Why Mahsa Amini’s death will deepen the alienation of Iran’s secular Kurdish minority

Special Why Mahsa Amini’s death will deepen the alienation of Iran’s secular Kurdish minority
Mahsa Amini’s death highlights contrast between champions of gender equality and the authoritarian theocratic regime. (AFP)
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Updated 28 September 2022

Why Mahsa Amini’s death will deepen the alienation of Iran’s secular Kurdish minority

Why Mahsa Amini’s death will deepen the alienation of Iran’s secular Kurdish minority
  • Ethnic group that champions gender equality was already a misfit in the authoritarian theocracy
  • Kurds have felt the heavy hand of the security state since the Islamic Revolution of 1979

LONDON: Since the death of Mahsa Amini after being taken into custody by Iran’s notorious morality police, protests have raged in cities across the Islamic Republic, beginning in Amini’s home province of Kurdistan.

Amini, a 22-year-old ethnic Kurdish woman, died on Sept. 16, three days after she was arrested in Tehran by the Gasht-e Ershad, the regime’s vice squad, which enforces strict rules on women’s dress, including the hijab.

Her death has highlighted the oppression and marginalization of women in Iran. It has also cast a light on the ill-treatment of the country’s non-Persian ethnic minorities, particularly its substantial Kurdish population, concentrated in the west of the country.

In turn, this has highlighted the contrasting treatment of women in other areas of the Middle East in which Kurds make up a majority of the local population — in northern Iraq, southeast Turkey and northern Syria — where women are prominent in both civic and military life.

On Sept. 24, a protest was held in solidarity with the women of Iran outside the UN compound in Irbil, capital of the semi-autonomous Kurdistan region of Iraq. Many of those who took part were Iranian Kurds living in self-imposed exile in a city known for its culture of tolerance.




Kurdish opposition groups have consistently fought for an alternative vision for society. (AFP)

Bearing placards with Amini’s face, the protesters chanted “women, life, freedom,” and “death to the dictator,” in reference to Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.

“They killed (Amini) because of a piece of hair coming out from her hijab. The youth are asking for freedom. They are asking for rights for all the people because everyone has the right to have dignity and freedom,” one protester Namam Ismaili, an Iranian Kurd from Sardasht, a Kurdish town in Iran’s northwest, told Reuters.

“We are not against religion, and we are not against Islam. We are secularists, and we want religion to be separate from politics,” Maysoon Majidi, a Kurdish Iranian actor and director living in Irbil, told the news agency.

Last week, Masoud Barzani, president of Iraqi Kurdistan’s governing party, the Kurdistan Democratic Party, called Amini’s family to express his condolences, saying he hoped justice would be served.

Kurdish political identity throughout the region and among the community’s large European diaspora embraces secularist, nationalist and even socialist traditions. In the case of Iran’s Kurds, this frequently puts them at odds with the country’s theocratic regime.

On Sept. 23, the Kurdish-majority town of Oshnavieh in Iran’s West Azerbaijan province briefly fell into the hands of protesters, who set fire to government offices, banks, and a base belonging to the regime’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.




Amini’s death has highlighted the oppression and marginalization of women in Iran. (AFP)

In response, the IRGC shelled the offices of Iranian Kurdish opposition groups based in Sidakan in Iraq, accusing the Kurdish parties of inciting “chaos.”

Tasnim news agency, which is affiliated with the IRGC, said the shelling targeted the offices of Komala and the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran for allegedly sending “armed teams and a large amount of weapons … to the border cities of the country to cause chaos.”

The KDPI is a Kurdish opposition party that has waged an on-and-off armed campaign against the regime since the Islamic Revolution. Komala, meanwhile, is a leftist Kurdish armed opposition party, which fights for the rights of Kurds in Iran.

Although Iran’s constitution grants ethnic minorities equal rights, allowing them to use their own language and practice their own traditions, the Kurds, Ahwazi Arabs, Baloch, and other groups say they are treated as second-class citizens — their resources extracted, their towns starved of investment, and their communities aggressively policed.

Kurdish opposition groups in Iran have fought for decades to obtain greater political and cultural rights for their communities, which are spread across a part of the country known to Kurds as Rojhelat — or Eastern Kurdistan.

This nationalist spirit has often meant women’s emancipation has been viewed as a secondary concern against the overarching fight for Kurdish nationhood, especially in the case of Iraqi Kurdish leaders, who have long drawn their support from traditional tribal structures.

However, elsewhere in the region, Kurdish opposition groups have consistently fought for an alternative vision for society — one that is based on democratic values and on the equal status of women.

