Could an ancient Nile Delta shipwreck be an environmental omen for modern-day Egypt?

n 2016 this imposing five-metre-tall pharaoh was discovered on the seabed at Thonis-Heracleion. (Christoph Gerigk, Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation)
n 2016 this imposing five-metre-tall pharaoh was discovered on the seabed at Thonis-Heracleion. (Christoph Gerigk, Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation)
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Updated 23 July 2021

Could an ancient Nile Delta shipwreck be an environmental omen for modern-day Egypt?

n 2016 this imposing five-metre-tall pharaoh was discovered on the seabed at Thonis-Heracleion. (Christoph Gerigk, Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation)
  • Archaeologists have discovered an ancient ship designed for navigation on the shallow waters of the delta
  • The discovery among the ruins of the sunken city of Thonis-Heracleion serves as a stark environmental warning

LONDON: The very existence of the low-lying Nile Delta, created by sediment deposited by the mighty river even as it is eroded by the waters of the Mediterranean, has always been one of nature’s great balancing acts.

Now, as fears grow over the extent of the threat to Egypt’s coastline posed by climate change, a stunning new archaeological find from the sunken ancient Egyptian city of Thonis-Heracleion serves as a stark warning of the dangers of humankind and nature working in disharmony.

A ship, a rare example of a Ptolemaic galley, has been discovered by Franck Goddio, a French marine archaeologist who, working with Egypt’s Supreme Council for Antiquities, has been leading underwater excavations in Aboukir Bay for the past two decades.

Once Egypt’s most important port, predating the foundation of nearby Alexandria by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C., the ancient city of Thonis-Heracleion — a combination of its ancient Egyptian and Greek names — dates to the eighth century B.C. It was lost to the sea some 1,600 years later, after a series of natural disasters, including an earthquake and tidal waves, took a great bite out of the Egyptian coastline.

The city’s remains, painstakingly uncovered since 2000, are spread over 110 sq km of seabed, some 7km off the modern-day shoreline.

The loss of the ship would have been a cinematically spectacular moment. According to the Paris-based European Institute for Underwater Archaeology (IEASM), which was founded by Goddio, the recently uncovered vessel “sank after being hit by huge blocks from the famed temple of Amun, which was totally destroyed during a cataclysmic event in the second century B.C.”

The marine archaeologists discovered the ship had been moored at a landing stage along the south face of the temple when disaster struck. The heavy stone blocks that were the instruments of its destruction also proved to be the key to its survival for over 2,000 years.

“The fallen blocks protected these precious naval remains by pinning them to the bottom of the deep canal, which was then filled with the debris of the sanctuary,” said a spokesperson for the IEASM.

The galley, which lies under 5 meters of hard clay, its woodwork jumbled with the remains of the temple, was detected thanks to the use of cutting-edge technology: A prototype “sub-bottom profiler” that allowed the archaeologists to see what lay beneath the mud and buried blocks of stone.

What they found was a 25-meter-long rowing ship, which, with a flat-bottom and keel, was designed for navigation on the Nile and the shallow waterways of the delta. It was also equipped with a large mast step, suggestive of a tall mast and a large sail.

“Before this discovery, Hellenistic ships of this type were completely unknown to archaeologists,” said Franck Goddio. Preliminary research showed that the hull was “built in the classical (Greek) tradition … However, it also contains features of ancient Egyptian construction and allows us to speak of a mixed type of construction.”

In another part of the city, the archaeologists have also discovered a large submerged burial mound, “covered with sumptuous funerary offerings,” that dates back to the first years of the 4th century B.C.

This discovery, says the IEASM, “beautifully illustrates the presence of Greek merchants and mercenaries who lived in Thonis–Heracleion, the city that controlled the entrance to Egypt at the mouth of the Canopic branch of the Nile.”

The newly discovered remains of a galley, found beneath the mud in the sunken city of Thonis-Heracleion. The ship was moored alongside the temple of Amun and sunk by huge blocks of stone when the building was dramatically destroyed in the second century BC. (Christoph Gerigk, Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation)

Greek traders were allowed to settle in the city during the late Pharaonic period. There, they built their own religious sanctuaries, close to the huge temple of Amun, on the banks of a canal that ran through the city. These too were destroyed in the same cataclysmic event that toppled the great temple. Just as the two cultures once thrived side by side, the remains of their respective temples lie together in the mud at the bottom of the bay.

