How prepared is the Middle East if Israel-Hamas war escalates into a regional conflict?

Special How prepared is the Middle East if Israel-Hamas war escalates into a regional conflict?
: Israel has bombarded Gaza and placed the strip of territory under siege after militants of the Palestinian group Hamas mounted an unprecedented cross-border assault over the weekend. (AFP)
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Updated 12 October 2023

How prepared is the Middle East if Israel-Hamas war escalates into a regional conflict?

How prepared is the Middle East if Israel-Hamas war escalates into a regional conflict?
  • Israel could end up fighting a four-front war if armed groups in Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Yemen join the fray
  • An open-ended, multi-sided war could prove politically costly, economically disastrous for the region

DUBAI: As the Israeli military intensifies attacks on Gaza in retaliation for the unprecedented weekend assault on southern Israel by militants of the Palestinian group Hamas, there are growing fears of a wider, multi-sided conflict erupting in the Middle East.

Experts say Iran and its Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps have spent decades arming and funding Shiite militants as well as Sunni Palestinian groups in the Middle East. As a result, Israel now faces the possibility of a three- or four-front war, involving Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad in Gaza and the West Bank, supplemented by Hezbollah and PIJ in Lebanon and Syria.

Lebanon’s Hezbollah has already fired the first shot across the bows of Israel by launching rockets on Sunday, prompting deadly retaliation by Israel. Artillery exchanges across the border on Monday killed three Hezbollah fighters, two Palestinian militants, and a senior Israeli army officer.

The Pentagon has warned Hezbollah to “think twice” before opening a second front and said the US was prepared to come to Israel’s defense. The Central Command has despatched the USS Gerald R. Ford carrier strike group to the Eastern Mediterranean and reinforced air force squadrons in the area. It is reportedly also considering deploying a second aircraft carrier near Israel as an added deterrent.

The Pentagon has warned Hezbollah to “think twice” before opening a second front and said the US was prepared to come to Israel’s defense. (AFP)

Although the situation is tense, with those backing Hamas reckoning that the momentum is on their side, observers say an open-ended, multi-sided war with Israel lacking broad public support could prove politically costly to them and economically disastrous for the countries from where they operate.

In the case of Lebanon, analysts believe neither Hezbollah nor Israel wants to get caught up in a major regional war for different reasons.

“I think both sides are willing to accept a certain amount of violence and casualties. Both parties basically don’t want this to escalate to a much wider war,” Michael Young, senior editor at Carnegie Middle East in Beirut, told Arab News.

“What we have seen so far proves the lines of what I am thinking. Hezbollah absorbed the casualties, and the Israelis absorbed the fact that two of their military bases were fired upon.

“This, of course, remains a risky game. At any point, it can slip out of control.”

The weekend attack on Israel by Hamas raises the prospect for wider conflict in the region. (AFP)

The last major war between Israel and Hezbollah, which occurred in 2006, ended with the tacit understanding that violence in the future would be confined to Shebaa Farms, a small strip of disputed territory near the Golan Heights.

Iran and its Shiite proxies in Lebanon, Iraq, and Yemen — members of the so-called Axis of Resistance — have strongly supported Saturday’s attack, which saw Israeli military bases and several villages and towns being overrun by Hamas militants. Iran’s President Ebrahim Raisi held phone calls with leaders from Hamas and PIJ after the assault began, Iran’s state-run news agency IRNA said on Sunday.

In the wake of the attack, Benjamin Netanyahu, the Israeli prime minister, has said: “We will exact a price that will be remembered by them and other enemies for decades to come.” But Israel could well find itself fighting on more than one front if it goes ahead with a ground invasion.


This section contains relevant reference points, placed in (Opinion field)

Mohammed Deif, the supreme military commander of Al-Qassam Brigades, the armed wing of Hamas responsible for the attack, has called on Iran-allied militant groups in Lebanon, Syria and Iraq to join the offensive against Israel.

Iraqi and Yemeni armed groups aligned with Iran have threatened to target US interests with missiles and drones if the Biden administration intervenes to support Israel.

Iraq’s Hashd Al-Shaabi has threatened to launch attacks on American troops in Iraq if the US becomes directly involved in the conflict. The US has 2,500 troops in Iraq and an additional 900 in neighboring Syria on a mission to advise and assist local forces in combating Daesh, which in 2014 seized large swathes of territory in both countries.

