Saudi filmmakers highlight vital mental health issues on-screen

Saudi filmmakers highlight vital mental health issues on-screen
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The Bottle. (Supplied)
Saudi filmmakers highlight vital mental health issues on-screen
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Jameel Jeddan. (Supplied)
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Updated 22 September 2022

Saudi filmmakers highlight vital mental health issues on-screen

Saudi filmmakers highlight vital mental health issues on-screen
  • ‘Jameel Jeddan’ and ‘Lithium’ shatter taboos with laughs, empathy
  • 1 in 3 adults in Kingdom diagnosed with a disorder in their lifetime

RIYADH: Mental health is still often considered a taboo subject in the region and across the world, with explanations ranging from the superstitious to the criminal, but it is now being highlighted and normalized by Saudi filmmakers with their movies and television shows.

In her most recent work, Saudi writer, director, and actress Sarah Taibah packs a collection of laughs, empathy, and thought-provoking elements into the TV series “Jameel Jeddan.” The show is a coming-of-age story that takes viewers on a journey of love, trauma, and loss, to ultimately accepting reality, alongside quirky anime references and challenging of stigmas.

Taibah plays the main character, Jameel, who wakes up from a five-year coma and is forced to finish her last year at high school, rejoining a society with which she no longer identifies. As a coping mechanism, she begins to form an animated alternative reality.

“I think mental health is a very private experience that one battles with on a daily basis, secretly, without necessarily sharing it,” Taibah told Arab News.

She believes it’s important for films and shows to feature protagonists struggling with mental health issues — “something very relatable yet misunderstood in society.”

What Taibah and fellow filmmaker and director of the show, Anas BaTahaf, do is present the story — and mental health issues — in a palatable way for mass audiences. Saudi viewers often respond well to comedy or action, perhaps explaining why Saudi cinema often lacks sensitive stories.

In Saudi, about one in three adults have experienced a diagnosable mental disorder during their lifetime, according to the Saudi National Health & Stress Survey. Awareness is often the first step in both helping people understand they need help, and in offering help to those who need it.

According to a recent study by the British Board of Film Classification of young people between the ages of 13 and 18, 78 percent believe that film and TV play an integral role in spreading awareness about mental health issues. In addition, 68 percent said that positive portrayals in entertainment media can help destigmatize these issues.

Another example is that of the upcoming Saudi feature film “Lithium,” which centers around individuals living with bipolar disorder, suffering silently in society. The film aims to present the condition in a positive and honest manner.

The film won support at the Red Sea Fund last month, which aims to provide a more diverse set of movies to global audiences and better serve both Saudi and Arab filmmakers.

“Mental health is still considered a taboo (subject) around the world. These misconceptions should be fixed as some movies tend to show mentally ill people as violent or dangerous to society. More awareness should be maximized around mass media channels and especially among social media influencers,” Talha B., the film’s co-director, told Arab News.

Whether mental health disorders are the main plot driver or incorporated into minor plotlines, they can aid in understanding the psychology and nature of these conditions, creating a community driven by compassion and empathy, he said.

“Everyone suffering from mental illness deserves a chance to be an active member of our society. We believe stories can help break down difficult subject matters like the importance of mental health. Telling stories like ours can help the medicine go down, so to speak,” he added.

Globally, several movies and shows depict mental health issues with recent work including “The Queen’s Gambit,” “BoJack Horseman,” and “Atypical.” However, such work is a rarity in the region.

Still, many Saudi creators acknowledge the need to spotlight mental health on-screen in order to create a greater impact through cultural scenarios that resonate with the Saudi public.

“Nowadays, there is a great need for screening short movies that discuss mental health issues. People need to watch these kinds of movies to understand that all mental issues start within. If the target audience were educated enough about the subject, then they can deal with the problem,” Dr. Mohamed Sobaih, co-director of the stop-motion animation “The Bottle,” told Arab News.

The short animation, initially produced by cinematic arts students at Effat University, examines the life of a man living in a constant loop of his deepest fears, haunted by his worst anxieties.

“The film started out as a final project for a course taught for Cinematic Arts students in Effat University. Us, the batch who made this film, wanted to make something really unique when we decided that the story should focus on what it’s like to suffer from mental health diseases,” said co-director Hadeel Moharram.

The short film was later remade based on feedback from viewers and was screened at the Saudi Film Festival in 2021, where it received rave reviews from audiences who acknowledged the need for seeing such narratives on-screen.