Archaeologists believe these and other buildings, which were discovered in pristine condition, slipped suddenly into the deep canal during a landslide. This was likely caused by several earthquakes, followed by tidal-waves “which triggered land liquefaction events (and) caused a 110 sq km portion of the Nile Delta to collapse under the sea, taking with it the cities of Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus.”

Today, Egypt faces an even greater, if somewhat slower-moving, environmental catastrophe than the one that swept away Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus. According to research over the past decade, the sea is not yet done with swallowing the delta.

Excluding Cairo, which sits at its southernmost end, the delta is home to over 40 percent of Egypt’s population and more than 60 percent of the country’s agricultural land. More than 12 percent of the delta is no higher than a meter above sea level. Another 18 percent, temporarily protected by coastal defenses, which also serve to divert problems of erosion further along the coastline, is actually below sea level.

The delta, the source of most of modern Egypt’s food and the backbone of the country’s economy, was formed and refreshed over millennia by the rich sediment carried down the Nile during the annual floods from the river’s origins south of the equator in the headwaters of the Blue and White Niles.

This timeless process of renewal was first interrupted in 1902 by the construction of the first Aswan Low Dam, and again more seriously in the 1960s by the building of the Aswan High Dam.

This gold image of the god Bes is among the latest finds from the lost city of Thonis-Heracleion. Bes was considered to be the protector of the people in their daily life and was also worshiped as the protector of pregnant women. (Christoph Gerigk, Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation)

This, concluded researchers at Maryland University’s Department of Geographic and Environmental Systems, writing in the journal of the Geological Society of America in 2017, led to “a marked reduction of Nile water and sediment below the Aswan High Dam that can now reach the delta coast.”

Even as climate change is seeing the level of the Mediterranean rise inexorably, so the lack of sedimentary deposits is causing the delta itself to gradually sink — a problem, they added, “likely to be seriously exacerbated in years ahead by construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD).”

Ethiopia is even now pressing ahead with filling the GERD reservoir, despite a lack of agreement on how the process should be managed with its downstream neighbors, Sudan and Egypt.

And the delta is under attack on two fronts.

The vulnerability of the Nile Delta to rising sea levels was highlighted as long ago as 2010 by an environmental scientist at Egypt’s Mansoura University. Analyzing imagery from NASA’s 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, carried on board the Space Shuttle Endeavor, Mohamed E. Hereher concluded that a rise in sea levels of just 1 meter “would inundate more than a quarter of the Nile Delta area, while a 2 meter sea level rise should relocate the shoreline 60-80 km southward of its current position.”

Back in 2000, as Hereher wrote in the journal Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, it was thought that the more significant threats to the delta were the “blocking of sediment delivery to the coast, possible increased rates of subsidence and the removal of coastal dunes.”

Precious offerings, including imported Greek ceramics, were deposited for funerary purposes by the Greek settlers in Thonis-Heracleion. (Christoph Gerigk, Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation)

Then, the rate of rising sea levels was not considered a major concern. Thanks to the subsequent global research focus on climate change, however, that has changed.

In a paper presented at the Cairo Water Week conference in 2019, Egyptian researchers concluded that “climate change-related sea level rise has exerted significant impacts on coastal zones and Nile Delta is considered one of the most affected areas. (Potential) coastal inundation, destruction of infrastructure, land cover and displacement of millions of people are among several impacts of sea level rise in the Nile Delta coastal zone.”

The loss of the vital, life-giving land of the delta to the sea is a scenario that would have been painfully familiar to the inhabitants of the ancient cities of Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus, now mere memories preserved in the mud and rubble of a once great civilization.

The Hilti Foundation, a non-profit philanthropic organization based in Liechtenstein, has supported Franck Goddio’s marine archaeology in Egypt since 1996 with the motto: “Exploring the past to understand the present.”

As the story of the destruction of one of the glories of ancient Egypt emerges from the depths of Aboukir Bay, for modern-day Egypt those words carry a message of great urgency.


Twitter: @JonathanGornall

Libyan leader to hold international conference on country’s security, stability

Libyan leader to hold international conference on country’s security, stability
Updated 24 September 2021

Libyan leader to hold international conference on country’s security, stability

Libyan leader to hold international conference on country’s security, stability
  • Mohammed Al-Menfi revealed that security, military, and economic issues would top the agenda of the meeting that would also shore up support for the upcoming national elections

WASHINGTON: The chairman of the Presidential Council of Libya on Thursday said he would be staging an international conference next month to gain backing for efforts to bring stability and security to the country.