Israel now faces the possibility of a three- or four-front war, involving Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad in Gaza and the West Bank, supplemented by Hezbollah and PIJ in Lebanon and Syria. (AFP)

On Monday, Iraqi politician Hadi Al-Amiri, leader of the political and military group the Badr Organization that is close to Iran, said: “If they intervene, we would intervene … we will consider all American targets legitimate.”

Badr comprises a large part of Iraq’s Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), the state paramilitary organization that contains many Iran-backed factions.

Late on Tuesday rockets fired from Syria, where Hezbollah and other Iranian-backed militias maintain a presence on the Israeli border with the approval of President Bashar Assad, reportedly landed in open ground in northern Israel.

In Yemen, the leader of the Shiite Houthis gave warning on Tuesday that the militia would respond to any US intervention in Gaza with drones, missiles and other military options.

He said the group was ready to coordinate intervention with other members of the Axis of Resistance.

Thousands have now died in the conflict as Israel’s assault on Gaza continues. (AFP)

Experts say any escalation of the conflict involving Lebanon’s Hezbollah would completely change the regional calculus and confront Israel with a security challenge on a scale not seen in half a century.

“Our history, our guns and our rockets are with you,” a senior Hezbollah official, Hashem Safieddine, said at a rally for Hamas in east Beirut on Sunday.



Even so, Hezbollah may choose to keep its powder dry on this occasion. Its arsenal of rockets currently pointed at Israel is a strong deterrent to Israel taking pre-emptive action against Iran.

Then there is the matter of costs and political backing. Pummeled by the pandemic, conflicts and soaring food and fuel prices and beset with weak public finances, the consensus view is that the Middle East and North Africa region is in no shape to withstand the direct and indirect repercussions of a conflict.


• The Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian Authority, with responsibility for limited Palestinian self-governance over parts of the West Bank and Gaza.

• The Gaza Strip is a narrow stretch of densely populated land pressed against the Mediterranean Sea, blocked by the Israeli Navy since 2009 and closed to all maritime traffic.

• Hamas, which won legislative elections in 2006, expelled the Palestinian Authority and gained full control of Gaza in 2007.

Experts say the state of the political economy in Arab countries ranging from Tunisia and Libya in the west to Yemen in the east is parlous at best. According to an International Monetary Fund blog of June, a combination of fiscal risks and external developments such as interest-rate hikes and food and fuel price surges has put public finances under severe pressure in the Arab world’s low- and middle-income economies. 

In Lebanon, several politicians have cautioned against dragging the country into the Israel-Hamas conflict, saying that stability and unity amid a protracted economic crisis ought to take priority.

Abdallah Bouhabib, Lebanon’s foreign minister, has demanded reassurances from Hezbollah that it will not join the fighting unprovoked, while Najib Mikati, Lebanon’s prime minister, has emphasized the need to preserve security.

Analysts say the government in Lebanon, which has been without a president for almost a year now, has little or no influence over Hezbollah’s decisions. But they add that the extent to which Hezbollah is willing to get involved in the Gaza conflict will depend to some degree on how far Israel goes in confronting Hamas. Any attempt to eliminate the group altogether might result in a regional escalation.

The Israeli military has intensified attacks on Gaza in retaliation for the unprecedented weekend assault on Israel by Hamas. (AFP)

“I feel there is another element to take into consideration, and that is what the Israelis will do in Gaza,” Young of Carnegie Middle East told Arab News. “If they threaten Hamas existentially, then we can assume that there will be intervention by Hezbollah to try and avoid this.

“But for the Israelis to threaten existentially means a complete takeover of Gaza without many losses. That would entail the military going into homes and arresting thousands of young men who are Hamas militants.

“This is an extremely challenging matter to the Israelis. I doubt they will be able to do that. It’s the worst possible thing for them to be caught up in Gaza like that. And it’s precisely what the Iranians want — to draw Israelis into a street-by-street fight in Gaza.”

If Israel, with US backing, decides to confront Iran directly over its suspected hand in the Hamas assault, Tehran could respond by disrupting the flow of oil through the Strait of Hormuz, leading to a massive spike in the price of crude on world markets.

