Mahsa Amini’s death in Iranian police custody has lit a spark in a nation seething with anger and discontent

Update The death of 22-year-old Mahsa Amini has lit a spark in a nation seething with anger over a long list of grievances. (AFP/Screenshot)
The death of 22-year-old Mahsa Amini has lit a spark in a nation seething with anger over a long list of grievances. (AFP/Screenshot)
Short Url
Updated 28 September 2022

Mahsa Amini’s death in Iranian police custody has lit a spark in a nation seething with anger and discontent

Mahsa Amini’s death in Iranian police custody has lit a spark in a nation seething with anger and discontent
  • Iran says 450 protesters arrested in northern province
  • At least 41 people have died since the unrest began

DUBAI: Protests have spread to almost all of Iran’s 31 provinces and urban cities since the death of 22-year-old Mahsa Amini at the hands of the police. On Sept. 13, Amini was arrested by a morality police (Gasht-e Ershad) patrol in a Tehran metro station, allegedly for violating the Islamic Republic’s strict dress code.

She was hospitalized after the arrest, fell into a coma and died three days later. Iranian authorities maintain that she died of a heart attack. Her family says that she had no pre-existing heart conditions.

Her death has sparked outrage in a country seething with anger over a long list of grievances and a wide range of socio-economic concerns.

State media reported Monday that authorities in a northern Iran province have arrested 450 people during more than 10 days of protests.

“During the troubles of the past days, 450 rioters have been arrested in Mazandaran,” the northern province’s chief prosecutor, Mohammad Karimi, was quoted as saying by official news agency IRNA. 

Opinion

This section contains relevant reference points, placed in (Opinion field)

On Saturday, authorities in the neighboring Guilan province announced the arrest of 739 people, including 60 women.

Iranian women, fed up with the morality police’s heavy-handed approach, have been posting videos of themselves online cutting locks of their hair in support of Amini. Protesters who have taken to the streets have been chanting “Death to the moral police” and “Women, life, freedom.”

In acts of defiance, female demonstrators can be seen taking off their headscarves, burning them and dancing in the streets. State police have been cracking down on the protesters by attacking them with tear gas while volunteers from the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps have been beating them. At least 41 people have died so far.

“The internet in Tehran has been cut off. I have not been able to reach family members, but every now and then they are able to get a message through,” an Iranian man who fled to the US during the days of the Islamic Revolution, told Arab News.

Mehdi, who did not want to give his full name, added: “We are hopeful that the government will offer concessions this time. It has been the biggest demonstration since the revolution. We take pride in what is happening in Iran.”

Writing in The Washington Post, Karim Sajdadpour, a senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, described the protests against the killing of Amini as “led by the nation’s granddaughters against the grandfathers who have ruled their country for over four decades.”

Since the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Sharia laws in the country require women to wear headscarves and loose garb in public. Those who do not abide by the code are fined or jailed.

Iranian authorities’ campaign to make women dress modestly and against the wearing of mandatory clothing “incorrectly” began soon after the revolution, which ended an era of unfettered sartorial freedom for women under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. During the shah’s rule, his wife Farah, who often wore Western clothing, was held up as a model of a modern woman.

ALSO READ: Iran’s malign theocracy is unraveling before our eyes




The image of protesters destroying portraits of Iranian leaders in the northern city of Sari is just one of many emerging from Iran over the past week in a symbol of anti-regime sentiment. (AFP) 

By 1981, women were not allowed to show their arms in public. In 1983, Iran’s parliament decided that women who did not cover their hair in public could be punished with 74 lashes. In recent times, it added the punishment of up to 60 days in prison.

Restrictions kept evolving, and the extent of enforcement of the female dress code has varied since 1979, depending on which president was in office. The Gasht-e Ershad was formed to enforce dress codes after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the ultraconservative mayor of Tehran, became president in 2005.

The restrictions were eased a little under the presidency of Hassan Rouhani, who was considered a relative moderate. After Rouhani accused the morality police of being aggressive, the head of the force declared in 2017 women violating the modesty code would no longer be arrested.

However, the rule of President Ebrahim Raisi appears to have emboldened the morality police once again. In August, Raisi signed a decree for stricter enforcement of rules that require women to wear hijabs at all times in public.

In his speech at the UN General Assembly last week, Raisi tried to deflect blame for the protests in Iran by pointing to Canada’s treatment of indigenous people and accused the West of applying double standards when it comes to human rights.