Mohammed Al-Menfi revealed that security, military, and economic issues would top the agenda of the meeting that would also shore up support for the upcoming national elections.

Al-Menfi, who is attending the 76th session of the UN General Assembly in New York, added that the conference would host Libyan groups eager for reconciliation along with regional and international parties to push for the stability and security that has eluded Libya since the 2011 fall of Muammar Qaddafi who ruled the country for 40 years.

The Libyan leader said despite working on reconciliation efforts among Libyan groups, challenges still lay ahead on the road to achieving democracy.

He noted that Libya had made “significant strides” in implementing solutions that were mandated through agreements between the different Libyan groups and UN resolutions.

However, despite the progress, Al-Menfi pointed out that the country was still “faced with serious challenges and fast-paced developments” that could stall the ongoing political process.

On the ground, Libya remains confronted by many daunting challenges toward achieving political unity among its entrenched warring parties. Conflict still persists between the Tripoli-based Presidential Council and Gen. Khalifa Haftar who controls the eastern half of the country as well as the Libyan armed forces.

A transitional government was formed earlier this year to move the country forward toward elections on Dec. 24.

“Libya has the choice to either succeed toward becoming a democracy through free and transparent elections or go back to square one of infighting and military conflict,” Al-Menfi said.

He called on the international community to assist Libya in removing foreign militaries and mercenaries from the country as a way to build a “conducive environment for safe and transparent elections.”

Al-Menfi also demanded that European countries share their responsibilities in addressing the issue of illegal African migrants who pass through Libya on the way north to Europe, adding that his country had carried the burden alone and deserved support from the international community.

On the issues of human rights abuses that plagued Libya during its decade-long civil war, and the presence of terrorist groups on Libyan soil, he said his government was committed to safeguarding the human rights of the Libyan people and had worked toward bringing meaningful reconciliation through detainees and prisoners exchange, reparation, and addressing the fate of missing people.

Al-Menfi reiterated Libyan support for the Palestinian people and said his country was committed to the establishment of the Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital.

Oman resumes Friday prayers in mosques following more than yearlong closure

Oman resumes Friday prayers in mosques following more than yearlong closure
Updated 24 September 2021

Oman resumes Friday prayers in mosques following more than yearlong closure

Oman resumes Friday prayers in mosques following more than yearlong closure

Oman’s mosques reopen for Friday prayers today, after a closure that lasted more than a year due to the coronavirus pandemic, national daily Times of Oman reported.

The decision came after a “noticeable decrease in the curve of COVID-19 cases,” the report added.

Oman’s coronavirus supreme committee issued the decision on Sept. 19 to reopen mosques for Friday prayers from Sept. 24 for those who have been vaccinated.

The committee has requested a commitment to social distancing, the use of special carpets in mosques, the wearing of masks, and permitting only 50 percent of the mosque's capacity to enter.

Meanwhile, wedding halls and hotels have been requested by Oman’s Government Communication Centre to notify concerned municipalities at least 72 hours before an event.

Venues will only be allowed to operate at a 50 percent capacity and non-vaccinated employees and visitors will not be permitted to enter.

Venues will also be required to keep a record of employees’ entry and exit time and document the cleaning and disinfection operations.

How circular carbon economy provides a framework for a sustainable future

How circular carbon economy provides a framework for a sustainable future
Updated 24 September 2021

How circular carbon economy provides a framework for a sustainable future

How circular carbon economy provides a framework for a sustainable future
  • CCE is a closed-loop system designed to promote the reuse of resources instead of wasting them
  • Governments urged to consider adopting inclusive, flexible pathways offered by the CCE platform

DUBAI: Floods, storms and other extreme weather events have grown in frequency and intensity in many parts of the world over the past two decades, primarily as a result of global warming. To prevent temperatures rising any further, scientists are urging nations to drastically reduce their carbon emissions.

Governments in the Middle East have accelerated action toward reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the lead-up to the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow this November, including the adoption of renewables and methods for the removal of carbon from the atmosphere.

One innovative strategy embraced by Saudi Arabia is the circular carbon economy (CCE), a closed-loop system designed to promote the reuse of resources that would otherwise have been wasted or discarded.

