why Saudi Arabia, UAE top young Indian globetrotters’ destination lists
Updated 19 July 2024
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Why Saudi Arabia, UAE top young Indian globetrotters’ destination lists

Why Saudi Arabia, UAE top young Indian globetrotters’ destination lists
  • Survey shows young wealthy Indians increasingly drawn to Gulf countries
  • Travelers are drawn to natural sights, adventure sports, and luxury

NEW DELHI: When Ajinkya Bhat traveled to Saudi Arabia, one of the most memorable views was the Edge of the World — a geological wonder in the desert northwest of Riyadh.

Located some 100 km from the capital, it is a 1,131-meter cliff at the end of the 800 km Tuwaiq Mountain range. It earned its nickname because of an uninterrupted view of the horizon from its top.

Bhat saw it first a few years ago and during his latest trip in March drove to the mountains specifically to see the landscape again.

“The first (time), I went to see the sunrise. This time, I went to see the sunset,” the 32-year-old from Pune told Arab News.

“Saudi has lots of raw natural landscapes … really good beaches. East coast, west coast, center — they have lots of different things. Tourists can go and check it out.”

But it was not just the landscape that drew him to the Kingdom. Bhat’s first trip was about the Formula E championships, which Saudi Arabia has been hosting since 2018, making nature, adventure, and a tad of luxury some of his main criteria for a good trip.

“It’s a good place for vacation … Saudi ticks all the boxes,” he said. “You don’t have to go to Europe and the US.”

Bhat is among an increasing number of wealthier Indian travelers below the age of 35 choosing the Middle East as their destination for a foreign trip, with Saudi Arabia and the UAE taking the lion’s share of those choices.

Saloni Aneja, a 29-year-old from Chandigarh, visited the UAE in January and said she found everything she needed on her vacation.

“You have adventure, water parks and a lot of shopping complexes and different things … You have a lot of things to see, for example, the Museum of the Future. It’s a great thing,” she told Arab News, as she was already planning her next trips.

“Nowadays, the young generation, the youth, believe that we should travel the world, we should not just save the money and keep it in the locker, we should travel and explore,” Aneja said.

“I would definitely like to explore different parts of the world … I would love to visit Saudi Arabia.”

The “Future of Travel” report on the spending trends of India’s young globetrotters released last month by the marketing agency FINN Partners shows that travelers were increasingly choosing the two Gulf countries over others.

 

“The Middle East region as a whole really continues to excite and capture very young Indian travelers with a blend of luxury and rich history,” Thomas Morris, the agency’s senior partner, told Arab News. “We found that 55 percent of Indians under 35 have already visited the UAE. For Saudi Arabia, it was 45 percent.”

The respondents were under 35 years old, living in big Indian cities, had “the propensities to travel internationally,” and the means to do so.

“One of the key findings is the willingness of young Indian travelers to spend on what we term a once-in-a-lifetime experience. So, 42 percent indicated they’re willing to pay more for these experiences,” Morris said.

“When we look specifically at the UAE and Saudi Arabia, we see that they are particularly drawn to firstly luxury and secondly adventure sports — being in the deserts of the UAE or ziplining or going and trekking in AlUla and Saudi Arabia.”

According to his observations, these qualities made the young travelers different from the previous generation, who prefer to plan their trips with all details and in advance.

“The next generation, they are impulsive, they are willing to jump on opportunities as they arise, and I think this is something that the UAE and Saudi really tapped into — these kinds of international micro-adventures,” he said, adding that in the case of Saudi Arabia, what also helps attract younger Indians is the current marketing strategy, which is drawing more and more visitors from India.

With a series of initiatives last year, including the sponsorship of the Indian Premier League — the men’s T20 franchise that is the world’s most-watched cricket league — Saudi Arabia hosted over 1.5 million Indian inbound travelers in 2023, or 50 percent more than in 2022.

By 2030, the Saudi Tourism Authority plans to welcome 7.5 million visitors from India, which by that time is expected to emerge as the No. 1 inbound tourist market for the Kingdom.

“This new generation are digitally savvy, they are making a lot of decisions based on what they see on social media, and Saudi Arabia is really successfully tapping into that,” Morris said.