When I look at how the women are standing up to the vicious regime that never shied away from genocide, it gives me goosebumps.

Mehdi, who fled to the US during the Islamic Revolution

Raisi’s government, meanwhile, is seeking some form of guarantee whereby the lifting of severe sanctions and resumed business activities by Western firms cannot be disrupted if a future US president rescinds the 2015 nuclear deal. Iranian officials also dispute the concerns of the International Atomic Energy Agency about illicit nuclear material found at three sites and want the IAEA’s investigation to close.

Be that as it may, anti-government protests in Iran are not new. In 2009, the Green Movement held protests over election results believed to be fraudulent. In 2019, there were demonstrations over a spike in fuel prices and deteriorating standard of living conditions and basic needs.

This year’s protests are different in that they are feminist in nature. Firuzeh Mahmoudi, executive director of United for Iran, a human rights NGO, said it is unprecedented for the country to see women taking off their hijabs en masse, burning police cars and tearing down pictures of Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (the country’s supreme leader).

It is also unprecedented to see men chant “We’ll support our sisters and women, life, liberty.”

“Through social media, mobile apps, blogs and websites, Iranian women are actively participating in public discourse and exercising their civil rights,” Mahmoudi said. “Luckily for the growing women’s rights movements, the patriarchal and misogynistic government has not yet figured out how to completely censor and control the internet.”




Protests against the death of Mahsa Amini have erupted across Iran, and among the diaspora living around the world. (AFP)

Masih Alinejad, an Iranian political activist who has been living in exile in America since 2009, said that she has been receiving many messages from women in Iran. They have been sharing with her their frustrations, videos of the protests, and their goodbyes to their parents, which they believe might be for the last time.

Declaring that she can feel their anger through their messages, Alinejad said the hijab is a way for the government to control women and therefore society, adding that “their hair and their identity have been taken hostage.”

Scores of Iranian male celebrities have also voiced their support of the protests and women. Toomaj Salehi, a dissident rapper who was arrested earlier this year because of his lyrics on regime change and social and political issues, posted a video of himself walking through the streets saying: “My tears don’t dry, it’s blood, it’s anger. The end is near, history repeats itself. Be afraid of us, pull back, know that you are done.”

For its part, the movie industry released a statement on Saturday calling on the military to drop their weapons and “return to the arms of the nation.”

A number of famous actresses have taken off their hijab in support of the movement and the protests. Mohammad Mehdi Esmaili, Iran’s culture minister, said that actresses who voiced their support online and removed their hijabs can no longer pursue their careers.

In a tweet on Saturday, Sajdadpour said: “To understand Iran’s protests it’s striking to juxtapose images of the young, modern women killed in Iran over the last week (Mahsa Amini, Ghazale Chelavi, Hanane Kia, Mahsa Mogoi) with the images of the country’s ruling elite, virtually all deeply traditional, geriatric men.”




Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi holds up a photo of Quds Force Commander General Qassem Soleimani, who was killed in a U.S. attack, during his remarks at the 77th session of the United Nations General Assembly. (AFP)

Iranian authorities have shut down mobile internet connections, disrupting WhatsApp and Instagram services. On Iranian state media, ISNA, Issa Zarepour, minister of communications, justified the act for “national security” and said it was not clear how long the blocks on social media platforms and WhatsApp would continue, as it was being implemented for “security purposes and discussions related to recent events.”

However, Mahsa Alimardani, an academic at the Oxford Internet Institute who studies Iran’s internet shutdowns and controls, said the authorities are targeting these platforms because they are “lifelines for information and communication that’s keeping the protests alive.”

On Twitter, the hashtag #MahsaAmini in Farsi has exceeded well over 30 million posts.

“Everyone in Iran knows that the authorities will crack down very hard on the protesters and kill them,” Mehdi, the US-based Iranian, told Arab News.

“It’s almost target practice for them. When I look at how the women there are standing up to the ruthless and vicious regime that never shied away from genocide to maintain their power, it gives me goosebumps. It takes a certain courage to do what they are doing.”

Looking forward to the future with hope, he said: “The flame has been ignited and we are not the kind of people who back out.”

