The mark that 9/11 left on Hollywood and American culture

The mark that 9/11 left on Hollywood and American culture
Mourners gather at the 9/11 Memorial & Museum in New York on September 11, 2020, as the US commemorates the 19th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. (File/AFP)
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Updated 11 September 2021

The mark that 9/11 left on Hollywood and American culture

The mark that 9/11 left on Hollywood and American culture
  • Through TV screens came grim images of the Al-Qaeda assault that would be echoed in films and TV shows
  • Films that portrayed real events surrounding 9/11 and the subsequent wars were often met with disinterest

DUBAI: Through a television screen slightly past 9 a.m. on the east coast of the US on a Tuesday morning, Americans received perhaps their greatest trauma. It was then that the second plane crashed through Twin Towers in New York City, a moment embedded in the public consciousness ever after, a moment that would shape culture in all its facets.

Through those television screens, other grim images that would be echoed in film and culture followed. There was the falling man, leaping from the building to escape the smoke and flames.

General view of the World Trade Center memorial in New York City on February 26, 2021. (File/AFP)

There were the falling towers themselves, collapsing in on themselves as if from grief. There was the billowing smoke and debris that pervaded lower Manhattan, the grey ashes that clung to everything — the streets, police cars, even the survivors themselves.

Part of the reason that these images linger so strongly, and part of the reason that those wounds have never fully healed, is the lack of reason, of resolution, of narrative embedded within them. No matter how many questions that the horrible events of 9/11 raised, there were no easy explanations to be found on that day, nor satisfying ones in the days after.

Kristina Hollywood and her daughter Allyson attend a candlelight vigil for 9/11 victims at a memorial site following the death of Osama bin Laden May 2, 2011. (File/AFP)

Answers were what Americans needed. Answers are what pop culture provided them. More than anything else, the key to success in the world of film and television is how well the work provided the right framework for thought, often the more comforting the better.

In the months following the attacks, the most popular films provided those answers most satisfyingly, if more generally. Audiences flocked to the opening screenings of “The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring,” finding solace in a world in which good and evil are clearly defined, at clear odds, and in which the purity of spirit of the good side can overcome all. They found that in the first Harry Potter film, too, “The Sorcerer’s Stone,” in which love and unity can overcome a malevolent, secretly invasive force.

The family of Flight 93 victim C.C. Lyle arrives at the premiere of "United 93" during the Fifth Annual Tribeca Film Festival at the Ziegfeld Theatre April 25, 2006 in New York City. (File/AFP)

Applying that narrative back to the real world, however, is when America’s need for answers brought out its darkest impulses. Some in America, including those at the very top, quickly defined the true evil as the Arab and Muslim other, a narrative that was not born on the morning of 9/11, merely refocused and sharpened.

In the wake of that fateful day, across the country, Arabs were targeted in hate crimes and Islamophobia became practically acceptable mainstream discourse. America’s need for a real-world inspired villain on screen led the ascent of the Muslim terrorist, including in popular television shows such as “24” and “Homeland.”

Nuance and subjective perspective were stripped from most characters from the region, a trend that continues to this day across many films and TV, as “London Has Fallen” and the Jack Ryan films repeat the same tropes with only cosmetic enhancements.

For Arab actors, the post-9/11 world became a land of both opportunity and heartbreak. A sequence in the 2008 film “AmericanEast,” directed by Egyptian-American filmmaker Hesham Issawi, plainly portrayed that experience.

In the film, which depicts various Arab immigrants trying to assimilate into American culture, a character named Omar is finding nascent success as an actor. His most successful role to date was that of a Muslim extremist terrorizing the US, and his hopes that he can transform that success into a wide range of roles are quickly crushed.

Janice Ryan points as she finds her friend's name at the World Trade Center memorial in New York City on February 26, 2021. (File/AFP)

In one scene, Omar is cast for a leading role in a network TV drama as a doctor that incidentally happens to be Muslim. When he arrives on set, however, he finds the role has been cut, and he has been recast as a Muslim terrorist. When he tries to find the humanity in the character, the exasperated filmmakers tell him: “He’s a terrorist. He’s full of hate. That’s all you have to play.”