The Middle East region is particularly vulnerable to the effects of global warming. Several of its nations regularly experience temperatures in excess of 50C, leading to droughts, the destruction of delicate ecosystems and the loss of livelihoods, particularly among poor farming communities.

In Iraq, Syria and Turkey, for instance, once mighty rivers are beginning to run dry, destroying fragile fishing communities along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates and allowing the desert to consume lands once considered a breadbasket.

The knock-on effects of climate change have resulted in the mass displacement of rural populations and the exacerbation of conflicts — trends that experts warn will only get worse if immediate and radical action is not taken at a global level.

“These events have not been directly caused by climate change, but they will be exacerbating the more frequent occurrence in the coming decades if action on climate is not taken,” said Saudi Arabia’s Princess Noura bint Turki Al-Saud, speaking virtually at the 9th World Sustainability Forum (WSF 2021) earlier this month.

Princess Noura is a founding partner at AEON Strategy and an advisory board member of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Circular Carbon Initiative.

Reducing the world's reliance on fossil fuels is at the core of international strategies to prevent catastrophic climate change. (AFP/File Photo)

CCE is an energy strategy that advocates the reduction, reuse and recycling of carbon products and their removal in an effort to eliminate harmful pollutants from the atmosphere.

Energy ministers from the G20 group of leading economies endorsed Saudi Arabia’s CCE approach to managing greenhouse-gas emissions last year when the Kingdom held the G20 presidency.

In partnership with Saudi Aramco, the Kingdom has made energy efficiency and the minimization of flaring at its oilfields top priorities in mitigating climate change, alongside fossil-fuel reduction through substitution with low-carbon energy sources such as renewables, hydropower, nuclear and bioenergy.

Using innovative technologies, carbon dioxide can be captured from the air and reused for useful products, such as fuels, bioenergy, chemicals, building materials, food and beverages. It can also be chemically transformed into new products such as fertilizer and cement, or other forms of energy such as synthetic fuels.

Technologies can also be used to capture and store CO2 to achieve a large-scale reduction of emissions. Countries can also increase the process of photosynthesis by planting more trees — a strategy that is key to the Kingdom’s Saudi Green initiative.

Although the need to cut carbon emissions to halt global warming is now widely accepted, Princess Noura cautioned that the reduction is currently happening too slowly to prevent global temperatures climbing 1.5 to 2 C above pre-industrial levels.

“Despite three decades of continued efforts in climate diplomacy and policy making, there has been little impact on curbing emissions,” she told the WSF panel. “Five years into the Paris Agreement, global CO2 concentrations continue to increase in the atmosphere, driven by unabated global emissions.”

In fact, by the end of 2020, CO2 emissions were 2 percent higher than they were at the same time the previous year. Now global CO2 emissions are creeping ever closer to their pre-pandemic peak due to an increasing demand for coal, oil and gas as economic life resumes.

An innovative strategy embraced by Saudi Arabia is the circular carbon economy (CCE), a closed-loop system designed to promote the reuse of resources. (Supplied)

The International Energy Agency estimates that in the absence of further policy changes, global oil demand could reach 100.6 million barrels a day by the end of 2020. “This recent and historic trend underscores the challenge of curbing emissions and decarbonizing the global energy system,” Princess Noura said.

In a world that remains heavily reliant on fossil fuels — both as a source of energy and, for many countries, a source of revenue — Princess Noura says there is a critical need to scale up adaptation and mitigation efforts globally and to focus on the humanitarian response in those countries most vulnerable to the physical impacts of climate change.

She urged governments to consider adopting the inclusive and flexible pathways offered by the CCE platform, which aggregates all mitigation and carbon management options into a single framework.

“It is allowing nations to collaborate in mutual areas of benefit and collectively address emissions in a coordinated manner,” she said.

Ambitious action can avoid the most devastating effects of climate change, but only if all nations act together, says Alok Sharma (pictured), the president of UN Climate Change Conference COP26. (AFP/File Photo)

“The CCE framework highlights the importance of renewable energy technologies and enhanced energy efficiency, which will be crucial to decarbonizing our energy system, but it also stresses the value of the best carbon management technologies.

“These remove carbon already in the atmosphere or from a point source before it enters the atmosphere, to either store or to utilize through recycling into other products, or using directly for specific purposes.”

The CCE platform also emphasizes nature-based solutions, requiring a whole ecosystem for innovation, deployment and scale, underpinned by strong commitment from governments, Princess Noura said.