 


Israelis rapped for blocking Christian permits to visit Bethlehem

Israeli soldiers clash with Palestinian demonstrators in the West Bank village of Tuqua, south-east of Bethlehem. (AFP)
Israeli soldiers clash with Palestinian demonstrators in the West Bank village of Tuqua, south-east of Bethlehem. (AFP)
Updated 09 December 2022

Israelis rapped for blocking Christian permits to visit Bethlehem

Israeli soldiers clash with Palestinian demonstrators in the West Bank village of Tuqua, south-east of Bethlehem. (AFP)
  • Blockade does not differentiate between Muslims and Christians, says YMCA secretary-general

GAZA CITY: Christians in the Gaza Strip hope to celebrate Christmas each year and reunite with their families, but Israeli restrictions on movement are preventing thousands from taking part in the occasion.

Israel has been accused of strictly limiting permits to pray in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem to a limited number of worshipers.

The Palestinian Civil Affairs Authority — the body responsible for communicating with Israeli officials at Erez crossing — said that Israel rejected more than 260 applications.

An anonymous source told Arab News that the authority received approval for only about 640 people from the more than 900 applications submitted.

A senior Israeli security official told journalists in a phone briefing that about 200 people were denied access to Israel after being denied security clearances.

About 1,100 Christians live in the Gaza Strip, according to statistics issued by the Latin Monastery Church in Gaza.

The number of Christians in Gaza has fallen in past years as a result of migration, owing to the dire economic situation, siege and successive Israeli offensives.

Many have moved to the West Bank or emigrated abroad.

“We feel very sorry that not all Christians were granted the necessary permits,” Kamel Ayad, director of public relations at the Greek Orthodox Church in Gaza, told Arab News.

“It is our right as Christians to witness Christmas celebrations in the birthplace of Christ in Bethlehem as it is available to all Christians of the world to travel to,” said Ayad.

Ayad added that the usual practice every year was to send a list of the names of Christians who wish to obtain a permit to travel during the Christmas period.

In most cases the issuance of permits is random, meaning that only some members of Christian families can visit Bethlehem, said Ayad.

The YMCA in Gaza lights up a large Christmas tree each year at the association square with participation of Christians and Muslims.

Israel has imposed a strict blockade on the Gaza Strip since Hamas took control of the area by the armed force in mid-2007.

Hani Farah, secretary-general of Gaza’s YMCA, said that Israel “practices all forms of repression and violations against the Palestinians, regardless of their religion or gender.”

He added: “Just as Israeli bombs and missiles do not differentiate between the Palestinian and the Palestinian, the blockade and its repressive measures do not differentiate between a Muslim and a Christian. We are all trapped in Gaza and we share pain and suffering.”

Sanaa, a Gaza Strip Christian, received approval for a permit, but her husband and her three children did not.

She said: “What should I do with the permit alone without my family?”

Sanaa told Arab News: “The spirit of Christmas is for all family members to gather in one place. I cannot attend the Christmas celebration in Bethlehem alone. This happens every year. One or two members of the family only get a permit.”

Israel controls the entry and exit of Palestinians through the Erez crossing in the northern Gaza Strip, and grants permits only to humanitarian cases and several thousand daily workers, in addition to some aid workers in international organizations.

Hamas condemned the Israeli ban of Christians from traveling to the West Bank during Christmas.

“We condemn the Israeli occupation’s banning of Christian Gazans from accessing sacred places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem on religious holidays,” said a statement.

“As the Israeli move restricts the Palestinian Christians’ access to holy places, we deem it a flagrant violation of the right to worship.”

 


Bassil turns to Maronite patriarch for support amid Lebanon stalemate

Bassil turns to Maronite patriarch for support amid Lebanon stalemate
Updated 09 December 2022

Bassil turns to Maronite patriarch for support amid Lebanon stalemate

Bassil turns to Maronite patriarch for support amid Lebanon stalemate
  • ‘Some obstacles hindering dialogue,’ Al-Rahi says in meeting with FPM leader
  • In light of the political dispute with Hezbollah, Bassil turned to Al-Rahi in an attempt to strengthen his position.