Unfairly, Omar is forced to choose between following his dream, and dehumanizing himself and his people, a choice many real actors made in more desperate circumstances. Worse still, Arabs both in the US and abroad have not found their faces reflected in the media, which continues to portray characters that lack values and basic three-dimensional humanity.

Members of the U.S. Coast Guard honor veterans killed in the attacks on September 11 at the memorial at Ground Zero on Veterans Day on November 11, 2020 in New York City. (File/AFP)

In those same years, the films that portrayed real events surrounding 9/11 and the wars that were started in its name were often met with disinterest. Even when a film about the war in Iraq won the Oscar for Best Picture in 2009, Kathryn Bigelow’s “The Hurt Locker,” it was the lowest-grossing film to ever receive that honor, signaling that even the film world’s most prestigious prize was not enough to imbue reflection on those events into the cultural psyche.

What the world needed was not more questions; it was crying out for answers. And if there is any truism that film fans can rely on, it is that a hero can provide all of the answers.

It was the idea of unbridled heroism that led Jack Bauer in “24” to become a cultural icon on television in the early 2000s, allowing people to enjoy a show that depicts events similar to those of 9/11 because at the center was a man who had it all figured out, knew why it was happening and how he would stop it.

More significantly, the post-9/11 film landscape saw the ascent of the superhero genre, which had failed to truly take hold in the past outside of Superman and Batman, but starting with 2002’s “Spider-Man,” became the dominant genre of the medium, a distinction it still holds.

Christopher Nolan’s “Dark Knight” films and Zack Snyder’s “Superman” films took the direct imagery of that tragic Tuesday morning — the smoke, the collapsing buildings, the falling men — and used that to make it feel as if these larger-than-life heroes were saving the world as it really was, the one we lived through, not the fantastical one we had seen in the past.

Then, dwarfing them all, the Marvel Cinematic Universe was born, and there the unresolved narrative needs of the American public were focused most greatly.

In “Captain America,” a yearning for a clear understanding of American good was fulfilled, an embodiment of innocence forced to contend with a darker age. In “Iron Man,” American ingenuity overcomes Muslim extremism.


* Netflix is airing a 5-part series, Turning Point, which documents the 9/11 terrorist attacks, from Al-Qaeda’s roots in the 1980s to America’s response, both at home and abroad.

And in the “Avengers,” 9/11 itself was seemingly re-enacted by an alien force, the only solution to which was not the grass-roots unity of the American people toward a common goal, but the reliance on heroes to do that work for us.

America found real-life heroes to put on the screen too. US Navy SEAL sniper Chris Kyle was depicted in Clint Eastwood’s 2014 film “American Sniper,” which became the highest-grossing film of that year, and the highest-grossing war film of all time.

“American Sniper” got rid of the nuance that had plagued the “war on terror” films for over a decade and replaced it with a character who had the sure-headedness of a Marvel hero, the clear understanding that he was a good guy who was killing bad guys, who had never done an unjustifiable act.

It was intoxicating for many audiences, who chose to look past the fact that Kyle was not the “Captain America” one might have hoped but instead idolized the Marvel hero “The Punisher,” a monstrous vigilante whose iconography is popular among US special forces. Because of that, as the dust settled, the film has a more controversial legacy than its initial praise suggested.

A US flag hangs from Oculus at the World Trade Center Transportation Hub for the Memorial Day weekend in New York city on May 29, 2021. (File/AFP)

It is not all grim, of course. American cinema has been at its best when it extends its gaze internally more critically, and outside its borders with more compassion.

Arab and Muslim films and performers have gained prominence in award shows, and TV series such as “Ramy” have themselves depicted 9/11 from the perspective of Arab Americans who suddenly found themselves otherized.

The push and pull that existed in the creative community for the last two decades seems finally to be leaning more toward an answer that perhaps should have been found in the direct aftermath: That peace, coexistence, and a recognition of common humanity are what overcome acts of evil, and broadly labelling an enemy as an entire culture only creates more to contend with.