Israel has been bombarding the Gaza Strip since Hamas’ unprecedented attack on Saturday. (AFP)

Oil prices have already risen this week amid the heightened risk of a wider war embroiling energy-exporting Arab Gulf states.

Some commentators have voiced hope that a decisive conflict between Israel and Hamas could produce a surprise in the same way that the 1973 Arab-Israeli war resulted in the Camp David peace accords and the normalization of relations between Israel and Egypt.

Egyptian journalist and columnist Abdellatif El-Menawy cast doubt on the possibility of such an outcome. “In light of what they have done so far, Palestinians have the right to brag about a degree of ‘victory,’ regardless of what happens next. This qualifies to be the start of a political process,” he told Arab News. “But can both Hamas and Israel be peace partners? Both sides have had multiple opportunities to prove this.

“Hamas had a chance of governing Gaza responsibly, to prove its worth and dispel the notion that it was nothing more than a Palestinian Islamic mafia, only interested in maintaining its grip on Gaza, and willing to act as a cat’s paw for Iran instead of making its main goal to create a new future for the Palestinians in partnership with their partners in Ramallah (the Palestinian Authority).  

“At the same time, Operation Al-Aqsa Flood was the kind of result — and more are probably in the offing — only to be expected of the continuation of the illegal Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories, and its policies of racial discrimination, land usurpation, settlement encroachment and subjecting Palestinians to inhumane conditions.

A United Nations Interim Forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) patrol drives through the southern Lebanese plain of Khiam along the border with Israel. (AFP)

“It would be strange for any rational person to expect an outcome other than an explosion.”

Clearly, in the immediate term the deadly Hamas assault has dashed hopes of an era of peace, caused concern that the situation could spin out of control, and raised the specter of a ruinous conflict embroiling countries whose economies are already in a precarious state.

Only time will tell whether it has also boosted the chances of a settlement that advances the rights and statehood aspirations of the Palestinian people in a meaningful way.

Iran launches retaliatory attack on Israel with hundreds of drones, missiles

Iran launches retaliatory attack on Israel with hundreds of drones, missiles
Updated 14 April 2024

Iran launches retaliatory attack on Israel with hundreds of drones, missiles

Iran launches retaliatory attack on Israel with hundreds of drones, missiles
  • Iran launches first ever direct attack on Israel, risking major escalation as US pledges support for Tel Aviv
  • Iran has vowed retaliation for what it called an Israeli strike on its Damascus consulate on April 1

JERUSALEM/DUBAI: Iran launched a swarm of explosive drones and fired missiles at Israel late on Saturday in its first ever direct attack on Israeli territory, risking a major escalation as the United States pledged “ironclad” backing for Israel.
Sirens wailed and journalists in Israel said they heard distant heavy thuds and bangs from what local media called aerial interceptions of explosive drones. The ambulance service said there was no immediate word of casualties.
Israel’s military said more than 100 drones were launched from Iran, with security sources in Iraq and Jordan reporting dozens seen flying overhead and US officials saying the US military had shot some down.
Israel’s Channel 12 TV cited an unnamed Israeli official as saying there would be a “significant response” to the attack.

Iran’s state news agency cited a source saying its military had also launched a wave of ballistic missiles. Israel’s military also said missiles were fired, but there was no immediate report of these striking in Israel.
Iran has vowed retaliation for what it called an Israeli strike on its Damascus consulate on April 1 that killed seven Guards officers including two senior commanders and said its strike was a punishment for “Israeli crimes.” Israel has neither confirmed nor denied responsibility for the consulate attack.
“Should the Israeli regime make another mistake, Iran’s response will be considerably more severe,” the Iranian mission to the United Nations said, warning the US to “stay away.” However, it also said Iran now “deemed the matter concluded.”
US President Joe Biden, who on Friday had warned Iran against an attack, cut short a visit to his home state of Delaware to meet national security advisers in the White House Situation Room, an official said. He pledged to stand with Israel.
The Gaza war between Israel and Hamas, now in its seventh month, has driven up tensions in the region, spreading to fronts with Lebanon and Syria and drawing long-range fire at Israeli targets from as far away as Yemen and Iraq.
British maritime security company Ambrey said in a statement that drones were also reportedly launched against Israel by Yemen’s Iran-aligned Houthi group.
Those clashes now threaten to morph into a direct open conflict pitting Iran and its regional allies against Israel and its main supporter the United States, with regional power Egypt urging “utmost restraint.”
US and British warplanes were involved in shooting down some Israel-bound drones over the Iraq-Syria border area, Channel 12 reported. Three US officials said the US military had shot down drone aircraft without saying how many.