“They want to be the focus destination for Indian travelers, and they are investing significantly for that to happen.”

Jatin Kumar, a 32-year-old from Haryana, visited Saudi Arabia in March.

“Saudi Arabia is developing now and bringing more tourists, building attractive things,” he said.

“I went to Riyadh, I went to Jeddah, I went to Dammam … We got to know a lot of Saudi culture … I really liked it.”


Top UN court says Israel’s settlement policy in occupied territories violates international law

Top UN court says Israel’s settlement policy in occupied territories violates international law
Updated 19 July 2024
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Top UN court says Israel’s settlement policy in occupied territories violates international law

Top UN court says Israel’s settlement policy in occupied territories violates international law
  • Israel captured the West Bank, east Jerusalem and Gaza Strip in 1967 war

THE HAGUE: The top United Nations court said Israel's settlement policy in the West Bank and east Jerusalem violates international law, as it delivered a non-binding advisory opinion on the legality of Israel’s 57-year occupation of lands sought for a Palestinian state, a ruling that could have more effect on international opinion than it will on Israeli policies.
International Court of Justice President Nawaf Salam was expected to take about an hour to read out the full opinion of the panel, which is made up of 15 judges from around the world.
In part of the opinion, he said the panel had found that "the transfer by Israel of settlers to the West Bank and Jerusalem as well as Israel’s maintenance of their presence, is contrary to article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention.” The court also noted with “grave concern” that Israel’s settlement policy has been expanding.
The court also found that Israel's use of natural resources was “inconsistent” with its obligations under international law as an occupying power.
Friday’s hearing comes against the backdrop of Israel’s devastating 10-month military assault on Gaza, which was triggered by the Hamas-led attacks in southern Israel. In a separate case, the International Court of Justice is considering a South African claim that Israel’s campaign in Gaza amounts to genocide, a claim that Israel vehemently denies.
Israel captured the West Bank, east Jerusalem and Gaza Strip in the 1967 Mideast war. The Palestinians seek all three areas for an independent state.
Israel considers the West Bank to be disputed territory, whose future should be decided in negotiations, while it has moved population there in settlements to solidify its hold. It has annexed east Jerusalem in a move that is not internationally recognized, while it withdrew from Gaza in 2005 but maintained a blockade of the territory after Hamas took power in 2007. The international community generally considers all three areas to be occupied territory.
At hearings in February, then-Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Malki accused Israel of apartheid and urged the United Nations’ top court to declare that Israel’s occupation of lands sought by the Palestinians is illegal and must end immediately and unconditionally for any hope for a two-state future to survive.
Israel, which normally considers the United Nations and international tribunals as unfair and biased, did not send a legal team to the hearings. But it submitted written comments, saying that the questions put to the court are prejudiced and “fail to recognize Israel’s right and duty to protect its citizens,” address Israeli security concerns or acknowledge Israel-Palestinian agreements to negotiate issues, including “the permanent status of the territory, security arrangements, settlements, and borders.”
The Palestinians presented arguments in February along with 49 other nations and three international organizations.
Erwin van Veen, a senior research fellow at the Clingendael think tank in The Hague, said that if the court rules that Israel’s policies in the West Bank and east Jerusalem breach international law, that is unlikely to change Israeli policies but it would “isolate Israel further internationally, at least from a legal point of view.”
He said such a ruling would “worsen the case for occupation. It removes any kind of legal, political, philosophical underpinning of the Israeli expansion project.”
It would also strengthen the hand of “those who seek to advocate against it” — such as the grassroots Palestinian-led movement advocating boycotts, divestment and sanctions against Israel.
He said it also could increase the number of countries that recognize the state of Palestine, in particular in the Western world, following the recent example of Spain and Norway and Ireland.”
It is not the first time the ICJ has been asked to give its legal opinion on Israeli policies. Two decades ago, the court ruled that Israel’s West Bank separation barrier was “contrary to international law.” Israel boycotted those proceedings, saying they were politically motivated.
Israel says the barrier is a security measure. Palestinians say the structure amounts to a massive land grab because it frequently dips into the West Bank.
The U.N. General Assembly voted by a wide margin in December 2022 to ask the world court for the advisory opinion. Israel vehemently opposed the request that was promoted by the Palestinians. Fifty countries abstained from voting.
Israel has built well over 100 settlements, according to the anti-settlement monitoring group Peace Now. The West Bank settler population has grown by more than 15% in the past five years to more than 500,000 Israelis, according to a pro-settler group.
Israel also has annexed east Jerusalem and considers the entire city to be its capital. An additional 200,000 Israelis live in settlements built in east Jerusalem that Israel considers to be neighborhoods of its capital. Palestinian residents of the city face systematic discrimination, making it difficult for them to build new homes or expand existing ones.
The international community considers all settlements to be illegal or obstacles to peace since they are built on lands sought by the Palestinians for their state.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s hard-line government is dominated by settlers and their political supporters. Netanyahu has given his finance minister, Bezalel Smotrich, a former settler leader, unprecedented authority over settlement policy. Smotrich has used this position to cement Israel’s control over the West Bank by pushing forward plans to build more settlement homes and to legalize outposts.
Authorities recently approved the appropriation of 12.7 square kilometers (nearly 5 square miles) of land in the Jordan Valley, a strategic piece of land deep inside the West Bank, according to a copy of the order obtained by The Associated Press. Data from Peace Now, the tracking group, indicate it was the largest single appropriation approved since the 1993 Oslo accords at the start of the peace process.