Twitter: @whmullally

Malaysian court upholds ex-PM’s graft conviction in 1MDB scandal

Malaysian court upholds ex-PM’s graft conviction in 1MDB scandal
Updated 09 December 2021

Malaysian court upholds ex-PM’s graft conviction in 1MDB scandal

Malaysian court upholds ex-PM’s graft conviction in 1MDB scandal
  • 1MDB scandal brought down former Prime Minister Najib Razak’s government in 2018
  • Investigators allege at least $4.5bn was embezzled from 1MDB and laundered by Najib’s associates

KUALA LUMPUR: The Malaysian Court of Appeal upheld on Wednesday former Prime Minister Najib Razak’s 12-year jail sentence for his role in a multibillion-dollar corruption scandal at the 1Malaysia Development Berhad state investment fund.

Najib was sentenced by a high court in July 2020 and fined $50 million on charges of criminal breach of trust, money laundering and abuse of power relating to illegally receiving RM42 million ($10 million) from SRC International, a former subsidiary of the now-defunct 1MDB.

Investigators allege at least $4.5 billion was embezzled from 1MDB and laundered by Najib’s associates. Najib has pleaded not guilty and consistently denied any wrongdoing, saying he had been misled by Malaysian fugitive financier Low Taek Jho. The scandal brought down Najib’s government in 2018.

As the Court of Appeal upheld the 2020 verdict, lead judge Abdul Karim Abdul Jalil said the case was a “national embarrassment.”

“This is not something that can be said to have been done in the national interest,” he said while reading the decision. “There is no national interest here, just national embarrassment.”

The court had agreed to the defense’s request to stay the jail term pending a final appeal. Until then, Najib will remain out on bail.

The former prime minister and his legal counsel, Mohammed Shafee Abdullah, attended the court proceedings via a video call, as they had reportedly been in touch with contacts who tested positive for COVID-19.

In an online press conference afterward, Najib said he was “very disappointed” with the judgment.

“I would like to reiterate and say I didn’t know, nor did I ask or …direct anyone for RM42 million to my account,” he said.

Lead prosecutor V. Sithambaram told reporters that a decision in Najib’s final appeal will be made by the federal court, the country’s top court, within the next six to nine months, but the appeal court’s verdict showed the conviction “according to law and facts.”

The 68-year-old politician remains a key figure in the ruling United Malays National Organization party, which has led coalition governments since independence from Britain in 1957.

Toppled in 2018 over the 1MDB scandal, the party returned to power in August.

While the Court of Appeal verdict may not dent Najib’s popularity, it deals a blow to his possible comeback to the country’s top office in the next general election scheduled to take place by 2023.

“In terms of popularity, I don’t think there will be any effect, as the supporters will support Najib regardless of his conviction,” Dr. Oh Ei Sun, a senior fellow at the Singapore Institute of International Affairs, told Arab News.

“However, if his conviction is not reversed by the time of the next general election, he might not be able to run. If he cannot run, he cannot become prime minister again.” Dozens of Najib’s supporters turned up at the Court of Appeal in Putrajaya as the verdict was announced.

One of them, Amaruddin, 67, who goes by one name, said he had traveled 200 km from Terengganu to stand in solidarity with Najib, whom he believes has fallen prey to political persecution.

“Najib is innocent and has been charged because he was vilified by the previous government,” Amaruddin said. “He will get out of this unscathed.”

Inspired by Disney princess Elsa, Pakistani girl gets ‘magical’ blue prosthetic arm

Inspired by Disney princess Elsa, Pakistani girl gets ‘magical’ blue prosthetic arm
Updated 09 December 2021

Inspired by Disney princess Elsa, Pakistani girl gets ‘magical’ blue prosthetic arm

Inspired by Disney princess Elsa, Pakistani girl gets ‘magical’ blue prosthetic arm
  • Born without a right arm, Momina Aamir became the youngest person in the world to receive a prosthetic limb

KARACHI: Three-year-old Momina Aamir’s father was overwhelmed with emotion in August when his daughter, who was born without a right arm, asked her father if she could borrow his hand so she could prostrate properly while performing the Muslim ritual of prayer.