Nowhere is this perhaps more obvious than in the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (AANES), where the political arm of the US-allied Syria Democratic Forces has established a self-governing polity known to Kurds as Rojava — or Western Kurdistan.

On Friday, Mazloum Abdi, commander in chief of the SDF, condemned the killing of Amini, describing it as a “moral failure” of the ruling authorities in Iran.

He also expressed solidarity with the protests in Iran via Twitter, saying: “The Kurdish and women’s issues must be resolved in appropriate ways.”




On Friday, Mazloum Abdi, commander in chief of the SDF, condemned the killing of Amini, describing it as a “moral failure” of the ruling authorities in Iran. (AFP)

In Rojava, Kurdish women fighting in guerrilla brigades against Daesh have achieved iconic status — especially the Women’s Protection Units, or YPJ, the all-women brigades of the People’s Protection Units.

These YPJ fighters won global acclaim in 2014 for their role in the liberation of the Kurdish-majority city of Kobane in northern Syria from an extremist group whose warped interpretation of Islam would have seen them enslaved.

Soon after their victory, images of young, unveiled, mostly Kurdish YPJ fighters appeared on magazine covers and in newspapers around the world, demolishing many prevailing stereotypes in the West about Middle Eastern women as passive victims.

Within the AANES, there are now several women-only organizations, while in the areas of Syria under YPJ control, child marriage has been abolished, the practice of men taking multiple wives outlawed, and domestic abuse treated with the utmost severity.

The focus on women has also led to a policy called the “co-chair” system, whereby all positions of authority are held by both a man and a woman with equal collaborative power. As a result, women in Kurdish areas of Syria hold 50 percent of official positions.

A similar model is employed by the pro-Kurdish Peoples’ Democratic Party in Turkey and among the ranks of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers’ Party, inspired by the values of its jailed founder Abdullah Ocalan.

Although honor killings and female genital mutilation have remained all too common in parts of Iraq’s Kurdistan Region, women’s political participation and leadership has improved greatly in recent years, with the role of speaker in the Kurdistan parliament twice being held by a woman.
 




Kurds, Ahwazi Arabs, Baloch, and other groups say they are treated as second-class citizens in Iran. (AFP)

In 2018, the Kurdistan Regional Government raised its gender quota in Parliament from 25 percent to 30 percent, so that 34 out of 111 sitting MPs are now women.

The Daesh attack on Yazidi women in Sinjar in Aug. 2014 also encouraged more Kurdish women to join the frontline war effort, challenging their victim role in warfare and broadening their identity from being mere caregivers to protectors.

This brought forward changes in Kurdish society concerning women’s roles and identities, making it easier for women to join the Peshmerga — the armed forces of the Kurdistan region of Iraq.

Despite the region’s recent achievements, Iraqi Kurdish women’s campaigner Sherri Talabany reported during the MERI Forum 2019 that women still face high rates of domestic violence and a low share in the labor market of just 14 percent.




Kurdish opposition groups in Iran have fought for decades to obtain greater political and cultural rights for their communities. (AFP)

Meanwhile, only three representatives in the 23-member Iraqi Cabinet are women, and only one in the KRG cabinet of 21 ministers.

But the picture is far bleaker in Iran, where female labor force participation reached just 17.54 percent in 2019, compared with the global average of 47.70 percent, giving Iran one of the lowest levels of female labor-force participation in the world.

Women in Iran also face restrictions in reaching managerial and decision-making positions in the public and private sectors. In addition, owing to Western sanctions, erratic economic policies and the COVID-19 pandemic, Iran’s economy has shrunk in recent years, affecting women’s employment opportunities.

What the protests sweeping Iran in response to Amini’s death appear to show is a general rejection of the maltreatment of women and ethnic minorities, frustration over the economic situation, and outrage at the heavy-handed ways of the morality police.

Some Iranians who cross into Iraqi Kurdistan for work or to see relatives have told AFP that while Amini’s death was a trigger, the long-running economic crisis and the climate of repression fed into the explosion of anger.

“The difficult economic situation in Iran … the repression of freedoms, particularly those of women, and the rights of the Iranian people led to an implosion of the situation,” Azad Husseini, an Iranian Kurd who now works as a carpenter in Iraq, told the news agency.

“I don’t think the protests in Iranian cities are going to end anytime soon.”

