New report suggests Israeli military views some Gaza journalists as ‘legitimate targets’

Media watchdogs reported that around 30 percent of the 108 media workers killed since Oct. 7 in Gaza were employed by outlets affiliated with or closely tied to Hamas. (AFP/File)
Media watchdogs reported that around 30 percent of the 108 media workers killed since Oct. 7 in Gaza were employed by outlets affiliated with or closely tied to Hamas. (AFP/File)
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Updated 25 June 2024
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New report suggests Israeli military views some Gaza journalists as ‘legitimate targets’

New report suggests Israeli military views some Gaza journalists as ‘legitimate targets’
  • The Guardian and non-profit Forbidden Stories allege that Israeli forces label journalists working for Hamas-controlled media as terrorists
  • Experts argue this approach is part of effort to silence critical reporting

LONDON: A new investigation has suggested that the Israeli military views some Gaza-based journalists as “legitimate targets.”

The Guardian, in collaboration with the Paris-based non-profit Forbidden Stories, revealed that some members of the armed forces consider journalists working for Hamas-controlled or affiliated outlets as legitimate targets not covered by the same international protections as civilians.

Media watchdogs Committee to Protect Journalists and Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism reported that around 30 percent of the 108 media workers killed since Oct. 7 in Gaza were employed by outlets affiliated with or closely tied to Hamas.

This includes the largest Hamas-run outlet in Gaza, Al-Aqsa media network, which employs hundreds of people across its TV station, radio, and newspaper arms.

The report, authored by Harry Davies, Manisha Ganguly, David Pegg, Hoda Osman, Bethan McKernan, and award-winning Israeli journalist and film director Yuval Abraham, noted that while “Al-Aqsa’s programming is unmistakably pro-Hamas, anti-Israel and, at times, antisemitic … simply working (for the media outlet) does not make someone a legitimate target to be killed.”

Janina Dill, a professor at the University of Oxford and expert in the laws of war, said: “Reporting the news is not direct participation in hostilities.

“Even if they reported the news in a biased way, even if they did propaganda for Hamas, even if Israel fundamentally disagrees with how they report the news. That is not enough.”

Since 2019, Israel has designated Al-Aqsa network as a terrorist organization, calling it “a propaganda arm of Hamas and a central platform for the distribution of inciting messages by the terror organization.”

The media group has also been sanctioned by the US since 2010.

Its offices, evacuated after Hamas attacks on Oct. 7 to avoid Israeli retaliation, have been previously bombed by Israel over accusations of being used for military purposes.

The report detailed how Israeli soldiers were given a “permissive approach” to targeting, with Hamas-affiliated media being told they existed in a “grey zone” and that some in the Israeli military hold the view that “anyone getting paid by Hamas” could be considered a legitimate target.

“Hamas invests a lot of resources in its propaganda teams. They often won’t do an activity if they don’t have a photographer. They must document everything,” an unnamed military intelligence officer said. “So some will tell you: ‘Look, a Hamasnik is Hamasnik.’”

An Israeli military spokesperson denied the report’s accusations, stating that while it “does not target civilian objects,” the outlet “employs terrorists and affords them the facade of journalists.”

The spokesperson claimed that the Israeli military killed six Al-Aqsa workers who were alleged members of Hamas’s armed wing but did not provide evidence to support the claim.

Experts warned that this approach puts Israel in a “troubling position” as it is often difficult to distinguish between combatants and civilians.

Many press freedom organizations expressed concerns about the military’s efforts to silence critical reporting.

Irene Khan, the UN’s special rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, stated that Israel had “spread disinformation about journalists being linked to militants” and failed to meet the “burden of proof” to make such claims.


EU court rejects TikTok challenge against new EU digital rules

EU court rejects TikTok challenge against new EU digital rules
Updated 17 July 2024
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EU court rejects TikTok challenge against new EU digital rules

EU court rejects TikTok challenge against new EU digital rules
  • TikTok owner ByteDance is one of the six “gatekeepers” under Digital Markets Act facing the curbs
  • TikTok claimed to be acting as the “most capable challenger” to digital monopolies

LUXEMBOURG: TikTok lost an appeal Wednesday to escape new digital rules that seek to rein in the power of big tech after an EU court rejected its challenge.
A landmark European Union law known as the Digital Markets Act (DMA) entered into force in March, and regulators believe it will create a fairer market.
The European Commission designated six “gatekeepers” under the DMA facing the curbs: Google parent Alphabet, Amazon, Apple, Meta, Microsoft — and TikTok owner ByteDance, the only non-US company.
The EU said in May that Booking would also have to apply the law and gave the online travel agent six months to prepare for compliance.
The decision by the Luxembourg-based General Court is the first judgment on a DMA challenge by big tech, with cases lodged by Apple and Meta still pending.
“The Court dismisses ByteDance’s action,” it said. TikTok can appeal against the ruling within two months and 10 days of the decision.
TikTok had insisted it was the “most capable challenger” to entrenched players in the digital sphere, but the court dismissed that argument.
“TikTok had succeeded in increasing its number of users very rapidly and exponentially, reaching, in a short time, half the size of Facebook and of Instagram, and a particularly high engagement rate, with young users in particular, who spent more time on TikTok than on other social networks,” the court said in a statement.
The judges acknowledged that in 2018, video sharing app TikTok was indeed a challenger but it had since then “rapidly consolidated its position and even strengthened that position over the following years” despite the launch of similar rival services.