BEIRUT: Maronite Patriarch Bechara Boutros Al-Rahi hinted on Friday that some obstacles were hindering dialogue aimed at ending the political stalemate over the presidential vacuum.
Al-Rahi’s remarks came as he received Lebanese MP Gebran Bassil, son-in-law of outgoing President Michel Aoun and head of the Free Patriotic Movement party.
In light of the political dispute with Hezbollah, Bassil turned to Al-Rahi in an attempt to strengthen his position.
Bassil also rejects the holding of Cabinet sessions by a caretaker government amid the presidential vacuum.
“The decrees issued by the caretaker government constitute a harsh blow to the president’s position,” Bassil said following the meeting.
“Over 10 decrees were issued harming this position. The mechanism for signing these decrees strikes down the partnership formula.”
Bassil raised the issue of how to approach the presidential election with Al-Rahi in Bkerke hours before Aoun headed there in his non-presidential capacity.
The FPM and other Christian forces are apprehensive about any political step that contradicts their positions because they believe that this could threaten their existence, as highlighted by the FPM, as well as the Lebanese Forces Party, repeatedly.
The FPM disagreed with Hezbollah’s approaches regarding presidential candidates.
The dispute recently emerged after Hezbollah showed its support for Suleiman Franjieh, whom it considers an ally.
The FPM rejects Franjieh while it seeks to be the decision-maker in the presidential race since its bloc has the most Christian representation in parliament.
Bassil said: “I completed with Al-Rahi what we started with the issue of the presidency, to find a figure who enjoys the support of two-thirds of the votes of parliament.”
Bassil also underlined the need for Christian-Christian dialogue to reach an understanding on one or several candidates to run for the elections.
“The FPM is open to dialogue, regardless of the positions of other forces, and if others are not open, we cannot force them,” he said.
The call for Christian dialogue came the day after Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri called the parliamentary blocs that represent all sects to hold talks, starting next Thursday, in a bid to bridge points of view and produce a consensual president.
So far, Hezbollah and its allies are sticking to the blank vote, and the FPM no longer wants to do so.
FPM’s votes went to several candidates in the latest voting session in an attempt to send a political message to Hezbollah.
After meeting Bassil, Al-Rahi stressed that he had been calling for dialogue since 2009.
He supported Bassil’s position that the Cabinet session should not have taken place, especially in the absence of many ministers.
“We have always been advocates of dialogue, and there is no solution except through dialogue between the parties, either through a bilateral dialogue between myself and each party, or through an inclusive dialogue, but some obstacles hinder this option.”
LF head Samir Geagea indirectly commented on Bassil’s call in a tweet, saying: “Dialogue requires people suitable for dialogue.”
Richard Kouyoumjian, LF’s head of foreign relations unit and former minister, questioned Bassil’s departure from the Hezbollah axis, despite the dispute between them.
He said: “If his attack on the party and his defense of Christianity are sincere, then he ought to let Geagea be a presidential candidate.”
Dialogue is unnecessary because our positions as LF are clear, said Kouyoumjian.
“We have preserved as much as possible our reconciliation with the FPM but they are the ones who ruined it.”
Caretaker Information Minister Ziad Makari, who is affiliated to Franjieh, said that Bassil knew that there was no consensus on him as a candidate, even by his allies.
“His chances are zero, while Franjieh has more chances than Bassil,” he said.


UN concerned after Israel refuses to grant staff visas

UN concerned after Israel refuses to grant staff visas
Updated 09 December 2022

UN concerned after Israel refuses to grant staff visas

UN concerned after Israel refuses to grant staff visas
  • Decision impacts humanitarian community's ability to support Palestinians, spokesperson says

RAMALLAH: The UN has expressed concern about an Israeli decision to refuse entry visas to its staff.

The organization warned that that the move may affect humanitarian work in Palestine and the ability of the humanitarian community to support Palestinians.

UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric said that the decision significantly impacts the humanitarian community’s ability to support Palestinians.

“We are, of course, still in contact with the Israeli authorities on this matter, and we hope it will be resolved,” Dujarric said.

The Israeli Foreign Ministry refused to issue visas to officials from the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, accusing employees from the aid agency of “undercounting” the number of Israeli civilians who are killed or injured in Palestinian attacks.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs claimed — as reported by the Israeli Ynet website — that OCHA employees constantly count Israelis killed in Palestinian operations but fail to categorize them as “terrorist attacks.”

The ministry said: “OCHA is accused of reporting the killing or harming of Israeli civilians under disputed circumstances while taking reports of Palestinian casualties at face value and assigning blame to Israel, including in clashes between IDF forces and Palestinian militants.”

Arab News reached out to the UN, OCHA officials and Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs for comment, but did not receive a response.

Shawan Jabarin, director general of Al-Haq Palestinian Human Rights organization, told Arab News that he blames the UN for its inaction and negligence in protesting the previous bans of international commissions of inquiry and special rapporteurs who were prevented by Israel from entering the Palestinian territories, even though Israel is required to cooperate with the UN.