“This is a severe and dangerous escalation. Our defensive and offensive capabilities are at the highest level of readiness ahead of this large-scale attack from Iran,” said Israel’s military spokesperson Rear Admiral Daniel Hagari.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, whose official jet took off shortly after the attack began, convened the war cabinet at a military headquarters in Tel Aviv, his office said.
Israel’s military said sirens would sound in any threatened areas and that its defenses were poised to deal with the drones, which it said were “explosive.”
“We are used to having around 20 seconds to get to shelters when missiles come in. Here, the warning comes hours ahead of time. It naturally raises the anxiety level among the Israeli public,” said Nir Dvori, a Channel 12 TV correspondent on social media.
Israel’s military told residents of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights to stay close to bomb shelters, putting the area on standby for possible impact from drone strikes.
Israel and Lebanon said they were closing their airspace on Saturday night. Jordan, which lies between Iran and Israel, had readied air defenses to intercept any drone or missile that violated its territory, two regional security sources said.
Residents in several Jordanian cities said they heard heavy aerial activity.
Syria, an ally of Iran, said it was putting its ground-to-air defense systems around the capital and major bases on high alert, army sources there said.

The European Union, Britain, France, Mexico, Czechia, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands all condemned Iran’s attack.
Israel has been bracing for an Iranian response to the Damascus consulate strike since last week, when Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said Israel “must be punished and shall be” for an operation he called equivalent to one on Iranian soil.
Biden said on Friday that his only message to Iran was “Don’t,” but added that “we are devoted to the defense of Israel.”
Iran’s main ally in the region, the Lebanese Shiite group Hezbollah that has been exchanging fire with Israel since the Gaza war began on Oct. 7, said early on Sunday it had fired rockets at an Israeli base.
Earlier on Saturday, Iran’s state-run IRNA news agency reported that a Guards helicopter had boarded and taken into Iranian waters the Portuguese-flagged MSC Aries.
MSC, which operates the Aries, confirmed Iran had seized the ship and said it was working “with the relevant authorities” for its safe return and the wellbeing of its 25 crew.
MSC leases the Aries from Gortal Shipping, an affiliate of Zodiac Maritime, Zodiac said in a statement, adding that MSC is responsible for all the vessel’s activities. Zodiac is partly owned by Israeli businessman Eyal Ofer.
Israeli Foreign Minister Israel Katz accused Iran of piracy.

'IRGC seize commercial ship'