“People came to us after the screening expressing their emotions after watching the film — how they saw pieces of themselves in it and their loved ones. It’s a film after all, and films are for people, and what better way to express ourselves and tell stories other than this form of art,” Moharram said.

Haya Al-Hejailan, a Saudi well-being practitioner and psychedelic integration specialist, recently worked on the documentary “The Psychedelic Renaissance,” which follows the global developments in the field of psychedelic science, medicine, and culture since 2018.

The film, now seeking its final stage of funding, platforms top researchers and figures in the field and highlights two of the most popular psychedelic therapy treatments for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance dependence. It aims to destigmatize mental health conversations and educate the masses on alternative treatments.

“It raises awareness through psychoeducation, which empowers people to help themselves and help others. The media is a powerful tool for reaching a wide audience and talking about difficult topics in a manner that is digestible and resonant,” Al-Hejailan told Arab News.

She added: “Media representation reminds people suffering that they are not alone and that their suffering is valid — as valid as physical ailments — and it instills hope in people by showing them that this is a part of the human condition and can be effectively addressed and treated through a number of different avenues.”


Inspiring ‘Passion for Reading’ and Fostering Cultural Exchange: Introducing the Media Partnership between the Riyadh International Book Fair 2022 and SRMG

Inspiring ‘Passion for Reading’ and Fostering Cultural Exchange: Introducing the Media Partnership between the Riyadh International Book Fair 2022 and SRMG
Updated 30 September 2022

Inspiring ‘Passion for Reading’ and Fostering Cultural Exchange: Introducing the Media Partnership between the Riyadh International Book Fair 2022 and SRMG

Inspiring ‘Passion for Reading’ and Fostering Cultural Exchange: Introducing the Media Partnership between the Riyadh International Book Fair 2022 and SRMG

RIYADH: For the second year in a row, the Saudi Research and Media Group - SRMG announced its active participation in the Riyadh International Book Fair 2022, as the Official Media Partner. This renewed partnership between the two entities aims at inspiring and motivating readers to increase their passion for reading, in addition to fostering cultural exchange.

During the Book Fair - held in the Saudi capital Riyadh, from September 29 to October 8, 2022 - the Group will provide extensive coverage of the fair and its events, coupled with interactive programs and activities, through more than 30 SRMG participating media outlets and platforms – thus inspiring audiences and interested prospects, in several languages.

And for the first time, Arabic editions of global publications and titles from Raff Publishing will also be revealed, including a variety of books.

In this context, Jomana R. Alrashid, CEO of SRMG, said: “The Riyadh International Book Fair is a key cultural event and falls in line with the Group’s commitment to supporting knowledge economies and stimulating creativity and innovation, in KSA and beyond. Therefore, our renewed partnership highlights the on-going role SRMG media outlets and platforms play in providing unique and distinctive coverage of the fair and its visitors.”

The fair, in its current edition, will witness the reveal by SRMG’s ”Raff Publishing” of a variety of books, representing its first series of publications, including Arabic editions of global publications and book titles. These will come to further enrich Arabic content, through the works by prominent Saudi and Arab writers. In its designated space - located next to the VIP entrance of the Fair – “Raff Publishing” will also offer special events, unique and interactive digital experiences. The publishing house will also highlight its collabs with emerging and established writers.

On its part, SRMG’s “Manga Alarabia” will present several initiatives, including specialized workshops, an interactive photo booth, and a selection of its most prominent publications, in addition to offering activities for children in the Book Fair’s dedicated pavilion.

As far as SRMG’s “Thmanyah”– the market leader in podcasts and documentary film production – is concerned, it will have its own dedicated studio to conduct interviews with VIPs and distinguished guests.

It is noteworthy that the annual Riyadh International Book Fair is one of the most prominent Arab book fairs in terms of number of visitors, sales volume, and the diversity of its cultural programs; as well as the participation of the most prestigious local, regional and international publishing houses. The fair also represents a platform for companies and individuals working &/or interested in the knowledge, literature, publishing and translation sectors, to present their works, books and offerings.