The forgotten Arabs of Iran
A century ago, the autonomous sheikhdom of Arabistan was absorbed by force into the Persian state. Today the Arabs of Ahwaz are Iran's most persecuted minority

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Israelis rapped for blocking Christian permits to visit Bethlehem

Israeli soldiers clash with Palestinian demonstrators in the West Bank village of Tuqua, south-east of Bethlehem. (AFP)
Israeli soldiers clash with Palestinian demonstrators in the West Bank village of Tuqua, south-east of Bethlehem. (AFP)
Updated 09 December 2022

Israelis rapped for blocking Christian permits to visit Bethlehem

Israeli soldiers clash with Palestinian demonstrators in the West Bank village of Tuqua, south-east of Bethlehem. (AFP)
  • Blockade does not differentiate between Muslims and Christians, says YMCA secretary-general

GAZA CITY: Christians in the Gaza Strip hope to celebrate Christmas each year and reunite with their families, but Israeli restrictions on movement are preventing thousands from taking part in the occasion.

Israel has been accused of strictly limiting permits to pray in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem to a limited number of worshipers.

The Palestinian Civil Affairs Authority — the body responsible for communicating with Israeli officials at Erez crossing — said that Israel rejected more than 260 applications.

An anonymous source told Arab News that the authority received approval for only about 640 people from the more than 900 applications submitted.

A senior Israeli security official told journalists in a phone briefing that about 200 people were denied access to Israel after being denied security clearances.

About 1,100 Christians live in the Gaza Strip, according to statistics issued by the Latin Monastery Church in Gaza.

The number of Christians in Gaza has fallen in past years as a result of migration, owing to the dire economic situation, siege and successive Israeli offensives.

Many have moved to the West Bank or emigrated abroad.

“We feel very sorry that not all Christians were granted the necessary permits,” Kamel Ayad, director of public relations at the Greek Orthodox Church in Gaza, told Arab News.

“It is our right as Christians to witness Christmas celebrations in the birthplace of Christ in Bethlehem as it is available to all Christians of the world to travel to,” said Ayad.

Ayad added that the usual practice every year was to send a list of the names of Christians who wish to obtain a permit to travel during the Christmas period.

In most cases the issuance of permits is random, meaning that only some members of Christian families can visit Bethlehem, said Ayad.

The YMCA in Gaza lights up a large Christmas tree each year at the association square with participation of Christians and Muslims.

Israel has imposed a strict blockade on the Gaza Strip since Hamas took control of the area by the armed force in mid-2007.

Hani Farah, secretary-general of Gaza’s YMCA, said that Israel “practices all forms of repression and violations against the Palestinians, regardless of their religion or gender.”

He added: “Just as Israeli bombs and missiles do not differentiate between the Palestinian and the Palestinian, the blockade and its repressive measures do not differentiate between a Muslim and a Christian. We are all trapped in Gaza and we share pain and suffering.”

Sanaa, a Gaza Strip Christian, received approval for a permit, but her husband and her three children did not.

She said: “What should I do with the permit alone without my family?”

Sanaa told Arab News: “The spirit of Christmas is for all family members to gather in one place. I cannot attend the Christmas celebration in Bethlehem alone. This happens every year. One or two members of the family only get a permit.”

Israel controls the entry and exit of Palestinians through the Erez crossing in the northern Gaza Strip, and grants permits only to humanitarian cases and several thousand daily workers, in addition to some aid workers in international organizations.

Hamas condemned the Israeli ban of Christians from traveling to the West Bank during Christmas.

“We condemn the Israeli occupation’s banning of Christian Gazans from accessing sacred places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem on religious holidays,” said a statement.

“As the Israeli move restricts the Palestinian Christians’ access to holy places, we deem it a flagrant violation of the right to worship.”

 


Bassil turns to Maronite patriarch for support amid Lebanon stalemate

Bassil turns to Maronite patriarch for support amid Lebanon stalemate
Updated 09 December 2022

Bassil turns to Maronite patriarch for support amid Lebanon stalemate

Bassil turns to Maronite patriarch for support amid Lebanon stalemate
  • ‘Some obstacles hindering dialogue,’ Al-Rahi says in meeting with FPM leader
  • In light of the political dispute with Hezbollah, Bassil turned to Al-Rahi in an attempt to strengthen his position.