For days, Iranian officials including Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei have threatened to “slap” Israel for its Syria strike.
Iran has largely avoided directly attacking Israel, despite its targeted killings of nuclear scientists and sabotage campaigns on Iran’s atomic sites. Iran has targeted Israeli or Jewish-linked sites through proxy forces.
Israel’s war on Hamas in the Gaza Strip has inflamed decade-old tensions in the Middle East, and any new attack threatens to escalate that conflict into a wider regional war.
Flight-tracking data showed the airspace over Jordan empty, while few flights continued on their north-south routes over Iraq. A sole Middle East Airlines flight from Dubai to Beirut remained airborne over Syria.
Lebanon’s state-run National News Agency reported heavy Israeli airstrikes and shelling on multiple locations in south Lebanon following the launch of drones from Iran. The Iran-backed Lebanese militant group Hezbollah has been clashing with Israeli forces in the border area for more than six months.
Earlier Saturday, commandos from Iran’s paramilitary Revolutionary Guard rappelled from a helicopter onto an Israeli-affiliated container ship near the Strait of Hormuz and seized the vessel.
Iran’s state-run IRNA said a special forces unit of the Guard’s navy carried out the attack on the Portuguese-flagged MSC Aries, a container ship associated with London-based Zodiac Maritime.
Zodiac Maritime is part of Israeli billionaire Eyal Ofer’s Zodiac Group. Zodiac declined to comment and referred questions to MSC. Geneva-based MSC acknowledged the seizure and said 25 crew members were on the ship.
“We are working closely with the relevant authorities to ensure their wellbeing, and safe return of the vessel,” MSC said.
White House National Security Council spokesperson Adrienne Watson said the crew was made up of Indian, Filipino, Pakistani, Russian and Estonian nationals and urged Iran to release them and the vessel.
IRNA said the Guard would take the vessel into Iranian territorial waters.
A Middle East defense official, who spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss intelligence matters, provided video of the attack to The Associated Press in which Iranian commandos are seen rappelling onto a stack of containers on the vessel’s deck.
The video corresponded with known details of the MSC Aries. The commandos rappelled from what appeared to be a Soviet-era Mil Mi-17 helicopter, which both the Guard and the Iranian-backed Houthis in Yemen have used before to raid ships.
Israeli Foreign Minister Israel Katz called on nations to list the Guard as a terrorist organization. Iran “is a criminal regime that supports Hamas’ crimes and is now conducting a pirate operation in violation of international law,” Katz said.
The US, Israel’s main backer, has stood by the country despite growing concerns over Israel’s war on Gaza killing more than 33,600 Palestinians and wounding over 76,200 more. Israel’s war began after Hamas’ Oct. 7 attack on Israel that killed 1,200 people and saw some 250 others taken hostage.
The Pentagon said Saturday that Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin spoke with his Israeli counterpart “to discuss urgent regional threats ... and made clear that Israel could count on full US support to defend Israel against any attacks by Iran and its regional proxies.” National security adviser Jake Sullivan also spoke with his counterpart to reinforce Washington’s “ironclad commitment to the security of Israel.”

Thousands gather in Iran in show of support for attack on Israel

Iranian demonstrators attend an anti-Israeli gathering in front of the British Embassy in Tehran, Iran, April 14, 2024. (REUTERS
Iranian demonstrators attend an anti-Israeli gathering in front of the British Embassy in Tehran, Iran, April 14, 2024. (REUTERS
Updated 14 April 2024

Thousands gather in Iran in show of support for attack on Israel

Iranian demonstrators attend an anti-Israeli gathering in front of the British Embassy in Tehran, Iran, April 14, 2024. (REUTERS
  • Israel has killed more than 33,686 Palestinians, according to Gaza’s Health Ministry
  • Iran does not recognize Israel, and the two countries have fought a shadow war for years

TEHRAN: Thousands of Iranians took to the streets of Iran early Sunday in a show of support for the unprecedented drone and missile attack under way against arch foe Israel.
“Death to Israel!” and “Death to America!” chanted demonstrators in Tehran’s Palestine Square shortly after the Revolutionary Guards announced the launch of Operation Honest Promise.
A mural saying “the next slap is fiercer” was unveiled in the square where a huge banner has hung for days calling, in Hebrew, for Israelis to “take shelter.”
On Sunday, demonstrators waved Iranian and Palestinian national flags alongside banners reading “God’s victory is near.”
Iran’s attack came in retaliation for an April 1 strike that levelled the five-story consular annexe of the Iranian embassy in Damascus and killed seven Revolutionary Guards, two of them generals.
Tehran has since vowed to avenge the strike which was widely blamed on Israel.
Iran’s supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei pledged that the “evil (Israeli) regime will be punished.”

Iranian media described the attack on Israel as “complex” as it also involved Iranian allies in Yemen, Lebanon and Iraq.
“This attack did not come from Iran only, and this regime (Israel) is being punished from four directions,” the Tasnim news agency said.
A large crowd of demonstrators gathered outside the British embassy in Tehran.
Supporters of the retaliatory attack also demonstrated in Iran’s third largest city Isfahan where Brig. Gen. Mohammad Reza Zahedi, one of the generals killed in the Damascus strike, is buried.
Demonstrators also gathered near the grave in the southern city of Kerman of prominent Guards commander Qasem Soleimani, who was killed in a 2020 US drone strike in Baghdad.
Tehran had earlier appealed to Washington to keep out of its conflict with Israel but Iranian hopes were dashed after a Pentagon official confirmed that US forces were shooting down Israel-bound drones.
Iran insists it acted in “self-defense” after the targeting of its diplomatic mission in Damascus. It said it hoped its action would prompt no further escalation and “the matter can be deemed concluded.”