Spotify’s new report delves into how UAE’s Gen Zs are driving culture

Spotify’s new report delves into how UAE’s Gen Zs are driving culture
Updated 30 September 2022

Spotify’s new report delves into how UAE’s Gen Zs are driving culture

Spotify’s new report delves into how UAE’s Gen Zs are driving culture
  • Annual Culture Next report reveals the behaviors, attitudes and mindsets of GenZs in the UAE

DUBAI: Spotify has released the UAE edition of its annual global culture and trends report, Culture Next.

In the fourth edition of the report, the second to feature the UAE, Spotify delves deeper into the behaviors, attitudes and mindsets of their largest audience segment, Generation Z (aged 15 to 25), and how they differ from Generation Y, known as millennials (26 to 40).

In 2021, Gen Zs globally streamed music more often than they used any other media (including videos, games, and TV), and shared more Spotify playlists and engaged in more group listening sessions than any other generation, according to the report.

In the first quarter of 2022 alone, 18 to 24-year-olds have played more than 578 billion minutes of music on Spotify — more than any other segment, and roughly 16 billion more minutes than millennials, or 25 to 34-year-olds, around the world.

“Audio has always been part of our lives,” Mark Abou Jaoude, Spotify’s head of music in the Middle East and North Africa, told Arab News.

“Streaming is being seen more and more as a key driver for discovery and the formation of a global community that identifies with one another through audio. It’s a way of self-expression and it's screenless,” he added.

Video, as a format, has grown in popularity in recent times, spurred by short-form video such as that on TikTok and Instagram’s Reels.

Jaoude, however, stresses the importance of audio, particularly for Gen Zs. “A video with no audio is hard to comprehend, for example, but a pure audio piece is not. Audio enriches storytelling,” he said.

The report highlights key differences between Gen Zs and millennials, with the former having gone from an “emerging” generation to the “center stage of culture.”

Firstly, while both generations are stressed, Gen Zs are more so. “Millennials were raised in a boom, Zs in a bust,” said Jaoude. They have experienced significant downturns associated with the crash of 2008 and later COVID-19, which they experienced mostly as adults, he explained.

In this environment, they are turning to audio as a safe space. Fifty-nine percent of 18 to 24-year-olds in the UAE said they turn to podcasts to get answers to hard or personal questions before talking to their families about it, and 66 percent said they listen to podcasts to inform the conversations they have with their friends.

Moreover, according to 68 percent of Gen Zs in the UAE, audio helps them understand themselves better, and 80 percent said it allows them to explore different sides of their personality.

All of this means that for Gen Zs, audio has always been a part of their lives, and they use it for everything from creativity and self-expression, to discovering aspects of their own personality.

The second factor setting Gen Zs apart is that they are “the most racially and culturally diverse generation and therefore they demand this diversity be reflected through their lifestyle, the brands they engage with, social media and the audio they consume,” according to Jaoude.

Self-expression and creativity are core to this generation and so, “they lean into music, artists, podcasts, and playlists to shape the stories they tell about themselves,” he added.

FASTFACTS

66 percent listen to podcasts to inform the conversations they have with their friends.

82 percent said they had learned something about themselves by looking back on their listening habits.

74 percent believe that their listening habits tell a story about who they are.

78 percent listen to music from movies or shows because they like to feel like they are a character in the story.

71 percent like listening to and watching media from earlier decades because it reminds them of when things were simpler.

75 percent like it when brands bring back old aesthetic styles.

72 percent love it when brands produce retro products or content.

For instance, 82 percent in the UAE said they had learned something about themselves by looking back on their listening habits, and 74 percent believe that their listening habits tell a story about who they are.

It might appear that they are self-involved, but according to the report, they are driving the “main-character energy” trend, in which people use social media or digital audio to make themselves feel like the center of attention. This is evident in the popularity of playlists like “My Life is a Movie” and ones containing “POV” in the title.

Seventy-eight percent of Gen Zs in the UAE listen to music from movies or shows because “they like to feel like they are a character in the story,” according to Jaoude, and 79 percent of all Spotify playlists globally with “POV” in the title were created by Gen Zs.

Jaoude said: “They are experts in structuring and communicating their individual stories through playlists. They create their own playlists on Spotify and even use collaborative playlist features to ask their friends and community to exchange songs.”

While millennials are known for being nostalgic, Gen Zs go even further down memory lane, he added. They are “reinventing nostalgia” by filtering pop culture “through a contemporary perspective to access and inspire something new and unique to them,” he said.