After that moment, Aamir Abbas said he was more determined than ever to find a solution, which turned out to be a blue multigrip bionic arm customized to the exact wishes of Momina, a huge fan of Princess Elsa in the Walt Disney animated film, “Frozen.”

“I had just finished praying when Momina came to me and said: ‘Baba, give me your hand so I may pray like you as well’,” Abbas told Arab News. “It is hard for me to put my feelings in words. I had never felt or made her feel that she was missing something. But this pushed me to think hard and look for solutions.”

According to the World Health Organization, about 30 million people around the world require prosthetic limbs, but fewer than 20 percent have them and these tend to be costly and heavy, with limited to no movement. According to Karachi’s Aga Khan University Hospital, one in every 20 children in Pakistan is born with some kind of a hand deformity.

But with the help of the Karachi-based startup BIONIKS, which provides orthotics and prosthetics services, Abbas has been able to make his daughter’s dream come true.

Earlier this year, the firm achieved a world record when they fitted four-year-old Muhammad Sideeq with a multigrip bionic arm. The story was covered by Arab News, and Abbas said that the media coverage was instrumental in connecting the family to BIONIKS.

“That story gave me hope and made me visit BIONIKS,” said Saadia Aamir, Momina’s mother.

After receiving her new arm last week, Momina, at three years and four months of age, is the youngest recipient to have an advanced prosthetic limb.

Among treatment options for children born with hand or arm deformities — based on the nature and severity of the problem — are limb manipulation and stretching, tendon transfer, attaching a splint to stretch the finger to its original position or repairing the constrictions in muscles, ligaments and skin.

In some cases, skin grafts can be used to address the deformity. Surgery is also sometimes performed to cure the condition.

Unfortunately, not all children are able to get the right treatment in Pakistan due to a lack of expertise as well as the high cost of procedures.

And even though Momina is among a handful of fortunate children, it was not easy to design the required limb for her due to her age and congenital situation, as the design is fitted with sensors that enable users to move the prosthetic limbs by thinking about making the movements.

“It was far more difficult to integrate all the things in her case since she never had a hand,” Ovais Hussain Qureshi, co-founder of BIONIKS, told Arab News. “She had not experienced those senses in her mind that allow us to use our right hand.”

For example, he said, when Momina was first asked to close the fingers of her right hand, she would move the entire artificial arm.

But the girl was intelligent and the team did not find it difficult to communicate with her and quickly teach her how to use the limb.

“She is very friendly and talkative,” Qureshi said with a smile. “She used to freely roam around in our office, visit the research and development room, sit with our designers and talk to them: ‘I don’t like this or that part. Can you make the shade of blue a little light? How about adding diamonds or crystals to the arm?’“

“It will not be wrong to say,” Qureshi said, “that she got a truly customized arm. In fact, she almost made it herself!”

Momina’s mother said that her daughter decided she wanted a blue arm because of Princess Elsa in “Frozen.”

“The day she got her arm, we left our home late at night and she slept in the car,” she said. “While I was removing her arm, she woke up and asked me not to. When she went into deep sleep, I took it off and was surprised to see her restlessness in the morning. She looked impatiently for the arm but was happy when I brought it back.”

Momina’s mother said that her daughter was so deeply attached to her “magical” arm that she was upset when it was taken back to the firm for minor changes and adjustments.

Her parents said that most people wanted their children to get skin-colored prosthetic limbs, but they decided to let their daughter have the arm she truly wanted.

“She is happy with the color,” her mother said. “Sometimes she even makes fun of our ordinary arms and says she has a more beautiful one! We want her to grow with it.”