The latest developments took place against the backdrop of the Gaza war which began with Hamas’s October 7 attack on Israel which killed 1,170 people, mostly civilians.
Tehran backs Hamas but has denied any direct involvement in its attack on Israel.
Israel’s retaliatory offensive against Hamas has killed at least 33,686 people in Gaza, mostly women and children, according to the Hamas-run territory’s health ministry.
Iran does not recognize Israel, and the two countries have fought a shadow war for years.
Anticipation of conflict with Israel had gripped Iran ever since the April 1 strike on its consulate.
“It is better to reach a compromise so that the war does not begin, and innocent people don’t die,” said Maryam, a 43-year-old private sector worker.
“God willing, our government will favor reason over emotion,” said Salehi, a 75-year-old retired government employee in central Tehran.
Ehsan, a 43-year-old university professor, said it was “logical” to retaliate.
“War is always bad and worrying — a person who has experienced war would never support it, but sometimes to achieve peace, a war is necessary,” he added.


UN Security Council to meet on Sunday to discuss Iran attacks on Israel

UN Security Council to meet on Sunday to discuss Iran attacks on Israel
Updated 14 April 2024

UN Security Council to meet on Sunday to discuss Iran attacks on Israel

UN Security Council to meet on Sunday to discuss Iran attacks on Israel
  • Israel requested the meeting, urging council to condemn Iran and designate IRGC as a terror organization
  • Iran blamed its retaliatory attack on the council’s failure to condemn Israel’s strike on its Damascus consulate

NEW YORK: The UN Security Council is set to hold an emergency meeting on Sunday afternoon in New York to discuss Iran’s attack on Israel, the Maltese presidency of the council has announced.

Iran on Saturday launched dozens of drones and missiles at Israel in a retaliatory attack after an Israeli strike on the Iranian consulate in Damascus which killed seven revolutionary guards, including two generals. Iran had warned that Israel would be "punished" for the strike, which took place on April 1st.

The Security Council meeting was requested by Israel’s permanent representative to the UN to “unequivocally condemn Iran for these grave violations and immediately act to designate the IRGC as a terrorist organization.”

In a letter to the Maltese ambassador, whose country holds the rotating presidency of the council for the month of April, Gilad Erdan called the attack “a severe and dangerous escalation” adding that the gravity and volume of the attacks are unprecedented, and are a flagrant violation of Israel’s sovereignty, of international law, and of Security council resolution.

“Iran poses a direct threat to international peace, and brazenly violates the UN charter and security council resolutions. The time has come for the security council to take concrete action against the Iranian threat,” Erdan said.

Iran’s permanent mission to the UN had posted on X that “had the UN Security Council condemned the Zionist regime’s reprehensible act of aggression on our diplomatic premises in Damascus and subsequently brought to justice its perpetrators, the imperative for Iran to punish this rogue regime might have been obviated.”

The mission described Saturday’s attacks as “an invocation of Article 51 of the UN Charter,” which invokes the “inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security.”

It said the retaliatory attacks occurred following a 13-day period marked by the Security Council’s “inaction and silence, coupled with its failure to condemn the Israeli regime’s aggressions. Certain countries’ precipitous condemnation of Iran’s exercise of its legitimate right suggests a reversal of roles, equating the victim with the criminal.”

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres strongly condemned “the serious escalation represented by the large-scale attack launched on Israel by the Islamic Republic of Iran this evening,” and called for an immediate cessation of such hostilities. He said neither the region nor the world can afford another war.

“I am deeply alarmed about the very real danger of a devastating region-wide escalation,” said the UN chief in a statement as he urged “all parties to exercise maximum restraint to avoid any action that could lead to major military confrontations on multiple fronts in the Middle East.”