Millennials are nostalgic for the times they have lived through; Gen Zs, on the other hand, are nostalgic for eras that offer some form of reprieve from current times, which they find stressful and anxiety-inducing.

“Among Zs, the past is all fuel for the future — and that is true for more than music,” Jaoude said.

It is why 71 percent of Gen Zs in UAE said they like listening to and watching media from earlier decades — because it reminds them of when things were simpler, and 75 percent like it when brands bring back old aesthetic styles, while 72 percent love it when brands produce retro products or content.

“You will see that movement in today’s fashion and the sound of music; there’s a lot of borrowing from previous eras and artists add their personal flair or vision to that sound,” said Jaoude.

Gen Zs’ unique problems, and habits, provide an untapped opportunity for marketers. As Jaoude said: “They are seeking new opportunities to share themselves through audio — and looking to brands to help make it happen.”

Forty-nine percent in the UAE said they like being able to select the ad they listen to on a digital audio streaming service, and more than a third said they like it when they can interact with ads.

For example, Spotify worked with Adidas on the “Nite Jogger” campaign where they created a custom digital experience that gleaned the “sonic traits” of listeners’ nighttime streaming activity to create a custom playlist unique to each individual. The campaign racked up 32.4 million impressions and over 9 million unique visitors.

“While brands of the past may have prioritized keeping an iron grip over their messaging, there’s a huge opportunity to connect with the next generation by handing the reins over to them and allowing them to customize their experience — especially in the space of audio,” said Jaoude.
 


CPJ calls on Iran to investigate if journalists are being targeted by Iranian forces

CPJ calls on Iran to investigate if journalists are being targeted by Iranian forces
Updated 30 September 2022

CPJ calls on Iran to investigate if journalists are being targeted by Iranian forces

CPJ calls on Iran to investigate if journalists are being targeted by Iranian forces
  • The call comes after a journalist in Iraqi Kurdistan was injured during Iranian strikes on the region

DUBAI: Kurdistan 24’s media team came under attack while covering Iranian drone and missile attacks on Iranian-Kurdish opposition parties based in the Kurdistan Region on Sept. 28, according to the broadcaster.

In a statement, the Erbil-based media company said that its correspondent Soran Kamaran was seriously injured, adding: “We reiterate that Kurdistan 24 is continuing its professional coverage of the events. And we hope all sides in the conflict avoid targeting journalists and media workers.”

The cameraman with Kamaran was not hurt, Kurdistan 24’s newsroom manager and anchor, Kovan Izzat, told the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). But, Kamaran was taken to a hospital in Erbil, where he underwent two surgeries, Izzat said.

The media watchdog has called on Iran to investigate if journalists are being targeted by Iranian forces.

“Iran’s drone strikes inevitably cause civilian casualties, including those of journalists documenting the attacks,” said Sherif Mansour, CPJ’s MENA program coordinator. “Iranian and Kurdish authorities must take serious measures to avoid harming civilians and to hold anyone violating international law accountable.”

The Kurdistan Regional Government also strongly condemned the “repetitive (Iranian) violations of the sovereignty of the Kurdistan Region,” reported Kurdistan 24.

At least seven people have been killed and 24 injured as a result of Iran’s attacks, according to Dr. Saman Barzinji, the minister of health for the Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraq.

On Sept. 28, the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq said that “rocket diplomacy is a reckless act with devastating consequences,” adding that “these attacks need to cease immediately.”

CPJ could not find a contact for Kamaran’s family immediately. The organization reached out to the Iranian UN mission for comment but has not received a response.

 


TikTok launches Creator Hub program in UAE and Egypt

TikTok launches Creator Hub program in UAE and Egypt
Updated 29 September 2022

TikTok launches Creator Hub program in UAE and Egypt

TikTok launches Creator Hub program in UAE and Egypt
  • The new initiative aims to identify talented creators and connect them with the right mentors and skill-building experts
  • The annual competition requires creators to produce a creative content idea around a specific theme

DUBAI: TikTok has announced the launch of the inaugural TikTok Creator Hub program in the UAE and Egypt.

The new initiative aims to identify talented creators and connect them with the right mentors and skill-building experts to support and nurture their skills.

The annual competition requires creators to produce a creative content idea around a specific theme.

A group of judges, including top TikTok content creators from across the MENA region, will assess the skills of the creators and provide them with the required learning to help elevate their content, as well as advise them on their career as a creator.