“We are disappointed with this decision. TikTok is a challenger platform that provides important competition to incumbent players,” a spokesperson said in a statement.
“While we will now evaluate next steps, we already took measures to comply with the relevant obligations of the DMA ahead of last March’s deadline.”
But the court determined “ByteDance met the quantitative thresholds laid down in the DMA.”
For Brussels to name a company as a gatekeeper, they must fulfil certain conditions.
The criteria include having more than 45 million monthly active users in the EU and more than 10,000 yearly active business users established in the bloc.
Digital companies with an annual turnover in the EU of at least 7.5 billion euros ($8.2 billion) or a market value of above 75 billion euros also face the new curbs.
If a company violates the law, the EU can impose fines of up to 10 percent of a company’s total global turnover. This can rise to 20 percent for repeat offenders and in the most severe circumstances, the EU can order the break-up of companies.
It is the second defeat in the courts for TikTok over the DMA. It lost a bid in February to suspend the strict new rules pending the judgment handed down Wednesday.
Big tech is not happy about the new law. Apple, contesting the DMA in the courts, has been vocal in its criticism, saying it puts users’ security at risk.


Trump shooting conspiracy theories flourish on X, researchers say

Trump shooting conspiracy theories flourish on X, researchers say
Updated 17 July 2024
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Trump shooting conspiracy theories flourish on X, researchers say

Trump shooting conspiracy theories flourish on X, researchers say
  • The conspiracy theories were viewed over 215 million times on X, the watchdog Center for Countering Digital Hate (CCDH) said

WASHINGTON: Conspiracy theories about the assassination attempt on Donald Trump received tens of millions of views on X, researchers said Tuesday, highlighting the potential for extreme falsehoods to go viral on the Elon Musk-owned platform.

The social media site, formerly named Twitter, was flooded with unsubstantiated claims soon after the shooting Saturday at a campaign rally in Butler, Pennsylvania, which left one spectator dead and a bloodied Trump injured in the ear.

Those included unfounded assertions that the assassination attempt had been “staged” or an “inside job,” while fingers were pointed at imaginary culprits such as Jews and the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad.

The conspiracy theories were viewed over 215 million times on X, the watchdog Center for Countering Digital Hate (CCDH) said after analyzing a sample of 100 popular posts.

A majority of the posts did not carry a “Community Note,” a crowd-sourced moderation tool that Musk has promoted as the way for users to add context to the tweets, CCDH added.

In the first 24 hours alone, unsubstantiated narratives around the incident amassed more than 100 million views on X, according to the nonprofit research group Institute for Strategic Dialogue.

X did not respond to a request for comment.

Internet hoaxers also falsely identified several people as the shooter — including Italian sports journalist Marco Violi, anti-Trump protester Maxwell Yearick and comedian Sam Hyde, AFP’s fact-checkers reported.

Federal investigators have identified the shooter, who was killed on the scene, as Thomas Matthew Crooks of Pennsylvania.

In the immediate aftermath of the shooting, several social media users voiced confusion as they scrambled to obtain accurate information in what appeared to be a sea of false or misleading posts, which rapidly gained traction.

The trend illustrates the ability of falsehoods to mutate into viral political discourse on tech platforms including X, which now offer fewer guardrails as they scale back content moderation.

Researchers say some clout-chasing accounts on the platform have a financial motive to post sensational falsehoods, as X’s ad revenue-sharing program incentivizes extreme content designed to boost engagement.

“In the marketplace of disinformation — which is effectively what a lot of social media platforms have now been reduced to, a marketplace for lies — extreme content is your currency,” said Imran Ahmed, chief executive and founder of CCDH.

“The algorithms take the most outlandish content and amplify it exponentially until the entire digital world is flooded with conspiracism, disinformation and hate.”

Researchers have warned about a possible firehose of disinformation in the run up to the November election, which will take place in a deeply polarized political climate in the United States.

“Already, at an early stage in the US electoral cycle, we can see flashing warning signs that social media in the weeks and months ahead will be increasingly chaotic and rife with disinformation,” Ahmed said.