Egypt air defenses on maximum alert: media

Egypt air defenses on maximum alert: media
Updated 14 April 2024

Egypt air defenses on maximum alert: media

Egypt air defenses on maximum alert: media
  • The Egyptian foregn ministry said it was “deeply concerned” by the events, and called for “maximum restraint” by all sides

CAIRO: Egypt’s air defenses were on “maximum alert” Sunday after Iran launched a drone and missile attack on Israel, a TV channel close to the intelligence services reported, as Cairo warned against an escalation of the conflict.
“A crisis cell ... is closely monitoring the situation and submitting reports to President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi hour by hour,” Al-Qahera News said late Saturday, citing a senior security official.
The Egyptian foregn ministry said it was “deeply concerned” by the events, and called for “maximum restraint” by all sides.
Warning of the risk of a “regional expansion of the conflict,” the ministry said in a statement that it was “in direct contact with all the parties to the conflict to try to contain the situation.”
Since the start of the Israel-Hamas war in October, Cairo has sought to walk a delicate tightrope between showing solidarity with the Palestinians while also maintaining its ties with Israel.
It has also hosted several rounds of negotiations seeking to agree a truce in the six-month war.

Iran and Israel: From allies to deadly enemies

Iran and Israel: From allies to deadly enemies
Updated 14 April 2024

Iran and Israel: From allies to deadly enemies

Iran and Israel: From allies to deadly enemies
  • Israel has killed more than 33,600 Palestinians, according to Gaza’s Health Ministry

PARIS: Israel and Iran have moved from once being firm allies to sworn enemies.
Here is a recap of their volatile relationship over the past half century.

Israel, following its creation in 1948, had close ties with Iran, which becomes the second Muslim country to recognize the Jewish state after Turkiye.
They become allies under the shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. At the time, Iran was home to the biggest Jewish community in the Middle East.
The new Jewish state imported 40 percent of its oil from Iran in exchange for weapons, technology and agricultural produce.
Israel’s Mossad spy agency helped train the shah’s feared Savak secret police.

The 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran toppled the shah, dramatically ending the friendship between the two states.
Israel did not recognize the new Islamic Republic.
The ayatollahs considered Israel illegal occupiers of Jerusalem. Informal commercial links remained in place, however.
Islamic Jihad became the first Islamist Palestinian organization to take up arms against Israel in 1980, with Iran as its main backer.
Nonetheless, Israel sent Tehran around 1,500 missiles to help it fight Saddam Hussein during the Iran-Iraq war that raged from 1980 to 1988.

Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982 to counter Palestinian groups based there, going all the way to briefly hold the capital Beirut.
Iran’s elite Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps subsequently backed the creation of militant group Hezbollah, which waged a campaign against Israeli forces from Shiite strongholds in southern Lebanon.
Israel blamed Hezbollah for attacks abroad, including in Argentina, where the 1992 bombing of the Israeli embassy killed 29 people and a 1994 attack on a Jewish community center left 85 dead.

Tensions rose after the election in 2005 of ultra conservative Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who talked on several occasions of bringing an end to Israel and described the Holocaust as a “myth.”
Iran resumed uranium enrichment at Isfahan the same year.
When the Iran nuclear deal was brokered by world powers in 2015, Netanyahu slammed it as an “historic mistake.”
He was the first to congratulate then-US president Donald Trump when he withdrew the United States from the deal in 2018.
Iran has since resumed uranium enrichment.

Officially still at war with Syria, Israel claimed to want to stay out of the civil war that broke out in 2011 and still simmers.
But from 2013 on, Israel — wary of Hezbollah and Iran’s presence on the side of Syrian President Bashar Assad — carried out hundreds of air strikes against them in Syria.

Israel began cultivating ties with long-time foe Saudi Arabia, Iran’s main religious and regional rival.
In September 2020 Saudi allies the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain signed normalization accords with Israel.
The Unites States sought Israel-Saudi rapprochement, but the efforts were derailed by the Gaza War.

Over the following months Israel accused Iran of attacks on vessels. Iran accused Israel of targeted assassinations and the sabotage of the uranium enrichment plant at Natanz.
Israel was blamed for targeted attacks on Iranians in Syria, including top members of the Revolutionary Guard in 2022 and 2023.
An Israeli airstrike on Iran’s consular annex building in Damascus on April 1, 2024 killed more than a dozen people — including two senior members of the Revolutionary Guards.
US President Joe Biden warned that Iran was “threatening to launch a significant attack on Israel,” promising Israel “ironclad” support.
On April 13 — two weeks after the unprecedented attack on its consular facilities — Iran responded by sending waves of drones from its territory toward Israel, which closed its airspace, as did Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said Israel’s air defense systems were deployed and that it was prepared for a “direct attack from Iran.”