Inspired by the 2022 UN Climate Change Conference of Parties — COP27 — held in Egypt in November, this year’s theme is climate change.

“With the launch of the inaugural edition of TikTok Creator Hub, we aim to generate awareness and advocacy around causes and pressing issues that touch the community, securing a dedicated destination for content creation and conversations focused on the most important societal issues of our time, such as climate change,” said Tarek Abdalla, regional general manager at TikTok Middle East, Africa, Turkiye, Pakistan and South Asia.

The theme also aligns with TikTok’s launch of the #ClimateAction program in support of COP27 in the MENA region, which is a campaign encouraging TikTok users to join the climate conversation.

The TikTok Creator Hub program is divided into three phases, which include online learning modules, a live training session and the judging process to name the winner of the competition.

Once the creators have been shortlisted, TikTok will host a welcome workshop in collaboration with celebrity creators to introduce them to the TikTok Creator Hub concept.

TikTok will also host a live training day, enabling creators to spend one live session with a creator mentor, ahead of their creation of a TikTok focused on climate change, which will be submitted for the judging process.

Lastly, the judges will choose the winning entries, which will be announced in November.

Creators living in the UAE and Egypt who would like to participate can visit the TikTok MENA Creator Hub website MENATikTokCreatorHub.com to register and share a 30-60 second video on why they want to be part of the program for a chance to be selected.

Registration closes on Oct. 10.


Brands blast Twitter for ads next to child pornography accounts

Brands blast Twitter for ads next to child pornography accounts
REUTERS/Florence Lo/Illustration/File Photo
Updated 29 September 2022

Brands blast Twitter for ads next to child pornography accounts

Brands blast Twitter for ads next to child pornography accounts
  • Mazda, Forbes and Dyson are among the brands to suspend their marketing campaigns on the platform

 

Some major advertisers including Dyson, Mazda, Forbes and PBS Kids have suspended their marketing campaigns or removed their ads from parts of Twitter because their promotions appeared alongside tweets soliciting child pornography, the companies told Reuters.

DIRECTV and Thoughtworks also told Reuters late on Wednesday they have paused their advertising on Twitter.

Brands ranging from Walt Disney Co (DIS.N), NBCUniversal (CMCSA.O) and Coca-Cola Co (KO.N) to a children's hospital were among more than 30 advertisers that appeared on the profile pages of Twitter accounts peddling links to the exploitative material, according to a Reuters review of accounts identified in new research about child sex abuse online from cybersecurity group Ghost Data.

Some of tweets include key words related to “rape” and “teens,” and appeared alongside promoted tweets from corporate advertisers, the Reuters review found. In one example, a promoted tweet for shoe and accessories brand Cole Haan appeared next to a tweet in which a user said they were “trading teen/child” content.

“We’re horrified,” David Maddocks, brand president at Cole Haan, told Reuters after being notified that the company’s ads appeared alongside such tweets. “Either Twitter is going to fix this, or we’ll fix it by any means we can, which includes not buying Twitter ads.”

In another example, a user tweeted searching for content of “Yung girls ONLY, NO Boys,” which was immediately followed by a promoted tweet for Texas-based Scottish Rite Children's Hospital. Scottish Rite did not return multiple requests for comment.

In a statement, Twitter spokesperson Celeste Carswell said the company “has zero tolerance for child sexual exploitation” and is investing more resources dedicated to child safety, including hiring for new positions to write policy and implement solutions.

She added that Twitter is working closely with its advertising clients and partners to investigate and take steps to prevent the situation from happening again.

Twitter’s challenges in identifying child abuse content were first reported in an investigation by tech news site The Verge in late August. The emerging pushback from advertisers that are critical to Twitter’s revenue stream is reported here by Reuters for the first time.

Like all social media platforms, Twitter bans depictions of child sexual exploitation, which are illegal in most countries. But it permits adult content generally and is home to a thriving exchange of pornographic imagery, which comprises about 13 percent of all content on Twitter, according to an internal company document seen by Reuters.

Twitter declined to comment on the volume of adult content on the platform.

Ghost Data identified the more than 500 accounts that openly shared or requested child sexual abuse material over a 20-day period this month. Twitter failed to remove more than 70 percent of the accounts during the study period, according to the group, which shared the findings exclusively with Reuters.

Reuters could not independently confirm the accuracy of Ghost Data’s finding in full, but reviewed dozens of accounts that remained online and were soliciting materials for "13+" and “young looking nudes.”