Jabarin said it was “no longer surprising” that Israel refuses to grant entry visas to the OCHA team because of its lack of protest over past Israeli actions.

“OCHA is a body concerned with humanitarian issues, and this denial of granting entry visas to its team is an Israeli message to the UN that your previous complacency will lead to a day when no UN official will be allowed to enter the Palestinian territories unless Israel approves of their presence,” Jabarin told Arab News.

The Israeli Ministry of Defense Coordinator of the Government Activities in the Palestinian territories had changed the procedures for foreigners entering the territories, stipulating that they obtain an entry visa outside Israel a month before the date of their arrival.

This Israeli policy was described by Jabarin as an attempt to “silence and prevent the work” of international institutions that criticize Israeli policy in the occupied Palestinian Territories.

“Israel wants, through this policy, to re-engineer the international community so that it does not criticize it, and the silence of the UN gave Israel a ladder to climb on its back,” said Jabarin.

Meanwhile, on the 35th anniversary of the outbreak of the first Palestinian intifada (1987-1993) that fell on Dec. 9, Israeli security and military circles warned of their fears of a third intifada in the West Bank.

The deteriorating security situation in the West Bank constitutes challenge number two after the Iranian threat.

Egypt has also expressed deep concern regarding the security deterioration in the West Bank and the continuation and escalation of Israeli killings of Palestinians.

Since the beginning of the year, 165 Palestinians have been killed in the West Bank, and another 54 were killed in the Gaza Strip.

In a related development, Israeli designated National Security Minister Itamar Ben-Gvir has warned that Palestinians could soon face unprecedented punitive measures.

He threatened in an interview with an Israeli channel on Friday to annex Palestinian lands that contain Israeli settlements, leaving Palestinians to manage their affairs without authority or privileges.

Ben-Gvir said that he does not differentiate between Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and the Palestinians who live in Israel.

He said that everyone who is disloyal to the state of Israel must be expelled and that he will divide Al-Aqsa Mosque between Muslims and Jews.

Dana Ben Shimon, a prominent Israeli correspondent for Israel Today newspaper, told Arab News that the expectations and estimates of the Israeli security services regarding the possibility of a third intifada have nothing to do with the election of the new Israeli government.

“It is not important whether you call it a third intifada or a wave of violence, but the problem is that the Israeli security services are concerned about the quantity, quality and development of the attacks, especially as we witnessed the double bombing attack in Jerusalem at the end of last month,” he added.

 


Israeli aggression against Palestinians threatens new wave of violence, warns Jordan

Israeli aggression against Palestinians threatens new wave of violence, warns Jordan
Updated 09 December 2022

Israeli aggression against Palestinians threatens new wave of violence, warns Jordan

Israeli aggression against Palestinians threatens new wave of violence, warns Jordan
  • Foreign ministry spokesman says violence only generates more violence
  • Urges international community to renew efforts for a just peace and a two-state solution

AMMAN: Jordan has warned that military escalation by Israel against Palestinians threatens to trigger a new wave of violence where everyone will pay.
The ministry of foreign affairs and expatriates denounced ongoing Israeli incursions and repeated attacks on Palestinian cities, the latest of which was in Jenin early Thursday.
Sinan Majali, the ministry’s spokesman, said that violence will only generate more violence, reported Jordan’s News Agency on Friday.
He added that Israeli incursions perpetuate the occupation, and that the stalemate in the peace process pushes the region toward a dangerous escalation for which Israel would bear the responsibility.
Majali urged Israel to stop all its military operations against the Palestinians and all its illegal measures that undermine the two-state solution and chances of achieving peace.
He called on the international community to immediately provide protection for the Palestinian people and to launch a renewed push for a just peace that ends the occupation and allows for an independent Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital, in accordance with the relevant resolutions of international legitimacy and the Arab peace initiative.