BEIRUT: Maronite Patriarch Bechara Boutros Al-Rahi hinted on Friday that some obstacles were hindering dialogue aimed at ending the political stalemate over the presidential vacuum.
Al-Rahi’s remarks came as he received Lebanese MP Gebran Bassil, son-in-law of outgoing President Michel Aoun and head of the Free Patriotic Movement party.
In light of the political dispute with Hezbollah, Bassil turned to Al-Rahi in an attempt to strengthen his position.
Bassil also rejects the holding of Cabinet sessions by a caretaker government amid the presidential vacuum.
“The decrees issued by the caretaker government constitute a harsh blow to the president’s position,” Bassil said following the meeting.
“Over 10 decrees were issued harming this position. The mechanism for signing these decrees strikes down the partnership formula.”
Bassil raised the issue of how to approach the presidential election with Al-Rahi in Bkerke hours before Aoun headed there in his non-presidential capacity.
The FPM and other Christian forces are apprehensive about any political step that contradicts their positions because they believe that this could threaten their existence, as highlighted by the FPM, as well as the Lebanese Forces Party, repeatedly.
The FPM disagreed with Hezbollah’s approaches regarding presidential candidates.
The dispute recently emerged after Hezbollah showed its support for Suleiman Franjieh, whom it considers an ally.
The FPM rejects Franjieh while it seeks to be the decision-maker in the presidential race since its bloc has the most Christian representation in parliament.
Bassil said: “I completed with Al-Rahi what we started with the issue of the presidency, to find a figure who enjoys the support of two-thirds of the votes of parliament.”
Bassil also underlined the need for Christian-Christian dialogue to reach an understanding on one or several candidates to run for the elections.
“The FPM is open to dialogue, regardless of the positions of other forces, and if others are not open, we cannot force them,” he said.
The call for Christian dialogue came the day after Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri called the parliamentary blocs that represent all sects to hold talks, starting next Thursday, in a bid to bridge points of view and produce a consensual president.
So far, Hezbollah and its allies are sticking to the blank vote, and the FPM no longer wants to do so.
FPM’s votes went to several candidates in the latest voting session in an attempt to send a political message to Hezbollah.
After meeting Bassil, Al-Rahi stressed that he had been calling for dialogue since 2009.
He supported Bassil’s position that the Cabinet session should not have taken place, especially in the absence of many ministers.
“We have always been advocates of dialogue, and there is no solution except through dialogue between the parties, either through a bilateral dialogue between myself and each party, or through an inclusive dialogue, but some obstacles hinder this option.”
LF head Samir Geagea indirectly commented on Bassil’s call in a tweet, saying: “Dialogue requires people suitable for dialogue.”
Richard Kouyoumjian, LF’s head of foreign relations unit and former minister, questioned Bassil’s departure from the Hezbollah axis, despite the dispute between them.
He said: “If his attack on the party and his defense of Christianity are sincere, then he ought to let Geagea be a presidential candidate.”
Dialogue is unnecessary because our positions as LF are clear, said Kouyoumjian.
“We have preserved as much as possible our reconciliation with the FPM but they are the ones who ruined it.”
Caretaker Information Minister Ziad Makari, who is affiliated to Franjieh, said that Bassil knew that there was no consensus on him as a candidate, even by his allies.
“His chances are zero, while Franjieh has more chances than Bassil,” he said.


UN concerned after Israel refuses to grant staff visas

UN concerned after Israel refuses to grant staff visas
Updated 09 December 2022

UN concerned after Israel refuses to grant staff visas

UN concerned after Israel refuses to grant staff visas
  • Decision impacts humanitarian community's ability to support Palestinians, spokesperson says

RAMALLAH: The UN has expressed concern about an Israeli decision to refuse entry visas to its staff.

The organization warned that that the move may affect humanitarian work in Palestine and the ability of the humanitarian community to support Palestinians.

UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric said that the decision significantly impacts the humanitarian community’s ability to support Palestinians.

“We are, of course, still in contact with the Israeli authorities on this matter, and we hope it will be resolved,” Dujarric said.

The Israeli Foreign Ministry refused to issue visas to officials from the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, accusing employees from the aid agency of “undercounting” the number of Israeli civilians who are killed or injured in Palestinian attacks.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs claimed — as reported by the Israeli Ynet website — that OCHA employees constantly count Israelis killed in Palestinian operations but fail to categorize them as “terrorist attacks.”

The ministry said: “OCHA is accused of reporting the killing or harming of Israeli civilians under disputed circumstances while taking reports of Palestinian casualties at face value and assigning blame to Israel, including in clashes between IDF forces and Palestinian militants.”

Arab News reached out to the UN, OCHA officials and Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs for comment, but did not receive a response.