Algeria publisher closes over book controversy

Readers visit a book stall on a street  in the Algerian capital Algiers. (AFP file photo)
Readers visit a book stall on a street in the Algerian capital Algiers. (AFP file photo)
Updated 17 July 2024
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Algeria publisher closes over book controversy

Readers visit a book stall on a street  in the Algerian capital Algiers. (AFP file photo)
  • The announcement comes a week after “Houaria” won the prestigious Assia Djebar Grand Prize, an award in honor of the Algerian literary giant who died in 2015

ALGIERS: An Algerian publishing house said on Tuesday it was ceasing operations after an award-winning novel sparked uproar on social media because of its controversial themes.
“We announce that MIM Edition has closed its doors effective immediately in the face of the storm and fire,” the publisher posted on Facebook.
“Houaria,” by Inaam Bayoud, has sparked furor on social media, with many accusing it of being replete with sexual innuendo and using “coarse terms in Darija,” the Algerian dialect of Arabic.
The announcement comes a week after “Houaria” won the prestigious Assia Djebar Grand Prize, an award in honor of the Algerian literary giant who died in 2015.
“While reading the novel, we were no less concerned about values than those who claim to defend them without having read it,” said Amina Belaala, a member of the Assia Djebar Grand Prize jury that selected the book.
“We did not see in those few words any affront to morality, religion or modesty,” she added.
For literary critic Faycal Metaoui, the uproar caused by the novel is evidence of a double-standard for female writers in Algerian society.
“The author and the publisher are women. If it were written by a man, we would not have seen all this,” he told AFP.
 

 


Stabbed Iran International journalist flees to Israel over safety concerns

Stabbed Iran International journalist flees to Israel over safety concerns
Updated 16 July 2024
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Stabbed Iran International journalist flees to Israel over safety concerns

Stabbed Iran International journalist flees to Israel over safety concerns
  • Pouria Zeraati said move was a “reluctant” but necessary decision

LONDON: Iran International journalist Pouria Zeraati has fled to Israel citing safety concerns after an assassination attempt in London in March.

In an interview with The Guardian, Zeraati revealed that his move from London to an undisclosed location in Israel was a “reluctant” but necessary decision.

“The place I live right now is a little safer,” he said in an interview published Tuesday.

“There have been communications between the UK police and the police here. They know about my situation and have taken extra measures to make sure I’m safe in Israel.”

Zeraati was attacked outside his home in Wimbledon, southwest London, by three unidentified men who reportedly fled the country immediately after the attack.

Police believe the attackers were part of a criminal gang from Eastern Europe acting on behalf of the Iranian government.

Suspicion increased following a series of foiled plots aimed at kidnapping or killing employees of Iran International, a London-based network that Tehran has classified as a terrorist organization.

Zeraati, who was hospitalized with a leg injury, criticized the UK’s approach to the threat posed by Iran on British soil, saying it could not guarantee his safety.

He called for the British government to impose more stringent sanctions against Iran.

The attack on Zeraati comes amid an “unprecedented” harassment campaign against Iranian journalists living abroad.

According to a report by Reporters Without Borders, almost 90 percent of Iranian journalists said they had experienced online threats or harassment in the past five years.

In December, ITV revealed that a double agent exposed a plot orchestrated by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps to assassinate two network anchors during the 2022 anti-government protests.

Similarly, journalists at the BBC’s Persian language news outlet reported being targeted with offensive messages and threats of sexual assault, with reports of family members in Iran being arbitrarily detained.

Zeraati’s move to a country at war, and at risk of further conflict, has also raised fresh questions over how safe the UK is for dissidents targeted by foreign states.


Video of driver lashing migrants in back of lorry sparks indignation in Italy

Video of driver lashing migrants in back of lorry sparks indignation in Italy
Updated 16 July 2024
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Video of driver lashing migrants in back of lorry sparks indignation in Italy

Video of driver lashing migrants in back of lorry sparks indignation in Italy
  • Video shows driver shouting at and hitting a group of Eritrean migrants with makeshift whip

LONDON: A video showing a driver lashing a group of migrants who hid in the back of his lorry to cross into France has sparked outrage in Italy.

The video, which went viral on social media, shows an unidentified driver, believed to be from Eastern Europe, shouting at and hitting a group of Eritrean migrants, mostly women, with a makeshift whip.

The incident was filmed by a passerby at a traffic center in Ventimiglia, in the Liguria region near the French border.

Police are investigating the incident but have not released further information.

The episode has ignited a nationwide debate, with Save the Children Italy condemning the images as “inhuman and demeaning.”

“Children, adolescents, and thousands of migrants arriving in Europe deserve a system that recognizes their needs, treats them with respect and dignity, and protects them from danger,” the association said in a statement, criticizing the EU’s recently approved Pact on Migration and Asylum.

According to the Italian newspaper Secolo XIX, the group had been welcomed the evening before the incident at a refugee center run by Catholic charity Caritas and spent the night at the “widespread reception point” in Ventimiglia.

Following the incident, the migrants returned to the center, where they recounted what had happened.