After Reuters shared a sample of 20 accounts with Twitter last Thursday, the company removed about 300 additional accounts from the network, but more than 100 others still remained on the site the following day, according to Ghost Data and a Reuters review.

Reuters then on Monday shared the full list of more than 500 accounts after it was furnished by Ghost Data, which Twitter reviewed and permanently suspended for violating its rules, said Twitter’s Carswell on Tuesday.

In an email to advertisers on Wednesday morning, ahead of the publication of this story, Twitter said it “discovered that ads were running within Profiles that were involved with publicly selling or soliciting child sexual abuse material.”

Andrea Stroppa, the founder of Ghost Data, said the study was an attempt to assess Twitter’s ability to remove the material. He said he personally funded the research after receiving a tip about the topic.

Twitter’s transparency reports on its website show it suspended more than 1 million accounts last year for child sexual exploitation.

It made about 87,000 reports to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, a government-funded non-profit that facilitates information sharing with law enforcement, according to that organization's annual report.

“Twitter needs to fix this problem ASAP, and until they do, we are going to cease any further paid activity on Twitter,” said a spokesperson for Forbes.

“There is no place for this type of content online,” a spokesperson for carmaker Mazda USA said in a statement to Reuters, adding that in response, the company is now prohibiting its ads from appearing on Twitter profile pages.

A Disney spokesperson called the content “reprehensible” and said they are “doubling-down on our efforts to ensure that the digital platforms on which we advertise, and the media buyers we use, strengthen their efforts to prevent such errors from recurring.”

A spokesperson for Coca-Cola, which had a promoted tweet appear on an account tracked by the researchers, said it did not condone the material being associated with its brand and said “any breach of these standards is unacceptable and taken very seriously.”

NBCUniversal said it has asked Twitter to remove the ads associated with the inappropriate content.

CODE WORDS

Twitter is hardly alone in grappling with moderation failures related to child safety online. Child welfare advocates say the number of known child sexual abuse images has soared from thousands to tens of millions in recent years, as predators have used social networks including Meta’s Facebook and Instagram to groom victims and exchange explicit images.

For the accounts identified by Ghost Data, nearly all the traders of child sexual abuse material marketed the materials on Twitter, then instructed buyers to reach them on messaging services such as Discord and Telegram in order to complete payment and receive the files, which were stored on cloud storage services like New Zealand-based Mega and US-based Dropbox, according to the group’s report.

A Discord spokesperson said the company had banned one server and one user for violating its rules against sharing links or content that sexualize children.

Mega said a link referenced in the Ghost Data report was created in early August and soon after deleted by the user, which it declined to identify. Mega said it permanently closed the user's account two days later.

Dropbox and Telegram said they use a variety of tools to moderate content but did not provide additional detail on how they would respond to the report.

Still the reaction from advertisers poses a risk to Twitter’s business, which earns more than 90 percent of its revenue by selling digital advertising placements to brands seeking to market products to the service's 237 million daily active users.

Twitter is also battling in court Tesla CEO and billionaire Elon Musk, who is attempting to back out of a $44 billion deal to buy the social media company over complaints about the prevalence of spam accounts and its impact on the business.

A team of Twitter employees concluded in a report dated February 2021 that the company needed more investment to identify and remove child exploitation material at scale, noting the company had a backlog of cases to review for possible reporting to law enforcement.

“While the amount of (child sexual exploitation content) has grown exponentially, Twitter’s investment in technologies to detect and manage the growth has not,” according to the report, which was prepared by an internal team to provide an overview about the state of child exploitation material on Twitter and receive legal advice on the proposed strategies.

“Recent reports about Twitter provide an outdated, moment in time glance at just one aspect of our work in this space, and is not an accurate reflection of where we are today,” Carswell said.

The traffickers often use code words such as “cp” for child pornography and are “intentionally as vague as possible,” to avoid detection, according to the internal documents.

The more that Twitter cracks down on certain keywords, the more that users are nudged to use obfuscated text, which “tend to be harder for (Twitter) to automate against,” the documents said.

Ghost Data’s Stroppa said that such tricks would complicate efforts to hunt down the materials, but noted that his small team of five researchers and no access to Twitter’s internal resources was able to find hundreds of accounts within 20 days.

Twitter did not respond to a request for further comment.