Shawan Jabarin, director general of Al-Haq Palestinian Human Rights organization, told Arab News that he blames the UN for its inaction and negligence in protesting the previous bans of international commissions of inquiry and special rapporteurs who were prevented by Israel from entering the Palestinian territories, even though Israel is required to cooperate with the UN.

Jabarin said it was “no longer surprising” that Israel refuses to grant entry visas to the OCHA team because of its lack of protest over past Israeli actions.

“OCHA is a body concerned with humanitarian issues, and this denial of granting entry visas to its team is an Israeli message to the UN that your previous complacency will lead to a day when no UN official will be allowed to enter the Palestinian territories unless Israel approves of their presence,” Jabarin told Arab News.

The Israeli Ministry of Defense Coordinator of the Government Activities in the Palestinian territories had changed the procedures for foreigners entering the territories, stipulating that they obtain an entry visa outside Israel a month before the date of their arrival.

This Israeli policy was described by Jabarin as an attempt to “silence and prevent the work” of international institutions that criticize Israeli policy in the occupied Palestinian Territories.

“Israel wants, through this policy, to re-engineer the international community so that it does not criticize it, and the silence of the UN gave Israel a ladder to climb on its back,” said Jabarin.

Meanwhile, on the 35th anniversary of the outbreak of the first Palestinian intifada (1987-1993) that fell on Dec. 9, Israeli security and military circles warned of their fears of a third intifada in the West Bank.

The deteriorating security situation in the West Bank constitutes challenge number two after the Iranian threat.

Egypt has also expressed deep concern regarding the security deterioration in the West Bank and the continuation and escalation of Israeli killings of Palestinians.

Since the beginning of the year, 165 Palestinians have been killed in the West Bank, and another 54 were killed in the Gaza Strip.

In a related development, Israeli designated National Security Minister Itamar Ben-Gvir has warned that Palestinians could soon face unprecedented punitive measures.

He threatened in an interview with an Israeli channel on Friday to annex Palestinian lands that contain Israeli settlements, leaving Palestinians to manage their affairs without authority or privileges.

Ben-Gvir said that he does not differentiate between Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and the Palestinians who live in Israel.

He said that everyone who is disloyal to the state of Israel must be expelled and that he will divide Al-Aqsa Mosque between Muslims and Jews.

Dana Ben Shimon, a prominent Israeli correspondent for Israel Today newspaper, told Arab News that the expectations and estimates of the Israeli security services regarding the possibility of a third intifada have nothing to do with the election of the new Israeli government.

“It is not important whether you call it a third intifada or a wave of violence, but the problem is that the Israeli security services are concerned about the quantity, quality and development of the attacks, especially as we witnessed the double bombing attack in Jerusalem at the end of last month,” he added.

 


Israeli aggression against Palestinians threatens new wave of violence, warns Jordan

Israeli aggression against Palestinians threatens new wave of violence, warns Jordan
Updated 09 December 2022

Israeli aggression against Palestinians threatens new wave of violence, warns Jordan

Israeli aggression against Palestinians threatens new wave of violence, warns Jordan
  • Foreign ministry spokesman says violence only generates more violence
  • Urges international community to renew efforts for a just peace and a two-state solution

AMMAN: Jordan has warned that military escalation by Israel against Palestinians threatens to trigger a new wave of violence where everyone will pay.
The ministry of foreign affairs and expatriates denounced ongoing Israeli incursions and repeated attacks on Palestinian cities, the latest of which was in Jenin early Thursday.
Sinan Majali, the ministry’s spokesman, said that violence will only generate more violence, reported Jordan’s News Agency on Friday.
He added that Israeli incursions perpetuate the occupation, and that the stalemate in the peace process pushes the region toward a dangerous escalation for which Israel would bear the responsibility.
Majali urged Israel to stop all its military operations against the Palestinians and all its illegal measures that undermine the two-state solution and chances of achieving peace.
He called on the international community to immediately provide protection for the Palestinian people and to launch a renewed push for a just peace that ends the occupation and allows for an independent Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital, in accordance with the relevant resolutions of international legitimacy and the Arab peace initiative.