“(There is a) need to scale up solutions and drive innovation at a rate that is faster than the rates of changing climates. Much of the policies, regulations and support that brought modern renewables to the market over the past decades are necessary to deploy the technologies that are needed today to reduce carbon emissions.”

An employee connects a Volkswagen (VW) ID.3 electric car to a loading station of German carmaker Volkswagen, at the 'Glassy Manufactory' (Glaeserne Manufaktur) production site in Dresden. (AFP/File Photo)

In its latest report published in August this year, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warned that without the widespread adoption of carbon capture, usage and storage (CCUS) technologies, long-term global climate goals may be unobtainable.

According to the IEA, annual clean energy investment worldwide will need to more than triple by 2030 to about $4 trillion to reach net zero emissions by 2050.

“CCUS is one of the few technologies available that can decarbonize both power generation and heavy industries, such as cement, steel and chemical production with verifiable emissions reductions,” it said.

Although the international community has been discussing the adoption of such technologies for some time, implementation has been slow.

“Any further delay in CCUS implementation will make it even harder to achieve the climate goals,” said Aqil Jamal, chief technologist leading the carbon management research division of Aramco’s R&D Center in Dhahran, speaking on the same WSF 2021 panel.

Palestinians work at Al-Hattab charcoal production facility, east of Gaza City, on January 28, 2021, the largest producer in the Gaza Strip. (AFP/File Photo)

Trouble is, CCUS technologies are more readily available to rich countries, and energy access remains a problem for many developing countries.

“There is a huge portion of the global population that doesn’t have electricity nor clean cooking fuels,” Adam Sieminski, senior adviser to the board of trustees of the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center, told the panel.

“We have to find a way to do that — cleanly. The idea is gaining political traction, which means the ability to craft policies to put real pragmatic approaches in place is increasing.”

Sieminski added: “The CCE framework is something that’s being taken very seriously in Saudi Arabia.

“Many people seem to look at the whole concept of managing carbon as (costly), and the most important thing is that we have to move toward looking at this as value creation and how carbon can create value in the global economy.”

Iraqi leader Barham Salih tells UNGA: ‘Corruption and terrorism work in tandem’

Iraqi leader Barham Salih tells UNGA: ‘Corruption and terrorism work in tandem’
Updated 24 September 2021

Iraqi leader Barham Salih tells UNGA: ‘Corruption and terrorism work in tandem’

Iraqi leader Barham Salih tells UNGA: ‘Corruption and terrorism work in tandem’
  • Mideast peace efforts rely on an Iraq that ‘is safe, stable and fully sovereign’
  • Plea for international funding to rebuild regions ‘freed from yoke of terror’

NEW YORK: Cooperation and solidarity is the world’s “only choice” in the fight against global terrorism, Iraqi President Barham Salih said.

Speaking at the UN General Assembly, Salih told fellow world leaders that his country had been dogged by wars and genocides over the past 40 years.

“We have known mass graves, the use of chemical weapons and terrorism all over our cities.”

The Iraqi leader said that victory over “the evil forces of Daesh” would not have been possible without the joint efforts of Iraqi army and police, the Peshmerga on the one hand, and their regional and international allies, on the other.

Salih reiterated his call for the international community to combat funding for terrorism, provide reparations to victims and help rebuild destroyed regions that have been freed from “the yoke of terrorism.”

This will ensure that such tragedies are not repeated, he said.

“Our obligation today is to rebuild the cities that have been liberated and ensure that the displaced go back home.”

The Iraqi president spoke at length about the link between terrorism and corruption, warning that it threatens not only Iraq’s security but the stability of the whole world.

“Our country is facing corruption because of the heavy burden left behind by wars and conflicts that have squandered a huge part of the resources of the country, depriving Iraqis of the riches of their land,” Salih said.

“For Iraq, fighting corruption is a genuine national battle. The situation will not normalize unless we manage to beat corruption.”

Salih renewed his call for an international alliance against corruption, similar to that against terrorism.

He urged member states to tackle the roots of corruption and help Iraq to restore the funds that had been plundered.

“We cannot eliminate terrorism unless we eliminate corruption, which itself constitutes a political economy of violence and terrorism,” Salih said.

“Corruption and terrorism are linked, mutually reinforcing and work steadfastly in tandem.”