Ankara expects US ‘green light’ for F-16 sale

Ankara expects US ‘green light’ for F-16 sale
Updated 09 December 2022

Ankara expects US ‘green light’ for F-16 sale

Ankara expects US ‘green light’ for F-16 sale
  • Turkiye’s regional rivals, including Greece, are rapidly modernizing their air forces, analyst tells Arab News
  • The Fiscal 2023 National Defense Authorization Act is set to pass by the Senate and House of Representatives this month before being sent to the White House

ANKARA: Turkiye is confident its long-awaited $6 billion deal to buy F-16 fighter jets will go ahead after the US House of Representatives introduced an amendment to the annual defense budget bill removing a series of hurdles to the sale.
On Tuesday, lawmakers in the US Senate and House reached an agreement on the annual defense policy bill.
The Fiscal 2023 National Defense Authorization Act is set to pass by the Senate and House of Representatives this month before being sent to the White House.
In October 2021, Turkiye made a request to the US to buy 40 Lockheed Martin F-16 fighter jets and about 80 modernization kits to update its existing fleet. However, Washington so far has refused to give a “green light” on the sale, saying that it needs to follow the standard process.
“The removal of articles that tied the sale of fighter jets to Ankara with restrictive conditions from the NDAA draft eliminated an important roadblock for Turkiye’s purchase of 40 new F-16s and 80 F-16 modernization kits from the US,” Ozgur Unluhisarcikli, Ankara office director of German Marshall Fund of the US, told Arab News.
In a letter written to Congress in March, the State Department said the potential sale of the jets and modernization kits to Turkiye would strengthen bilateral ties and NATO’s long-term unity.
“The administration believes that there are nonetheless compelling long-term NATO alliance unity and capability interests, as well as US national security, economic and commercial interests that are supported by appropriate US defense trade ties with Turkiye,” the letter said.
Sentiment toward Turkiye in the administration of US President Joe Biden had softened after Ankara’s mediation efforts during the Ukrainian conflict and thanks to its normalization policy with former rivals, including the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Israel and Egypt.
In an interview with the CNN Turk broadcaster last month, Turkiye’s presidential spokesperson, Ibrahim Kalin, said that US approval for the sale of F-16 fighter jets to Turkiye could be completed in a month or two.
In August, a Turkish technical delegation met in Washington with experts and authorities from Lockheed Martin, while another political delegation along with Turkish diplomats also conducted lobbying activities in the US.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan met two US senators — Lindsey Graham and Chris Coons — in New York in September to seek their potential support for the sale.
However, the proposed sale of US weapons to Turkiye has been subject to intense debate after Ankara bought Russian-made defense missile systems, which resulted in its removal from the F-35 fighter jet program along with several US sanctions on its defense sector.
Democratic Senator and Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Robert Menendez said on Wednesday that he will not approve the sale of F-16 fighter jets to Turkiye and that the final text of the NDAA was not “a win” for Ankara.
According to Sine Ozkarasahin, a security analyst at the Istanbul-based think tank EDAM, the Biden administration is using its political capital to move the debate in a positive direction.
“But there are still many hurdles to be overcome for a potential agreement, and persuading skeptical senators such as Menendez is the most significant of all,” she told Arab News.
The explanatory text accompanying the NDAA bill emphasized that “NATO allies should not conduct unauthorized territorial overflights of another NATO ally’s airspace,” considered by many experts as a warning to the overflights in the Aegean that trigger disagreements between Ankara and Athens.
“Those in the US Congress that want to prevent the transaction have other means to do so, but in return the administration has ways to overcome or circumvent their objection,” Unluhisarcikli said.
“In line with the Arms Export Control Act, US President needs the Congress to not formally object to the transaction. Accordingly, the president needs to notify the Congress 30 days before formalizing a defense sale to a third country, and 15 days in the case of allies including Turkiye,” he added.
Unless Congress adopts a joint resolution of disapproval within those 15 days, the president can sign off the deal.
According to Unluhisarcikli, Congress has never prevented an arms sale through this channel in the past and, given its workload, it is not an easy task to adopt such a resolution in a short time.
“However, there is also a practice in the form of the State Department informally notifying the Congress 20 days before the president’s formal notification. If there are strong objections in the Congress after the informal notification, then the president is unlikely to make the formal notification,” he added.
If the deal to buy F-16 fighters falls through, Ankara may consider other options, including Eurofighters, Swedish Saab fighter aircraft or the latest generation of Russian or Chinese fighters.
“However, Turkiye’s regional rivals, like Greece, are rapidly modernizing their air forces while Ankara remains stuck in the fourth-generation air warfare model,” Ozkarasahin said.
“In the aftermath of its removal from the F-35 program and the changing power balances with its geopolitical rivals, Turkiye urgently needs a stopgap solution until its national combat aircraft takes to the skies.”
The first prototype of Turkiye’s indigenously built fighter jet TF-X recently arrived on the final assembly line. The aircraft is estimated to be rolled out in March 2023 and make its first flight in 2025 or 2026.