Mixing vaccines boosts immune response; experimental saliva test nearly as accurate as PCR

Mixing vaccines boosts immune response; experimental saliva test nearly as accurate as PCR
Updated 09 December 2021

Mixing vaccines boosts immune response; experimental saliva test nearly as accurate as PCR

Mixing vaccines boosts immune response; experimental saliva test nearly as accurate as PCR
  • A mix-and-match approach to COVID-19 vaccines is safe and effective, and some combinations even improve upon immune responses, UK researchers found
  • There were no adverse effects from mixing the vaccines, the research team reported on Monday

DUBAI: The following is a summary of some recent studies on COVID-19. They include research that warrants further study to corroborate the findings and that has yet to be certified by peer review.
A mix-and-match approach to COVID-19 vaccines is safe and effective, and some combinations even improve upon immune responses, UK researchers found.
They studied 1,079 volunteers whose first shot was either the adenoviral vector vaccine from AstraZeneca or the mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech.
Participants were then randomly assigned to receive either the same vaccine or a shot of Moderna’s higher-dose mRNA vaccine or the experimental Novavax vaccine, which uses a different technology than the others.
There were no adverse effects from mixing the vaccines, the research team reported on Monday in The Lancet.
Regardless of which shot people received first, getting the Moderna as the second dose induced a stronger antibody response than a second dose of the original vaccine, lab experiments suggested.
An important second-line response from the immune system — the activation of T-cells — was greatest with the AstraZeneca vaccine followed by the Novavax vaccine, the researchers found. Given that neither of these requires special freezer storage, this finding — and the fact that mixing any of the other tested vaccines is safe — could be “extremely relevant to the 94 percent of people in low-income countries who are yet to receive any doses,” they concluded.
Experimental saliva test nearly matches PCR for accuracy
An experimental saliva test can diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection in minutes, nearly as accurately as gold-standard PCR tests, researchers believe.
Typical saliva tests are unreliable unless done immediately after an overnight fast, because the concentration of virus particles in saliva drops steeply after eating or drinking. Like other rapid antigen tests, this one, called PASPORT, binds the virus to nanoparticles. But PASPORT adds a second type of nanoparticle that binds to the first set, yielding a stronger signal and making the test more sensitive at finding the virus at any time of day, the researchers reported on Monday in Microchimica Acta.
When tested on non-fasting samples from 139 volunteers — 35 with known COVID-19 infections and 19 with other respiratory infections — and compared to PCR tests of swab samples from the back of the nose and throat, PASPORT was 97 percent accurate at identifying SARS-CoV-2 and 91 percent accurate at ruling it out.
“Although PCR has been the gold standard, it requires trained personnel and laboratory infrastructure,” study leader Dr. Danny Jian Hang Tng of Singapore General Hospital and Duke-NUS Medical School, said in a statement. A reliable, painless, affordable and convenient saliva test “would encourage more to be tested, and more frequent testing.”
The omicron variant of the coronavirus can partially evade protection from two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine from Pfizer and BioNTech, preliminary data indicate.
Researchers in South Africa exposed omicron to antibodies in blood samples from 12 people who had each received two doses of the vaccine. The antibodies’ ability to neutralize omicron was 41 times lower than their ability to neutralize a version of the virus that circulated early in the pandemic, Alex Sigal of the Africa Health Research Institute in Durban and colleagues reported on Tuesday in a paper that has not yet been peer-reviewed.
Among volunteers who also had antibodies from prior coronavirus infection, the researchers saw “relatively high” neutralization of omicron, suggesting that raising antibody levels with booster doses will be helpful, other researchers said. Jonathan Ball, a virologist at the University of Nottingham in the UK who was not involved in the study, said in a statement that the group that was vaccinated and previously infected “mimics what we would expect in people who had had two doses of vaccine plus a boost... The data should give us reassurance that the vaccine will still offer protection.” Vaccines also induce second-line defenses, including T cell immunity. “We think that this will be less impacted” by omicron’s mutations, he said. On Wednesday, BioNTech and Pfizer said that while two doses of their vaccine have a low neutralizing effect on omicron, a lab test showed that a third dose boosted protection levels back to about what was seen against the original virus.