Referring to regional conflicts, Salih told UNGA participants that “the absence of Iraq in its natural role for the past 40 years” has exacerbated instability, which is the result of wars and the breakdown of security and political systems in the area.

The Syrian conflict and the prolonged Yemeni war are “unacceptable,” he said. Ending these wars “should be a priority.”

The Iraqi leader added: “Neither will there be peace without granting Palestinians their legitimate rights to a state,” reiterating Iraq’s call for a global and fair solution to the issue.

Salih said that the success of peace efforts relied on an Iraq that “is safe, stable and fully sovereign.”

He added: “This requires regional and international support as well as (putting) a stop to competitive behavior and the conflicts of others being played out on our land.”

The Iraqi president called for further regional cooperation — in the form of a new organization — over shared issues, including terrorism, extremism, climate change, unstable economic conditions and the “inability to provide work to a greater number of young people.”

He said that the recent Baghdad Conference for Cooperation and Partnership underscored that “Iraq, which was a synonym for conflict, is now a meeting point for the interests of people and states in the region.”

Iraq is gearing up for national elections next month, which Salih said will be “decisive” and “have an effect on the entire region.”

He stressed the importance of restoring trust to an Iraqi electorate that has lost confidence due to “the failings of the previous system.”

To that end, a new electoral law has been adopted that is “more just and representative,” and a new electoral commission formed to ensure proper organization of the elections.

Salih said that a new electoral code of conduct will “guarantee the success of the elections so they can pave the way for peaceful reforms through parliament and government that genuinely respect the will of the people without maneuvers and manipulations.”

US joins UAE to ‘spearhead’ global drive for agricultural innovation

US joins UAE to ‘spearhead’ global drive for agricultural innovation
Updated 24 September 2021

US joins UAE to ‘spearhead’ global drive for agricultural innovation

US joins UAE to ‘spearhead’ global drive for agricultural innovation
  • US climate envoy John Kerry hails UAE’s ‘innovation and ingenuity’ in food and climate challenges
  • Agriculture is a major contributor to global warming, World Bank report warns

NEW YORK: The UAE and US will collaborate to “dramatically” increase global investments in food system innovation, a top US government official said Thursday.

US Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack said: “We must use the power of ingenuity to improve our food systems so they provide safe, nutritious, affordable and accessible food for all, while conserving natural resources and combating the climate crisis.”

Vilsack was speaking on the first day of the UN Food Systems Summit 2021, attended by Arab News.

He said: “The US and UAE are spearheading a global initiative, the Agriculture Innovation Mission for Climate, with the goal of dramatically increasing public and private investing in climate-smart agriculture and food system innovation.”

Political leaders and scientists from across the world are collaborating at the summit to examine the future of global food security, with a major part of the discussion centering on the balance of ensuring an efficient agricultural system without destroying the planet.

According to the World Bank, agriculture is a “major part of the climate problem,” with farming activities accounting for 19 to 29 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

The AIM project, endorsed by the UK, Singapore, Australia, Brazil and others, will “serve as a unique platform for cooperation among many countries on these shared challenges,” US climate envoy John Kerry said earlier in the year when the AID initiative was announced.

The US and UAE said they will use the UN Food Systems Summit 2021 — taking place in New York as world leaders also gather for the General Assembly — to advance the program before launching it at the COP26 climate conference in Glasgow later this year.

Kerry said that the US chose to partner with the UAE because of “the ingenuity being applied to food and climate challenges” that he witnessed on his visit there.

The need for this type of collaboration to fight climate change cannot come at a more urgent time.

In July, the UN World Food Programme said that acute food insecurity rose by 74 percent this year because of climate change and the coronavirus pandemic, while in the General Assembly on Thursday, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said that the pandemic has “plunged millions into extreme poverty and raised the specter of famine in a growing number of countries.”

At the same time, Guterres added, “we are waging a war against nature, and reaping the bitter harvest of ruined crops, dwindling incomes and failing food systems.”

On Tuesday, US President Joe Biden announced that his administration will make $10 billion available for the global fight against food insecurity.

However, according to Samantha Power, administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, half of that amount will be spent in the US.

She said that this acknowledges that “all countries, even those that produce a surplus of food, must adapt and take steps to improve nutrition and adapt their food systems to a changing climate.”

Power added: “The other half will be spent fighting global food insecurity, helping smallholder farmers and their families escape poverty.”

This is “a recognition that the well-fed have an obligation to care for the hunger of others.”