Zelensky makes ‘historic’ address to UK Cabinet

Zelensky makes ‘historic’ address to UK Cabinet
Updated 19 July 2024
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Zelensky makes ‘historic’ address to UK Cabinet

Zelensky makes ‘historic’ address to UK Cabinet
  • Zelensky gave members of the new Labour government a rundown of the latest situation in Ukraine
  • The Ukrainian president and Starmer had a one-on-one meeting beforehand, in which he thanked Britain for its sustained backing for Kyiv

LONDON: Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky on Friday received a standing ovation from senior ministers as he became the first foreign leader to address the British cabinet in person since 1997.
Zelensky gave members of the new Labour government a rundown of the latest situation in Ukraine after a red-carpet welcome at Prime Minister Keir Starmer’s 10 Downing Street residence and office.
He and Starmer had a one-on-one meeting beforehand, in which he thanked Britain for its sustained backing for Kyiv since Russian forces invaded in February 2022.
“Thank for the invitation, for the privilege, for me to be here,” he told Starmer, who led Labour to victory in elections two weeks ago and has reaffirmed UK support for Ukraine “for as along as it takes.”
Zelensky on Thursday urged European leaders to remain united against Russian aggression, as he seeks more military help, including much-needed air firepower to push back Russian troops.
At Cabinet, dressed in his trademark army fatigues, and flanked on either side by Britain’s Union flag and the blue-and-yellow flag of Ukraine, he renewed his call for help in boosting his country’s “long-range capability.”
“If the restrictions on using Western weapons against Russian military are lifted, we can strike further than just near the border,” he told ministers.
That would allow Ukraine to “not only protect ourselves from any Russian offensives but also secure our frontline positions and cities from Russian bombs,” he added.
International support
NATO member states, including the UK, have been hesitant about Ukraine using Western-supplied weapons such as missiles on targets inside Russia, for fear of escalating the conflict.
Britain has signalled that Ukrainian forces could use UK-supplied Storm Shadow missiles for defensive strikes.
“We’re providing weapons to Ukraine for their defense of their sovereign country. And that does not preclude them hitting targets in Russia,” Defense Secretary John Healey told BBC radio.
“But that must be done by the Ukrainians, it must be done within the parameters and the bounds of international humanitarian law,” added Healey, who visited Ukraine within days of his appointment.
The last foreign leader to address the British Cabinet in person was US president Bill Clinton in 1997 after Labour’s Tony Blair swept to power, also in a landslide win over the Conservatives.
Zelensky’s “historic address,” as Starmer called it, came as 44 countries and the European Union agreed to target Russia’s so-called “shadow fleet” of tankers seeking to evade sanctions on Russian oil.
The 600 or so vessels — most of them old and unsafe — transport 1.7 million barrels of oil per day, providing funding for the Russian war effort, but also allegedly carrying weapons.