Ankara expects US ‘green light’ for F-16 sale

Ankara expects US ‘green light’ for F-16 sale
Updated 09 December 2022

Ankara expects US ‘green light’ for F-16 sale

Ankara expects US ‘green light’ for F-16 sale
  • Turkiye’s regional rivals, including Greece, are rapidly modernizing their air forces, analyst tells Arab News
  • The Fiscal 2023 National Defense Authorization Act is set to pass by the Senate and House of Representatives this month before being sent to the White House

ANKARA: Turkiye is confident its long-awaited $6 billion deal to buy F-16 fighter jets will go ahead after the US House of Representatives introduced an amendment to the annual defense budget bill removing a series of hurdles to the sale.
On Tuesday, lawmakers in the US Senate and House reached an agreement on the annual defense policy bill.
The Fiscal 2023 National Defense Authorization Act is set to pass by the Senate and House of Representatives this month before being sent to the White House.
In October 2021, Turkiye made a request to the US to buy 40 Lockheed Martin F-16 fighter jets and about 80 modernization kits to update its existing fleet. However, Washington so far has refused to give a “green light” on the sale, saying that it needs to follow the standard process.
“The removal of articles that tied the sale of fighter jets to Ankara with restrictive conditions from the NDAA draft eliminated an important roadblock for Turkiye’s purchase of 40 new F-16s and 80 F-16 modernization kits from the US,” Ozgur Unluhisarcikli, Ankara office director of German Marshall Fund of the US, told Arab News.
In a letter written to Congress in March, the State Department said the potential sale of the jets and modernization kits to Turkiye would strengthen bilateral ties and NATO’s long-term unity.
“The administration believes that there are nonetheless compelling long-term NATO alliance unity and capability interests, as well as US national security, economic and commercial interests that are supported by appropriate US defense trade ties with Turkiye,” the letter said.
Sentiment toward Turkiye in the administration of US President Joe Biden had softened after Ankara’s mediation efforts during the Ukrainian conflict and thanks to its normalization policy with former rivals, including the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Israel and Egypt.
In an interview with the CNN Turk broadcaster last month, Turkiye’s presidential spokesperson, Ibrahim Kalin, said that US approval for the sale of F-16 fighter jets to Turkiye could be completed in a month or two.
In August, a Turkish technical delegation met in Washington with experts and authorities from Lockheed Martin, while another political delegation along with Turkish diplomats also conducted lobbying activities in the US.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan met two US senators — Lindsey Graham and Chris Coons — in New York in September to seek their potential support for the sale.
However, the proposed sale of US weapons to Turkiye has been subject to intense debate after Ankara bought Russian-made defense missile systems, which resulted in its removal from the F-35 fighter jet program along with several US sanctions on its defense sector.
Democratic Senator and Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Robert Menendez said on Wednesday that he will not approve the sale of F-16 fighter jets to Turkiye and that the final text of the NDAA was not “a win” for Ankara.
According to Sine Ozkarasahin, a security analyst at the Istanbul-based think tank EDAM, the Biden administration is using its political capital to move the debate in a positive direction.
“But there are still many hurdles to be overcome for a potential agreement, and persuading skeptical senators such as Menendez is the most significant of all,” she told Arab News.
The explanatory text accompanying the NDAA bill emphasized that “NATO allies should not conduct unauthorized territorial overflights of another NATO ally’s airspace,” considered by many experts as a warning to the overflights in the Aegean that trigger disagreements between Ankara and Athens.
“Those in the US Congress that want to prevent the transaction have other means to do so, but in return the administration has ways to overcome or circumvent their objection,” Unluhisarcikli said.
“In line with the Arms Export Control Act, US President needs the Congress to not formally object to the transaction. Accordingly, the president needs to notify the Congress 30 days before formalizing a defense sale to a third country, and 15 days in the case of allies including Turkiye,” he added.
Unless Congress adopts a joint resolution of disapproval within those 15 days, the president can sign off the deal.
According to Unluhisarcikli, Congress has never prevented an arms sale through this channel in the past and, given its workload, it is not an easy task to adopt such a resolution in a short time.
“However, there is also a practice in the form of the State Department informally notifying the Congress 20 days before the president’s formal notification. If there are strong objections in the Congress after the informal notification, then the president is unlikely to make the formal notification,” he added.
If the deal to buy F-16 fighters falls through, Ankara may consider other options, including Eurofighters, Swedish Saab fighter aircraft or the latest generation of Russian or Chinese fighters.
“However, Turkiye’s regional rivals, like Greece, are rapidly modernizing their air forces while Ankara remains stuck in the fourth-generation air warfare model,” Ozkarasahin said.
“In the aftermath of its removal from the F-35 program and the changing power balances with its geopolitical rivals, Turkiye urgently needs a stopgap solution until its national combat aircraft takes to the skies.”
The first prototype of Turkiye’s indigenously built fighter jet TF-X recently arrived on the final assembly line. The aircraft is estimated to be rolled out in March 2023 and make its first flight in 2025 or 2026.