UK: omicron spreading quickly; time to work from home again

UK: omicron spreading quickly; time to work from home again
Updated 08 December 2021

UK: omicron spreading quickly; time to work from home again

UK: omicron spreading quickly; time to work from home again
  • Johnson said beginning next Monday, people should work from home if possible

LONDON: British Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced tighter restrictions Wednesday to stem the spread of the omicron variant, urging people in England to again work from home and mandating COVID-19 passes for entrance into nightclubs and large events.
Johnson said it was time to impose stricter measures to prevent a spike of hospitalizations and deaths as the new coronavirus variant spreads rapidly in the community.
“It has become increasingly clear that omicron is growing much faster than the previous delta variant and is spreading rapidly all around the world,” he said in a press conference. “Most worryingly, there is evidence that the doubling time of omicron could currently be between two and three days.”
Johnson said 568 cases of the omicron variant have been confirmed so far across the UK, and “the true number is certain to be much higher.”
He said while there wasn’t yet comprehensive data on how dangerous omicron is, rising hospitalization rates in South Africa, where the variant was first detected, suggested it has the potential to cause harm.
Scientists at the UK Health Security Agency said they expected the omicron variant to become the dominant strain in Britain in the next two to four weeks. The agency said so far most cases were located in London and southeast England.
The tighter restrictions will buy the government time to put booster jabs into more arms. Officials have set the target of offering booster shots to all adults by the end of January.
Johnson said beginning next Monday, people should work from home if possible. Starting on Friday, the legal requirement to wear a face mask will be widened to most indoor public places in England, including cinemas. Next week, having a COVID-19 pass showing a person has had both vaccine doses will be mandatory to enter nightclubs and places with large crowds.
Live music venues and nightclubs, which have long resisted vaccine passports, called the news devastating for an industry that’s just finding its feet again after prolonged periods of closure and restrictions. The blow is particularly hard ahead of the crucial Christmas and New Year period, they said.
The British government reported another 51,342 confirmed daily cases of COVID-19 as of Wednesday, with 161 more people dying. Overall Britain has seen over 146,000 deaths in the pandemic, the second-worst death toll in Europe after Russia.
The announcement came as Johnson and his government faced increasing pressure to explain reports that Downing Street staff enjoyed a Christmas party that breached the country’s coronavirus rules last winter, when cases of the delta variant soared and people were banned from holding most social gatherings. Johnson on Wednesday ordered an inquiry and said he was “furious” about the situation.
The revelations have angered many in Britain, with critics saying they heavily undermine the authority of Johnson’s Conservative government in imposing virus restrictions.

French police probe alleged Islamophobia by teacher at Catholic school

French police probe alleged Islamophobia by teacher at Catholic school
Updated 08 December 2021

French police probe alleged Islamophobia by teacher at Catholic school

French police probe alleged Islamophobia by teacher at Catholic school
  • He allegedly told student Muslims in Catholic schools are a problem and suggested he change his religion
  • 20% of students at Joseph-Wresinski d’Angers Catholic School are Muslim

LONDON: A teacher at a school in France has been suspended from his job and is being investigated by police following accusations made by a Muslim student of bigotry relating to his religion.

A student at the Joseph-Wresinski d’Angers Catholic School in the city of Angers lodged a formal complaint with local police, claiming that a teacher said Muslim students are a problem and suggested he “change his religion” during a discussion about French history, the Daily Mail reported. Police have launched an investigation into the student’s complaint, a local prosecutor said.

The teacher, who has not yet been named, lodged a complaint a day after the student, alleging “physical and verbal violence.”

According to the student, the incident began when the teacher digressed during a discussion about Catholic schools of the past.

He allegedly said: “Catholic schools should have continued to only accept Catholic students.” A student pointed at a Muslim classmate and responded: “But Catholic schools aren’t just reserved for Catholics.”

According to the Muslim student’s testimony, the teacher then said “that’s the problem,” adding: “Well, he could always change his religion.”

The student was said to be angry at the teacher’s response and stormed out of the room while shouting “racist.” For this the teacher lodged his complaint, saying the student pushed past him and yelled.

The teacher admitted to “inviting Muslims to join us and become Catholic,” but said the remark was intended as humor but “did not go down well with the class.”

Anthony Bélangé, director of the school, said 20 percent of his students are Muslim, and normally everyone at the school lives together “very peacefully.”

He added: “Conflicts between staff and students can happen, but the complaints have taken this to a new level.

“This is quite an emotionally charged situation and I’ve asked the students in the class to write a factual testimony of the events, which will be sent to the investigation team.”

France is home to around 5 million Muslims, the largest such population of any EU member state.